Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster in the West End of London, running from Tottenham Court Road to Marble Arch via Oxford Circus. It is Europe's busiest shopping street, with around half a million daily visitors, as of 2012 had 300 shops, it is designated as part of the A40, a major road between London and Fishguard, though it is not signed as such, traffic is restricted to buses and taxis. The road was part of the Via Trinobantina, a Roman road between Essex and Hampshire via London, it was known as Tyburn Road through the Middle Ages when it was notorious for public hangings of prisoners at Tyburn Gallows. It became known as Oxford Road and Oxford Street in the 18th century, began to change from residential to commercial and retail use by the late 19th century, attracting street traders, confidence tricksters and prostitution; the first department stores in the UK opened in the early 20th century, including Selfridges, John Lewis & Partners and HMV. Unlike nearby shopping streets such as Bond Street, it has retained an element of downmarket trading alongside more prestigious retail stores.
The street suffered heavy bombing during World War II, several longstanding stores including John Lewis were destroyed and rebuilt from scratch. Despite competition from other shopping centres such as Westfield Stratford City and the Brent Cross Shopping Centre, Oxford Street remains in high demand as a retail location, with several chains having their flagship stores on the street, has a number of listed buildings; the annual switching on of Christmas lights by a celebrity has been a popular event since 1959. As a popular retail area and main thoroughfare for London buses and taxis, Oxford Street has suffered from traffic congestion, pedestrian congestion, a poor safety record and pollution. Various traffic management schemes have been implemented by Transport for London, including a ban on private vehicles during daytime hours on weekdays and Saturdays, improved pedestrian crossings. Oxford Street runs for 1.2 miles. It is within the City of Westminster; the road begins at St Giles Circus as a westward continuation of New Oxford Street, meeting Charing Cross Road, Tottenham Court Road.
It runs past Rathbone Place, Wardour Street and Great Portland Street to Oxford Circus, where it meets Regent Street. From there it continues past New Bond Street, Bond Street station and Vere Street, ending at Marble Arch; the route continues as Holland Park Avenue towards Shepherd's Bush. The road is within the London Congestion Charging Zone, it is part of the A40, most of, a trunk road running from London to Fishguard. Like many roads in Central London that are no longer through routes, it is not signposted with that number. Numerous bus routes run along Oxford Street, including 10, 25, 55, 73, 98, 390 and Night Buses N8, N55, N73, N98 and N207. Oxford Street follows the route of a Roman road, the Via Trinobantina, which linked Calleva Atrebatum with Camulodunum via London and became one of the major routes in and out of the city. Between the 12th century and 1782, it was variously known as Tyburn Road, Uxbridge Road, Worcester Road and Oxford Road. On Ralph Aggas' "Plan of London", published in the 16th century, the road is described as "The Waye to Uxbridge" followed by "Oxford Road", showing rural farmland where the junction of Oxford Street and Rathbone Place now is.
Though a major coaching route, there were several obstacles along it, including the bridge over the Tyburn. A turnpike trust was established in the 1730s to improve upkeep of the road, it became notorious as the route taken by prisoners on their final journey from Newgate Prison to the gallows at Tyburn near Marble Arch. Spectators jeered as the prisoners were carted along the road, could buy rope used in the executions from the hangman in taverns. By about 1729, the road had become known as Oxford Street. Development began in the 18th century after many surrounding fields were purchased by the Earl of Oxford. In 1739, a local gardener, Thomas Huddle, built property on the north side. John Rocque's Map of London, published in 1746, shows urban buildings as far as North Audley Street, but only intermittent rural property beyond. Buildings were erected on Davies Street in the 1750s. Further development occurred between 1763 and 1793; the Pantheon, a place for public entertainment, opened at No. 173 in 1772.
The street became popular for entertainment including bear-baiters and public houses. However, it was not attractive to the middle and upper classes due to the nearby Tyburn gallows and the notorious St Giles rookery, or slum; the gallows were removed in 1783, by the end of the century, Oxford Street was built up from St Giles Circus to Park Lane, containing a mix of residential houses and entertainment. The site of the Princess's Theatre that opened in 1840 is now occupied by Oxford Walk shopping area. Oxford Circus was designed as part of the development of Regent Street by the architect John Nash in 1810; the four quadrants of the circus were designed by Sir Henry Tanner and constructed between 1913 and 1928. Oxford Street changed in character from residential to retail towards the end of the 19th century. Drapers and furniture stores opened shops on the street, some expanded into the first department stores. Street vendors sold tourist souvenirs during this time. A plan in Tallis's London Street Views, published in the late 1830s, remarks that all the s
Jean Franco is a British-born academic and literary critic known for her pioneering work on Latin American literature. Educated at Manchester and London, she has taught at London and Stanford, is professor emerita at Columbia University. Jean Franco's research is voluminous, she was among the first English-speaking Latin Americanists to write about Latin American literature. She has focused on women and women's writing and is a pioneer of Latin American cultural studies. In 1992 she was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Essex. In 1996 she won a PEN award for lifetime contribution to the dissemination of Latin American literature in English. In 2000 the Latin American Studies Association awarded her the Kalman Silvert Award for her contributions to Latin American Studies. In 2002 she was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Manchester, her book The Decline and Fall of the Lettered City was awarded the Bolton-Johnson Prize by the Conference of Latin American Historians for the best work in English on the History of Latin America published in 2003.
The Modern Culture of Latin America An Introduction to Latin American Literature Spanish American Literature Since Independence César Vallejo. The Dialectics of Poetry and Silence Plotting Women. Gender and Representation in Mexico Marcar diferencias, cruzar fronteras: ensayos Critical Passions: Selected Essays, edited by Mary Louise Pratt and Kathleen Newman The Decline and Fall of the Lettered City: Latin America in the Cold War Cruel Modernity Biography from Columbia University Jean Franco, "The Second Coming: Religion as Entertainment", text of a lecture
King Abdullah Economic City is a megaproject announced in 2005 by king Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, the then-king of Saudi Arabia. With a total development area of 173 km², the city is located along the coast of the Red Sea, around 100 km north of Jeddah, the commercial hub of Saudi Arabia; the city is approximately an hour and 20 minutes away from the city of Mecca, 3 hours from Medina by car and an hour away from all Middle Eastern capital cities by plane. The total cost of the city is around SR 207 billion, with the project being built by Emaar Properties. A Tadawul-listed company created from Emaar Properties, a Dubai-based public joint stock company and one of the world’s largest real estate companies, SAGIA, the main facilitator of the project; the city, along with another five economic cities, is a part of an ambitious "10x10" program to place Saudi Arabia among the world's top ten competitive investment destinations by the year 2010, planned by SAGIA. The first stage of the city is completed in 2010 and the whole city is planned to be completed by 2020.
The city aims to diversify the nation's oil-based economy by bringing direct foreign and domestic investments. The city is aspires to help create up to one million jobs. Upon completion, KAEC is said to be larger than Washington DC, it is being built along with 4 new cities in Saudi Arabia to control sprawl and congestion in existing cities. The city is divided into six main components: Industrial Zone, Sea Port, Residential Areas, Sea Resort, Educational Zone, a Central Business District which includes the Financial Island; the industrial zone is estimated to cover 63 km², 4,400 hectares of land will be dedicated to industrial and light manufacturing facilities—identified as key growth drivers for the Saudi economy—and can now host 2,700 industrial tenants. The jobs created estimated to be in light industries; the "Plastics Valley" planned within the zone will use raw materials available in Saudi Arabia to produce high-end plastics used in automotive, biomedical and food packaging industries.
As of April 2016, 127 companies signed contracts to operate factories in the city. A King Abdullah Port is estimated to cover 17 square kilometers, it will be the largest in the region with a capacity of over TEU|20 million of containers per year; the first concession was given to National Container Terminal and the operator is operating on four container berths. The port will have facilities to handle cargo and dry bulk, will be equipped to receive the world’s largest vessels notably with its state-of-the-art Ship-to-shore cranes able to handle 25 containers across and the deepest draft in the region -18m; the port is the kingdom's first to be funded by the private sector. The port serves as a linking passage between three continents, Asia and Europe; the port is considered an important part in the transportation network that connects between the contents and delivers goods to around 400 million people in the Middle East. In 2018, King Abdullah Port at KAEC had ranked second among the world’s fastest-growing ports.
The residential area is planned to include 56,000 villas. It will be divided into smaller residential and recreational areas. Parks and green spaces will be used extensively throughout the residential area; the area is estimated to be home for around half a million residents, another ten thousand tourists. Each district would feature its own public amenities, such as mosques and recreational venues; the Resorts Area will be designed to feature services and amenities, hoping to draw both local and international tourists. Set to become a major destination on the map of Saudi Arabia and the map of the Middle East as a whole, it will include shopping centers and other recreational facilities. The number of hotel rooms and suites are proposed to be 25,000 hotel rooms in more than 120 hotels. Among the tourist draws at the resort is an 18-hole golf course, with training facilities and driving range. An equestrian club, yacht club and a range of water sports will be constructed; the Educational Zone is a part of plan to bring the Saudis capabilities and aspirations in technology to globally competitive levels.
The Educational Zone is planned to consist of multi-university campus flanked by two Research & Development parks. The multi-university campus is designed to accommodate 18,000 students, a 7,500 faculty and staff members; the central business district is planned to offer 3.8 km² of office space and mixed-use commercial space. The Financial Island, within the CBD, has now been doubled in area to cover 14 hectares of land, which will be the largest regional financial nerve center for the world’s leading banks, investment houses and insurance groups. On June 12, 2008, King Abdullah evaluated the progress, he inaugurated projects and initiatives with a total worth of $35 billion. These projects include: The king inaugurated the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology; the university is 20 km away south of the city in the village of Thuwal. It opened in September 2009. According to the Saudi Real Estate Companion, 2015 was a key milestone for the project given the number of residential and commercial projects that were handed over.
This was seen as a success given that total residential sales in 2014 and 2015 amounted to around 2,500 units. Emaar, E. C. and SAGIA have signe