Alton Crawford Brown Jr. is an American television personality, food show presenter, actor and musician. He is the creator and host of the Food Network television show Good Eats, host of the mini-series Feasting on Asphalt and Feasting on Waves, host and main commentator on Iron Chef America and Cutthroat Kitchen. Brown is a best-selling author of several books on cooking. On Alton's 2017 book tour, he stated Good Eats will have a "sequel", it would be released in 2018 on the internet. Alton Brown spent his youth in Georgia. Brown's father, Alton Brown Sr. was a media executive in Cleveland, owner of radio station WRWH, publisher of the newspaper White County News. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, after studying film in the University of Georgia drama department, Brown was the cinematographer for several music videos, including "The One I Love" by R. E. M. Brown was dissatisfied with the quality of cooking shows airing on American television, so set out to produce his own show. In preparation, he enrolled in the New England Culinary Institute, graduating in 1997.
Brown says that he was a poor science student in high school and college, but he focused on the subject to understand the underlying processes of cooking. He is outspoken in his shows about his dislike of single-purpose kitchen utensils and equipment, such as garlic presses and margarita machines, although he adapts a few traditionally single-purpose devices, such as rice cookers and melon ballers, into multi-purpose tools; the pilot for Good Eats first aired in July 1998 on the PBS member TV station WTTW in Chicago, Illinois. Food Network picked up the show in July 1999. In May 2011, Alton Brown announced an end to Good Eats after 14 seasons; the final episode, "Turn on the Dark", aired February 10, 2012. Many of the Good Eats episodes feature Brown building makeshift cooking devices in order to point out that many of the devices sold at conventional "cooking" stores are fancified hardware store items. Good Eats was nominated for the Best T. V. Food Journalism Award by the James Beard Foundation in 2000.
The show was awarded a 2006 Peabody Award. On Alton's 2017 book tour he stated Good Eats will have a "sequel" and it will be released to the Internet in 2018; this was changed in late 2018, when Brown made arrangements with Cooking Channel to air "revised" versions of several episodes with new recipes entitled Good Eats Reloaded, in which he stated new episodes of Good Eats are in the works. In 2004 Brown appeared on Iron Chef America: Battle of the Masters; this was the second attempt to adapt the Japanese cooking show Iron Chef to American television. Brown served as the expert commentator, a modified version of the role played by Dr. Yukio Hattori in the original show; when the show became a series, Brown began serving as the play-by-play announcer, with Kevin Brauch as kitchen reporter. Brown served as the host for all five seasons of the spin-off The Next Iron Chef. Brown's third series, Feasting on Asphalt, explores the history of eating on the move. Brown and his crew crossed the United States via motorcycle in a four-part miniseries about the history of road food.
Brown samples food all along his travel route. He includes a "history of food" segment documenting famous road trips and interviews many of the foodies he meets en route; the series premiered on Food Network on July 29, 2006. The mini-series was picked up for a second run, entitled Feasting on Asphalt 2: The River Run, in 2007. Six episodes were filmed during April and May 2007; the episodes trace the majority of the length of the Mississippi River through Brown's travels. The second run of episodes began airing on Food Network on August 4, 2007; the third season uses the title Feasting on Waves and has Brown traveling the Caribbean Sea by boat in search of local cuisine. In 2013, Brown began hosting the cooking competition series Cutthroat Kitchen on the Food Network. In each episode, four chefs are each given $25,000 with which to bid on items that can be used to hinder their opponents' cooking, such as confiscating ingredients or forcing them to use unorthodox tools and equipment. Three chefs are eliminated one by one, the winner keeps his/her unspent money as the day's prize.
The series premiered on August 11, 2013. Brown served as a mentor on Season 8 of The Next Food Network Star alongside Bobby Flay and Giada De Laurentiis. During season 8, each mentor mentored a team of five finalists. Team Alton's finalist, Justin Warner, was the season 8 winner. Brown appeared on the Travel Channel show The Layover with Anthony Bourdain which focused on the city of Atlanta in 2013. In the episode Bourdain takes Brown to the Clermont Lounge. Brown guest-starred as the "Guest Bailiff" and "Expert Witness" in John Hodgman's comedy/court show podcast Judge John Hodgman. In October 2013, Brown launched "Alton Brown Live: The Edible Inevitable Tour," his first national tour visiting 46 cities through March 2014; the show includes stand-up comedy, talk show antics, a multimedia lecture, live music and "extreme" food experimentation After a hiatus of several months while Brown worked on his Food Network shows, the tour resumed in October 2014 and concluded on April 4, 2015, in Houston, after visiting more than 60 cities.
In October 2017, Brown was featured on the Food Network television show Chopped in a five-part series called "Alton Brown's Challenge." Brown voices Yum Labouché in Big Hero 6: The Series. The character is a judge for an underground cooking competition. Brown has done commercial
Ostrea lurida, common name the Olympia oyster, after Olympia, Washington in the Puget Sound area, is a species of edible oyster, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Ostreidae. This species occurs on the northern Pacific coast of North America. Over the years the role of this edible species of oyster has been displaced by the cultivation of non-native edible oyster species. Ostrea lurida is now known to be separate from a similar-appearing species, Ostrea conchaphila, which occurs further south, south of Baja California, in Mexico. Molecular evidence has confirmed the separate status of the two species; however for a period of time, Ostrea lurida was considered to be a junior synonym of Ostrea conchaphila. O. lurida been found in archaeological excavations along the Central California coast of the Pacific Ocean, demonstrating that it was a marine species exploited by the Native American Chumash people. Found during excavations are large mounds known as middens consisting of discarded oyster shells which have been estimated to be at least 3000 years in age.
This bivalve is 6 to 8 centimetres in length. The shell can be rounded or elongated and is white to purplish black and may be striped with yellow or brown. Unlike most bivalves, the Olympia oyster's shell lacks the periostracum, the outermost coating of shell that prevents erosion of the underlying shell; the color of the oyster's flesh is white to a light olive green. Ostrea lurida oysters lie with their left valve on the substrate, where they are attached. Unlike most bivalves, oysters do not have a foot in adulthood. Olympia oysters are suspension feeders, meaning they filter their surrounding water and screen out the phytoplankton they feed on. Olympia oysters filter between 9 and 12 quarts of water each day, but is dependent on environmental conditions; this is an essential function to keeping marine waters clean. Oyster beds provide shelter for anemones and other small marine life. Ostrea lurida oysters live in estuaries. At higher elevations they will live in areas bordered by mudflats, in eel grass beds at lower elevation.
The oysters attach onto the shells of old oyster beds. Their habitats must have water depths of 0–71 meters, ranging in temperatures of 6-20 degrees Celsius, with a salinity above 25 ppt. However, the oysters can survive in areas with streams; this flux will in fact protect them from parasitic flukes, which cannot survive the change in salinity. This is the oyster species, native to Puget Sound; the species ranges as far north as Southern Alaska. The Olympia oyster spawns between the months of May and August, when the water reaches temperatures above 14 degrees Celsius. During the oyster's first spawning cycle they will act as a male and switch between sexes during their following spawning cycles; the males release their spermatozoa from their mantle cavity in the form of sperm balls. These balls dissolve in the water into free floating sperm; the female's eggs are fertilized in the mantle cavity when spermatozoa are filtered into her gill slits from the surrounding water. The fertilized eggs will move into the branchial chamber.
The fertilized eggs will develop into veliger larvae and will stay in the females mantle cavity for 10–12 days for further development. On the first day the larvae develop into a blastulae, on day two they develop into a gastrulae, on the third day they develop into trochophore, on the fourth day the valves on the dorsal surface become defined. During the rest of development in the brooding chamber the valves complete and a straight-hinged veliger larva grows; when the spat leave the brooding chamber, they begin to develop a foot. They migrate to hard surfaces where they attach by secreting a "glue" like substance from their byssus gland. Ostrea lurida spat swim with their foot superior to the rest of their body; this swimming position causes the larvae to attach to the underside of horizontal surfaces. Brood size is between 250,000-300,000, with larvae around 187 micromillimeters long and eggs around 100–105 micromillimeters in diameter; the amount of larvae produced is dependent on the maternal oyster's size and the amount of reserved nutrients she has at the time of egg fertilization.
The once thriving Olympia oyster has been endangered by pollution from outboard motors. Highway construction and over-harvesting has affected their substrate by creating an abundance of silt that smothers the oysters. Over-harvesting takes away the old shells that spat need to grow on; the oysters are preyed upon by animals such as sea ducks and rock crabs. They are affected by a parasitic red worm, the Japanese oyster drill, the slipper shell, shrimp; the ghost shrimp and blue shrimp stir up sediment. This species of oyster nearly disappeared from San Francisco Bay following overharvest during the California Gold Rush and massive silting from hydraulic mining in California's Sierra Nevada. California's most valuable fishery from the 1880s-1910s was based on imported Atlantic oysters, not the absent native, but in the 1990s, O. lurida once again appeared in San Francisco Bay near the Chevron Richmond Refinery in Richmond, California. Species restoration projects for the Olympia oyster funded by the US Government are active in Puget Sound and S
The cockscomb oyster, Lopha cristagalli, is a species of marine bivalve molluscs in the family Ostreidae. The cockscomb oyster has a shell reaching a maximum diameter of about 20.5 cm 10 cm. It has a variable coloration, dark to light purple, it is a thick ribbed, inequivalve shell; the shell inside is porcelaneous purplish-brown or whitish in colour. The margins of the valves have a characteristic zig-zag pattern; the surfaces of both valves have many small and rounded protuberances. These molluscs are stationary epifaunal suspension feeders, as they feed filtering sea water to extract the nutrients; this species is widespread in the Indo-West Pacific, from East Africa, including Madagascar, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, to Micronesia. It lives on coral reefs in shallow subtidal waters at depths of 5 to 30 m. Biolib WoRMS Ftp.fao Animal Diversity
Pernod Ricard is a French company that produces alcoholic beverages. The company's eponymous products, Pernod Anise and Ricard Pastis, are both anise-flavoured pastis apéritifs and are referred to as Pernod or Ricard; the company produces several other types of pastis. It is the world’s second-largest wine and spirits seller. After the banning of absinthe, Pernod Ricard was created from the Pernod Fils company, which had produced absinthe. Pernod Ricard owned the distilled beverage division of the former corporation Seagram until 2006, along with many other holdings. In 2005, the company acquired Allied Domecq plc.. In 2008, Pernod Ricard announced its acquisition of Swedish-based V&S Group, which produces Absolut Vodka. In 2013, Pernod Ricard joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers' commitments to reducing harmful drinking; as of 2015, India is the company's third largest market by value. 1797 – Henri-Louis Pernod, a Swiss distiller, opens his first absinthe distillery in Switzerland.
1805 – Maison Pernod Fils is founded in Pontarlier, Franche-Comté, eastern France, by Henri-Louis Pernod and begins production of the anise-flavored liquor known as absinthe. 1850 – Henri-Louis Pernod dies. 1871 – Distillerie Hémard is founded near Paris. 1872 – Société Pernod Père & Fils opens in Avignon. 1915 – Production and consumption of absinthe is prohibited in France. 1926 – All 3 distilleries merge to form Les Établissements Pernod. 1951 – Pastis 51 is launched. 1965 – Takeover of Distillerie Rousseau, Laurens et Moureaux, producer of Suze liquor since 1889. 1932 – Ricard, which soon becomes France's favourite long drink, is founded in Marseille by Paul Ricard. 1940 – Production of pastis is prohibited by the Vichy regime. 1944 – Production of pastis becomes legal again. 1968 – Paul Ricard retires. 1975 – Old rivals Pernod and Ricard merge to form Pernod Ricard S. A.. 1988 – Pernod Ricard acquires Irish Distillers. 1989 – Pernod Ricard acquires Orlando Wyndham. 1993 – Pernod Ricard works with Cuban companies to create Havana Club International.
1998 – Pernod Ricard acquires the Yerevan Brandy Company. 2001 – Pernod Ricard purchases 38% of Seagram's Wines and Spirits business. 2005 – Pernod Ricard purchases Allied Domecq. 2008 – Pernod Ricard purchases V&S Group, including the Absolut Vodka brand, from the Swedish government. Pernod Ricard Winemakers – owner of Jacob's Creek, Brancott Estate, Campo Viejo, Tarsus, Aura and Siglo Corby Distilleries - Canadian subsidiary; these include: 100 Pipers Aberlour Absolut ArArAt Becherovka Blenders Pride Chivas Regal DITA Dubonnet Frïs Vodka FUEL Vodka The Glenlivet Havana Club Imperial Blue Jacob's Creek Jameson Irish Whiskey Longmorn Luksusowa Macieira Brandy Martell Montilla Olmeca Tequila Pan Tadeusz Passport Scotch Zoco Pernod Liqueur D'Anis Pernod Absinthe Recette Traditionnelle Powers Redbreast Ricard and 51 Royal Salute whisky Royal Stag Scapa Siwucha Wyborowa As of 26 July 2005, the brand portfolio expanded to include former Allied Domecq products: Ballantine's blended Scotch whisky Kahlúa coffee liqueur Malibu coconut-flavored rum Beefeater gin Tia Maria liqueur Stolichnaya vodka Mumm champagne Perrier-Jouët champagne Campo Viejo wine Ysios wine Aura wine Azpilicueta wine Tarsus wine Siglo winePernod Ricard owned the non-alcoholic chocolate beverage Yoo-hoo, acquired from a group of private investors in 1989.
Pernod Ricard previously owned the carbonated citrus drink Orangina. Both brands were sold in 2001 to Cadbury Schweppes; the Havana Club brand was lost to its founders, the Arechabala family, due to the 1959 Cuban Revolution, an ongoing legal battle opposes the claimed trademark owners in the US to the joint-venture between Pernod Ricard and the Cuban State-owned company Corporación Cuba Ron. The Havana Club trademark remains unchallenged elsewhere in the world, having been validated by court decisions in a number of countries other than the US. According to the NGO Alliance anticorrida, Pernod Ricard is the major funder of bullfighting in France, financing bullfighting clubs and sponsoring corridas despite the opposition of a majority of French citizens to blood sports. There are few corridas in France. Most native bull fights do not harm the animals: rosettes attached between the horns are plucked with a claw instrument, the animals are returned to the pasture. Companies portal Official website
Bread crumbs or breadcrumbs are sliced residue of dry bread, used for breading or crumbing foods, topping casseroles, stuffing poultry, thickening stews, adding inexpensive bulk to soups and similar foods, making a crisp and crunchy covering for fried foods breaded cutlets like tonkatsu and schnitzel. The Japanese variety of bread crumbs is called panko. Dry breadcrumbs are made from dry breads which have been baked or toasted to remove most remaining moisture, may have a sandy or powdery texture. Bread crumbs are most produced by pulverizing slices of bread in a food processor, using a steel blade to make coarse crumbs, or a grating blade to make fine crumbs. A grater or similar tool will do; the breads used to make soft or fresh bread crumbs are not quite as dry, so the crumbs are larger and produce a softer coating, crust, or stuffing. The crumb of bread crumb refers to the texture of the soft, inner part of a bread loaf, as distinguished from the crust, or "skin". Panko is a variety of flaky bread crumb used in Japanese cuisine as a crunchy coating for fried foods, such as tonkatsu.
Panko is made from bread baked by electrical current, which yields a bread without a crust, grinding the bread to create fine slivers of crumb. It has a crisper, airier texture than most types of breading found in Western cuisine and resists absorbing oil or grease when fried, resulting in a lighter coating. Outside Japan, its use is becoming more popular in both Asian and non-Asian dishes: It is used on seafood and is available in Asian markets, speciality stores, in many large supermarkets. Panko is produced worldwide in Asian countries, including Japan, Thailand and Vietnam; the Japanese first learned to make bread from Europeans. The word panko is derived from pan, the word for bread in Portuguese and Japanese, -ko, a Japanese suffix indicating "flour", "coating", "crumb", or "powder". Breading is a dry grain-derived food coating for a piece of food made from bread crumbs or a breading mixture with seasonings. Breading can refer to the process of applying a bread-like coating to a food. Breading is well suited for frying.
Breading mixtures can be made of breadcrumb, flour and seasoning that the item to be breaded is dredged in before cooking. If the item to be breaded is too dry for the coating to stick, the item may first be moistened with buttermilk, raw egg, egg wash or other liquid. Breading contrasts with batter, a grain-based liquid coating for food that produces a smoother and finer texture, but which can be softer overall. In the fairy tale Hansel and Gretel, breadcrumbs were used by Hansel and Gretel to track their footpath. However, the bread crumbs were eaten by birds, subsequently leading them to become lost in the woods; the popularity of breadcrumbs in the fairy tale lead to the inspiration the name "breadcrumb" as a navigation element that allows users to keep track of their locations within programs or documents
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo