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P. T. Barnum

Phineas Taylor Barnum was an American showman and businessman remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus. He was an author and philanthropist, though he said of himself: "I am a showman by profession... and all the gilding shall make nothing else of me". According to his critics, his personal aim was "to put money in his own coffers." He is credited with coining the adage "There's a sucker born every minute", although no proof can be found of him saying this. Barnum became a small business owner in his early twenties and founded a weekly newspaper before moving to New York City in 1834, he embarked on an entertainment career, first with a variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", soon after by purchasing Scudder's American Museum which he renamed after himself. He used the museum as a platform to promote hoaxes and human curiosities such as the Fiji mermaid and General Tom Thumb. In 1850, he promoted the American tour of Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind, paying her an unprecedented $1,000 a night for 150 nights.

He suffered economic reversals in the 1850s due to bad investments, as well as years of litigation and public humiliation, but he used a lecture tour as a temperance speaker to emerge from debt. His museum expanded the wax-figure department. Barnum served two terms in the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as a Republican for Fairfield, Connecticut, he spoke before the legislature concerning the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which abolished slavery and involuntary servitude: "A human soul,'that God has created and Christ died for,' is not to be trifled with. It may tenant the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab, or a Hottentot—it is still an immortal spirit", he was elected in 1875 as mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut where he worked to improve the water supply, bring gas lighting to streets, enforce liquor and prostitution laws. He was instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital in 1878 and was its first president; the circus business was the source of much of his enduring fame.

He established "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Caravan & Hippodrome", a traveling circus and museum of "freaks" which adopted many names over the years. Barnum was married to Charity Hallett from 1829 until her death in 1873, they had four children. In 1874, a few months after his wife's death, he married Nancy Fish, his friend's daughter, 40 years his junior, they were married until 1891. He was buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, which he designed himself. Barnum was born in Bethel, the son of innkeeper and store-keeper Philo Barnum and his second wife Irene Taylor, his maternal grandfather Phineas Taylor was a Whig, landowner, justice of the peace, lottery schemer who had a great influence on him. Barnum had several businesses over the years, including a general store, a book auctioning trade, real estate speculation, a statewide lottery network, he started a weekly newspaper in 1829 called The Herald of Freedom in Connecticut. His editorials against the elders of local churches led to libel suits and a prosecution which resulted in imprisonment for two months, but he became a champion of the liberal movement upon his release.

He sold his store in 1834. He began his career as a showman in 1835 when he was 25 with the purchase and exhibition of a blind and completely paralyzed slave woman named Joice Heth, whom an acquaintance was trumpeting around Philadelphia as George Washington's former nurse and 161 years old. Slavery was outlawed in New York, but he exploited a loophole which allowed him to lease her for a year for $1,000, borrowing $500 to complete the sale. Heth died at no more than 80 years old. Barnum had worked her for 10 to 12 hours a day, he hosted a live autopsy of her body in a New York saloon where spectators paid 50 cents to see the dead woman cut up, as he revealed that she was half her purported age. Barnum had a year of mixed success with his first variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", followed by the Panic of 1837 and three years of difficult circumstances, he purchased Scudder's American Museum in 1841, located at New York City. He improved the attraction, upgrading the building and adding exhibits renamed it "Barnum's American Museum".

He added a lighthouse lamp which attracted attention up and down Broadway and flags along the roof's edge that attracted attention in daytime, while giant paintings of animals between the upper windows drew attention from pedestrians. The roof was transformed to a strolling garden with a view of the city, where he launched hot-air balloon rides daily. A changing series of live acts and curiosities were added to the exhibits of stuffed animals, including albinos, little people, magicians, exotic women, detailed models of cities and famous battles, a menagerie of animals. In 1842, Barnum introduced his first major hoax: a creature with the body of a monkey and the tail of a fish known as the "Feejee" mermaid, he leased it from fellow museum owner Moses Kimball of Boston who became his friend and collaborator. Barnum justified his hoaxes by saying. "I don't believe in duping the public", he said, "but I believe in first attracting and pleasing them."He followed the mermaid by exhibiting Charles Stratton, the little person called "General Tom Thumb", then

Orson Pratt Huish

Orson Pratt Huish was a Latter Day Saint hymnwriter. He wrote the words and music to "Come Unto Jesus", as well as a few other hymns found in the 1985 English edition of the hymnal of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, his hymns have been sung by many choirs in many locations. Huish was born at Monmouthshire to James W. Huish and Helen Niblet, he was named after Orson Pratt, the president of the British Mission of the LDS Church. At age nine, Huish went with his mother and siblings to join his father in Missouri. In 1861 the family went to Utah Territory with the Job Pingree Company of Mormon pioneers, they settled in Payson, where Huish worked in ranching as a youth. In 1880, Huish formed the "Huish Band" with his brothers Edward A. Joseph W. Frank, James W. Jr. Frederick A. and his sister Florette. They traveled throughout Utah Territory performing for dances. Huish had been trained to perform in a band with another resident of John D. Stark. In 1872 Huish married Ann Pickering. Huish operated general stores at various times in Moab, Eugene and Albuquerque, New Mexico.

He opened Huish Drug. Huish was not only a writer of music but he was trained in commercial photography. Huish made some contributions in this field, operating the firm Hinshaw, they did most of their work in Arizona. Huish was a painter and is listed in 1999's "Artists of Utah" by Olpin and Swanson. Huish wrote a total of more than 300 songs. In the 1948 LDS Church hymnal three of his works were included; these were "Come Unto Jesus", "Jesus, My Savior True, Guide Me to Thee" and "Utah, the Star of the West". In the 1985 English hymnal only the first two of these hymns were retained. However, the hymn "Come All Ye Sons Of God" has music by Huish and was in both the 1948 and 1985 hymnals. Other noted works by Huish are the Payson High School song, "The Silver and Green" and the funeral hymn, "Blessed Are the Dead". Huish's music remains available, both on its own and in medlies. Cornwall, J. Spencer. Stories of Our Mormon Hymns pp. 98–100

Richard Hawley

Richard Willis Hawley is an English singer-songwriter and producer. After his first band Treebound Story broke up, Hawley found success as a member of Britpop band Longpigs in the 1990s. After that group broke up in 2000, he joined the band Pulp, led by his friend Jarvis Cocker, for a short time; as a solo musician, Hawley has released eight studio albums. He has been nominated for a Mercury prize once for a Brit Award, he has collaborated with Lisa Marie Presley, Shakespears Sister, Arctic Monkeys, Manic Street Preachers, Duane Eddy, Paul Weller. Born in Sheffield, Hawley grew up with two sisters in a working-class area of the city, he was born with a cleft palate. Both his parents were musicians, they divorced. He noted that "I always wrote songs since childhood" and realising that "you could make something up of your own was quite a big one then", he attended Hucklow Middle School together with future Pulp bassist Steve Mackey, passed his O-levels. Hawley worked at the local HMV. While still at school, Hawley formed the Treebound Story and at the age of 19 recorded a Peel Session together with the band.

As a member of the Longpigs, Hawley released two albums, The Sun Is Often Mobile Home. After the demise of the band, he joined Pulp as a touring guitarist while working as a session musician. During his time with both bands he was able to "quietly hone" his songwriting skills, citing that "I was never very good about bleating on about being a songwriter". Impressed by a home demo of his songs, both Cocker and Mackey urged Hawley to record the material, he used some left-over studio time to experiment. Pointing out that "I just wanted to make something gentle for myself – I never expected it to be released", he recorded a song per day, recording most of the instruments himself "with a boom mike in the middle so I could walk between instruments – I mixed it in my head". His eponymous debut was a mini-album that featured seven songs and released in April 2001 through Setanta Records, it was supported by the single "Coming Home". While Hawley played "90% of the stuff" he was assisted by former Longpigs drummer Andy Cook and Colin Elliot, who became his long-term producer.

Hawley commented that "I think with anybody's early stuff you can batter it and take things apart. Doing those early records I was trying to get back to a way of being creative with recording rather than taking this dogmatic approach to it", he admitted that he didn't get "it right every time but I got what I wanted to achieve. It was to find something in the song, and with those early records, there was no money". Clash Magazine described it as "a rather brief burst of seven mid-paced, ’50s-flecked moments of jangle. Listening back now, it’s easy to spot the early signs of the grandeur, to come on standout "Sunlight" amongst these tentative 22 and a half minutes"; the cover of the album was shot in front of a bingo hall in Cleethorpes. In 2001, Late Night Final, named after the cry of vendors selling the Sheffield Star evening newspaper on the streets of the city, was released to positive reviews from the press. Hawley explained that prior to going into the sessions "all I'd got was the riff to "Baby, You're My Light" and that the majority of songs were written during the sessions.

As an example he cited "The Nights Are Cold", done in one take after Cooke asked "look, we've got a gig tonight, are we doing this or what?". Clash magazine called it "a remarkably assured truly gorgeous, collection of warmly evocative lullabies" singling out the songs "Baby, You’re My Light" and "The Nights Are Cold" as "mesmerising"; the album was produced by Alan Smythe. Two years Hawley released Lowedges, named after a suburb of the city; the NME called Lowedges the "first great album of 2003" and it topped an end-of-the-year poll held by Virgin Radio. Of the two albums, he stated that "as those three records progressed you can see the band thing taking over more and more. By the time you get to Lowedges there's more of the guys. I was determined for it to be ragged-arsed and not to be polished and produced". After leaving Setanta Records in 2004, Hawley signed to Mute Records, a division of EMI. Legal wrangling delayed Coles Corner, Hawley's third album, until September 2005. Again, Hawley mined the theme of his home city, this time referencing the location where courting lovers meet.

Coles Corner gained a nomination for the Mercury Prize in 2006. Alex Turner of the Arctic Monkeys, whose debut album won the prize, exclaimed "Someone call 999, Richard Hawley's been robbed!"Hawley's 2007 album Lady's Bridge was released in the United Kingdom on 20 August 2007. He performed a 16-date tour during September 2007 to promote the album. Merchandising on the tour included T-shirts and posters, but special edition bottles of Sheffield-made Henderson's Relish; the same year, Hawley's father died after a long illness. Setanta re-released his self-titled debut in 2007 extending it with five additional tracks, he commented that the release "altered the flow, there's a track on it called'Troublesome Waters', a cover of a Howard Seratt song and it's the only time me and my dad featured together on a published recording. He plays rhythm guitar". On 14 January 2008, Hawley was nominated for his first solo Brit Award for Best Br