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Phase Alternating Line is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field per second. It was one of three major analogue colour television standards, the others being NTSC and SECAM. All of the countries using PAL are in the process of conversion, or have converted standards to DVB, ISDB or DTMB; this page discusses the PAL colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation. PAL was adopted by all European countries, by all of Africa that had never been a French colony, by Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, by all of Asia, by Oceania. There were some countries in those regions that did not adopt PAL, they were France, countries that once were part of the Soviet Union, Myanmar, the Philippines, Taiwan. In the 1950s, the Western European countries began plans to introduce colour television, were faced with the problem that the NTSC standard demonstrated several weaknesses, including colour tone shifting under poor transmission conditions, which became a major issue considering Europe's geographical and weather-related particularities.

To overcome NTSC's shortcomings, alternative standards were devised, resulting in the development of the PAL and SECAM standards. The goal was to provide a colour TV standard for the European picture frequency of 50 fields per second, finding a way to eliminate the problems with NTSC. PAL was developed by Walter Bruch at Telefunken in Hanover, West Germany, with important input from Dr. Kruse and Gerhard Mahler; the format was patented by Telefunken in 1962, citing Bruch as inventor, unveiled to members of the European Broadcasting Union on 3 January 1963. When asked why the system was named "PAL" and not "Bruch" the inventor answered that a "Bruch system" would not have sold well; the first broadcasts began in the United Kingdom in June 1967, followed by West Germany that year. The one BBC channel using the broadcast standard was BBC2, the first UK TV service to introduce "625-lines" in 1964. Telefunken PALcolour 708T was the first PAL commercial TV set, it was followed by Loewe-Farbfernseher S 920 & F 900.

Telefunken was bought by the French electronics manufacturer Thomson. Thomson bought the Compagnie Générale de Télévision where Henri de France developed SECAM, the first European Standard for colour television. Thomson, now called Technicolour SA owns the RCA brand and licences it to other companies; the term PAL was used informally and somewhat imprecisely to refer to the 625-line/50 Hz television system in general, to differentiate from the 525-line/60 Hz system used with NTSC. Accordingly, DVDs were labelled as PAL or NTSC though technically the discs carry neither PAL nor NTSC encoded signal. CCIR 625/50 and EIA 525/60 are the proper names for these standards. Both the PAL and the NTSC system use a quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier carrying the chrominance information added to the luminance video signal to form a composite video baseband signal; the frequency of this subcarrier is 4.43361875 MHz for PAL and NTSC 4.43, compared to 3.579545 MHz for NTSC 3.58. The SECAM system, on the other hand, uses a frequency modulation scheme on its two line alternate colour subcarriers 4.25000 and 4.40625 MHz.

The name "Phase Alternating Line" describes the way that the phase of part of the colour information on the video signal is reversed with each line, which automatically corrects phase errors in the transmission of the signal by cancelling them out, at the expense of vertical frame colour resolution. Lines where the colour phase is reversed compared to NTSC are called PAL or phase-alternation lines, which justifies one of the expansions of the acronym, while the other lines are called NTSC lines. Early PAL receivers relied on the human eye to do that cancelling. Thus, most receivers now use a chrominance analogue delay line, which stores the received colour information on each line of display; the effect is that phase errors result in saturation changes, which are less objectionable than the equivalent hue changes of NTSC. A minor drawback is that the vertical colour resolution is poorer than the NTSC system's, but since the human eye has a colour resolution, much lower than its brightness resolution, this effect is not visible.

In any case, NTSC, PAL, SECAM all have chrominance bandwidth reduced compared to the luminance signal. The 4.43361875 MHz frequency of the colour carrier is a result of 283.75 colour clock cycles per line plus a 25 Hz offset to avoid interferences. Since the line frequency is 15625 Hz, the colour carrier frequency calculates as follows: 4.43361875 MHz = 283.75 × 15625 Hz + 25 Hz. The frequency 50 Hz is the optional refresh frequency of the monitor to be able to create an illusion of motion, while 625 lines means the vertical lines or resolution that the PAL system supports; the original colour carrier is required by the colour decoder to recreate the colour difference signals. Si

Colin Forsyth

Colin Forsyth was an English professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. He played at representative level for England, at club level for Heworth A. R. L. F. C. Oldham, Featherstone Rovers, Bradford Northern and Wakefield Trinity, as a prop, i.e. number 8 or 10, during the era of contested scrums. Colin Forsyth broke his arm in the 1974–75 season. Colin Forsyth won caps for England while at Bradford Northern in the 1975 Rugby League World Cup against France, New Zealand, Wales. Colin Forsyth played in Bradford Northern's 17-8 victory over Widnes in the Premiership Final during the 1977–78 season, the 2-24 defeat by Leeds in the Premiership Final during the 1978–79 season, the 5-19 defeat by Widnes in the Premiership Final during the 1979–80 season. Colin Forsyth played in Bradford Northern's victory in the Championship during the 1979–80 season. Colin Forsyth was a reserve to travel in Featherstone Rovers' 17-12 victory over Barrow in the 1966–67 Challenge Cup Final during the 1966–67 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 13 May 1967, in front of a crowd of 76,290 Colin Forsyth played right-prop, i.e. number 10, in Featherstone Rovers' 12-25 defeat by Hull Kingston Rovers in the 1966–67 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1966–67 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 15 October 1966, played right-prop in Bradford Northern's 18-8 victory over York in the 1978–79 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1978–79 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 28 October 1978.

Colin Forsyth played right-prop, i.e. number 10, in Bradford Northern's 6-0 victory over Widnes in the 1979–80 John Player Trophy Final during the 1979–80 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 5 January 1980. Colin Forsyth made his début for Featherstone Rovers on Friday 22 April 1966. Colin Forsyth is the father of the rugby league prop who played in the 2000s for York Wasps and York City Knights. Statistics at

Banking in Nicaragua

Banking in Nicaragua, prior to 1978, consisted of the Central Bank of Nicaragua and several domestic- and foreign-owned commercial banks. One of the first acts of the Sandinista government in 1979 was to nationalize the country’s banking system in an attempt to promote community banking and support the rural poor. Foreign banks could no longer accept local deposits. Private banks in Nicaragua were by law abolished in the 1980s and cooperatives were considered too politicized and dependent on subsidies. In 1985, a new degree loosened state control of the banking system by allowing the establishment of owned local exchange houses. In 1990, the National Assembly passed legislation permitting private banks to resume operations. In 1991 a legislation allowed the establishment of the first private banks in the country, however only large industries and agribusiness producers of non-traditional crops for export qualified for credit thus leaving small business owners and producers of consumption crops with no access to loans or banking services.

In 1992, the largest stateowned commercial bank was the National Development Bank established by Chase National Bank. Other state-owned commercial banks were the Bank of America and the Nicaraguan Bank of Industry and Commerce; the People's Bank specialized in business loans, the Real Estate Bank provided loans for housing. Three foreign banks continued operations: Bank of America and Lloyds Bank; the Inter-American Development Bank was instrumental in restructuring Nicaragua's technically bankrupt banking sector. In December 1991, the IDB approved a US$3 million technical cooperation grant to restructure the Central Bank, in March 1992, it approved a US$3 million loan to a new commercial bank, the Mercantile Bank; the Mercantile Bank program was expected to make loans available to small and medium-sized private-sector enterprises and to finance investments to bolster fixed assets and create permanent working capital. The Mercantile Bank was the first private bank to be established in Nicaragua since 1979.

Three additional new commercial banks were scheduled to open in 1992. Restructuring of the National Financial System was one of the key elements of the government's economic reform program. According to an agreement between President Chamorro and the World Bank, Banic was to be merged with Bin; the BND would handle only rural credit operations, the People's Bank was to take over all credit operations for small and medium-sized industry. International operations, managed by the Central Bank since 1984, were transferred to the BND and Banic; the Central Bank would continue to handle operations pertaining to the central government, while the newly merged banks would be responsible for letters of credit, imports and dollar checking accounts. The Central Bank auctioned off one of the government's largest exchange houses; this exchange house had been established in 1988 under the direction of the Financial Corporation of Nicaragua. In 1989 the Central Bank authorized the exchange house to operate a foreign money exchange office as an agent of the bank.

In May 1991, Corfin voted to turn over its shares in the exchange house to the Central Bank so that the exchange house could be sold. Opponents charged, they argued that the exchange house was the property of the Central Bank and could not be transferred. The Federation of Bank Workers charged that the new government banking policy was weakening the state bank while giving the advantage to the private banks. Nicaragua had 15 times less banking resources than its Central American counterparts by the end of 2002, with only six banks compared to the regional average of 107 per country. List of banks in Nicaragua This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website

Ink Master

Ink Master is an American reality competition television series airing on Paramount Network. The show, which premiered on January 17, 2012, features tattoo artists who compete in various challenges assessing their tattoo and other related artistic skills, they are judged by renowned tattoo artists and enthusiasts, with one or more contestants being eliminated each episode. The last contestant standing each season receives the title of Ink Master; the series is produced by Original Media, which produced the reality show Miami Ink. Three spin-off shows, titled Ink Master: Redemption, Ink Master: Angels and Ink Master: Grudge Match, have been released; the series has released a number of special standalone episodes themed around an upcoming event or holiday such as Halloween. The tenth season premiered on January 9, 2018, aired its first two episodes on Spike before the network rebranded as the Paramount Network. On April 24, 2018, it was announced that Paramount Network had renewed the series for an eleventh season.

The twelfth season, titled Ink Master: Battle of the Sexes, premiered on June 11, 2019. On November 12, 2019, it was announced that the thirteenth season titled Ink Master: Turf War would premiere on January 7, 2020. On January 9, 2020 after multiple Myspace photos resurfaced from the internet featuring Oliver Peck sporting blackface and a costume with a large "N" across his chest, Ink Master announced he would no longer be associated with the show. Ink Master airs on 7mate. In the UK, Ink Master airs on truTV available in Ireland. In The Netherlands and Flanders both Ink Master and their Dutch-speaking adaptation Ink Master: Meesters van de Lage Landen are being aired on Spike Netherlands. All episodes aside from the finales have the following format, with some minor variations to the application of the format: First, there is a Flash Challenge that will be evaluated based on how well an artist met the skill of the week; some Flash Challenges involve tattooing, but flash challenges do not incorporate the act of tattooing.

After the Flash Challenge comes the Elimination Challenge, a further test of the skill of the week on a human canvas incorporating a prominent style of tattooing. Once the contestants are paired up with their canvases, they are given the day to consult with their assignment; the next day, each contestant is given four to six hours to tattoo their design. Once completed, the contestants are critiqued one by one; the contestants are dismissed, with four being called back. The four represent a top two and bottom two for the week, though this breakdown can change. At the end of each episode, a winner is declared and one contestant is eliminated. For the finale of season one, the final challenge was a marathon tattooing of up to 18 hours; the season two finale did not share this format, instead consisted of each of the three finalists meeting with his or her respective canvas for four six-hour sessions to create a final piece. This final piece did not require a specific tattoo location for the artist to tattoo.

Instead, the artists were able to choose those aspects for themselves, the only restriction they faced was a time limit. The season three finale followed a similar format to the season two finale, but the artists were allowed five seven-hour sessions for a cumulative 35-hour master canvas tattoo. Musician Dave Navarro and tattoo artists Chris Núñez and Oliver Peck are the show's primary judges; some episodes incorporate a fourth guest judge a well-known tattoo artist who has knowledge or reputation in the style of tattoo chosen for the week's elimination challenge. Season two judging was taken to a new level with audience voting participation through the Ink Master website, via Facebook voting; the audience vote affected the final ruling by the judges. Sebastian Murphy was eliminated from consideration by the judges in the season finale because he was the contestant whose work in the elimination challenges received the fewest votes by the audience. Season three introduced the human canvas jury, in which the human canvases review each other's tattoos and nominate for elimination the artist who did the worst piece.

Season four introduced the elimination challenge winner's selection, where the challenge winner picks an artist for elimination from his/her perspective. Season five brought back Joshua Hibbard and Jason Clay Dunn from season three, along with eight other pairs of rivals; the winner's worst selection did not return for season five. Oliver Peck was forced out of his spot as Ink Master Judge following a controversy involving his reemerged blackface photo from his MySpace page; this event would have happened over a decade prior when he was married Kat Von D judging by the photos. There has been no word of a replacement. There have been various standalone holiday and special event themed episodes made that do not follow the series seasons, they have followed an upcoming or passed holiday. These episodes feature previous Ink Master contestants competing for smaller cash prizes. Ink Master licens

Joseph Muzquiz

Joseph Muzquiz was a Spanish priest, an early member of Opus Dei. He worked to establish the movement around the world; the cause for his canonization was opened by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston, where he died. He was born José Luis Múzquiz y de Miguel in Badajoz, Spain, on 14 October 1912, he went to Madrid to study engineering and it was there that he met Josemaría Escrivá, the future founder of the Opus Dei movement. He joined the Nationalist army during the Spanish Civil War when his city was occupied by Nationalist forces. After the war, he was admitted to the newly founded Opus Dei in January 1940. Muzquiz continued in his profession, working on the reconstruction of the infrastructure of the nation, building bridges around the country, he went on to earn three doctorates in total: in canon law. He lived out his religious commitment through evangelization among his colleagues, he was one of the first three members of Opus Dei to be ordained to the priesthood on 25 June 1944. He was sent to the United States in 1949, where he helped establish Opus Dei centers in Chicago and Washington, D.

C. He laid the foundations for Opus Dei's work in Canada and Venezuela. During the 1960s and 1970s he worked in Europe and Asia and pressed for the canonization of the organization's founder, he returned to the United States in 1976, settling at Arnold Hall Conference Center, an Opus Dei apostolate based in Pembroke, Massachusetts. On 20 June 1983 he suffered a heart attack while teaching a class there, died the following day at Jordan Hospital in Plymouth, his funeral was held at the former St. Aidan's Church in Brookline and he was buried at St. Joseph's Cemetery in West Roxbury; the cause for his canonization was opened on 2 June 2011, under the authority of the Archbishop of Boston, Cardinal Seán Patrick O'Malley, O. F. M. Cap. in whose jurisdiction Muzquiz died. The Servant of God Joseph Muzquiz Category:Opus Dei members

Koishikawa Annex, The University Museum, The University of Tokyo

The Koishikawa Annex, The University Museum, The University of Tokyo is a museum located in Hakusan Bunkyo, Japan. It is the oldest building of the University of Tokyo, is open to general public as the annex of the general research museum, it was used as a medical school. As collection, there are the natural history specimen collections, the animal specimen collection of Chartering foreigner teacher E Morse's immediate pupils, the art and science specimen collection of Prof. Mitake Hide, member of the engineering model of Kōbushō Kōgakuryō. Many bronze statues of Tokyo University professors exist in this building; the Present and Future of the University Museum - University of Tokyo