Fax, sometimes called telecopying or telefax, is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device. The original document is scanned with a fax machine, which processes the contents as a single fixed graphic image, converting it into a bitmap, transmitting it through the telephone system in the form of audio-frequency tones; the receiving fax machine reconstructs the image, printing a paper copy. Early systems used direct conversions of image darkness to audio tone in a continuous or analog manner. Since the 1980s, most machines modulate the transmitted audio frequencies using a digital representation of the page, compressed to transmit areas which are all-white or all-black. Scottish inventor Alexander Bain worked on chemical mechanical fax type devices and in 1846 was able to reproduce graphic signs in laboratory experiments, he received British patent 9745 on May 27, 1843 for his "Electric Printing Telegraph". Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a telefax machine.
The Pantelegraph was invented by the Italian physicist Giovanni Caselli. He introduced the first commercial telefax service between Paris and Lyon in 1865, some 11 years before the invention of the telephone. In 1880, English inventor Shelford Bidwell constructed the scanning phototelegraph, the first telefax machine to scan any two-dimensional original, not requiring manual plotting or drawing. Around 1900, German physicist Arthur Korn invented the Bildtelegraph, widespread in continental Europe since a noticed transmission of a wanted-person photograph from Paris to London in 1908, used until the wider distribution of the radiofax, its main competitors were the Bélinographe by Édouard Belin first since the 1930s the Hellschreiber, invented in 1929 by German inventor Rudolf Hell, a pioneer in mechanical image scanning and transmission. The 1888 invention of the telautograph by Elisha Gray marked a further development in fax technology, allowing users to send signatures over long distances, thus allowing the verification of identification or ownership over long distances.
On May 19, 1924, scientists of the AT&T Corporation "by a new process of transmitting pictures by electricity" sent 15 photographs by telephone from Cleveland to New York City, such photos being suitable for newspaper reproduction. Photographs had been sent over the radio using this process; the Western Union "Deskfax" fax machine, announced in 1948, was a compact machine that fit comfortably on a desktop, using special spark printer paper. As a designer for the Radio Corporation of America, in 1924, Richard H. Ranger invented the wireless photoradiogram, or transoceanic radio facsimile, the forerunner of today’s "fax" machines. A photograph of President Calvin Coolidge sent from New York to London on November 29, 1924, became the first photo picture reproduced by transoceanic radio facsimile. Commercial use of Ranger’s product began two years later. In 1924, Herbert E. Ives of AT&T transmitted and reconstructed the first color facsimile, a natural-color photograph of silent film star Rudolph Valentino in period costume, using red and blue color separations.
Beginning in the late 1930s, the Finch Facsimile system was used to transmit a "radio newspaper" to private homes via commercial AM radio stations and ordinary radio receivers equipped with Finch's printer, which used thermal paper. Sensing a new and golden opportunity, competitors soon entered the field, but the printer and special paper were expensive luxuries, AM radio transmission was slow and vulnerable to static, the newspaper was too small. After more than ten years of repeated attempts by Finch and others to establish such a service as a viable business, the public quite content with its cheaper and much more substantial home-delivered daily newspapers, with conventional spoken radio bulletins to provide any "hot" news, still showed only a passing curiosity about the new medium. By the late 1940s, radiofax receivers were sufficiently miniaturized to be fitted beneath the dashboard of Western Union's "Telecar" telegram delivery vehicles. In the 1960s, the United States Army transmitted the first photograph via satellite facsimile to Puerto Rico from the Deal Test Site using the Courier satellite.
Radio fax is still in limited use today for transmitting weather charts and information to ships at sea. It is widely used within the medical field to transmit confidential patient information. In 1964, Xerox Corporation introduced what many consider to be the first commercialized version of the modern fax machine, under the name or Long Distance Xerography; this model was superseded two years with a unit that would set the standard for fax machines for years to come. Up until this point facsimile machines were expensive and hard to operate. In 1966, Xerox released a smaller, 46-pound facsimile machine; this unit could be connected to any standard telephone line. This machine was capable of transmitting a letter-sized document in about six minutes; the first sub-minute, digital fax machine was developed by Dacom, which built on digital data compression technology developed at Lockheed for satellite communication. By the late 1970s, many companies around the world had entered the fax market. Shortly after this, a new wave of more compact and efficient fax machines would hit the market.
Xerox continued to refine the fax machine for years after their ground-breaking
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m
Amateur radio known as ham radio, describes the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport and emergency communication. The term "amateur" is used to specify "a duly authorised person interested in radioelectric practice with a purely personal aim and without pecuniary interest; the amateur radio service is established by the International Telecommunication Union through the Radio Regulations. National governments regulate technical and operational characteristics of transmissions and issue individual stations licenses with an identifying call sign. Prospective amateur operators are tested for their understanding of key concepts in electronics and the host government's radio regulations. Radio amateurs use a variety of voice, text and data communications modes and have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum; this enables communication across a city, country, the world, or into space.
In many countries, amateur radio operators may send, receive, or relay radio communications between computers or transceivers connected to secure virtual private networks on the Internet. Amateur radio is represented and coordinated by the International Amateur Radio Union, organized in three regions and has as its members the national amateur radio societies which exist in most countries. According to an estimate made in 2011 by the American Radio Relay League, two million people throughout the world are involved with amateur radio. About 830,000 amateur radio stations are located in IARU Region 2 followed by IARU Region 3 with about 750,000 stations. A smaller number, about 400,000, are located in IARU Region 1; the origins of amateur radio can be traced to the late 19th century, but amateur radio as practiced today began in the early 20th century. The First Annual Official Wireless Blue Book of the Wireless Association of America, produced in 1909, contains a list of amateur radio stations.
This radio callbook lists wireless telegraph stations in Canada and the United States, including 89 amateur radio stations. As with radio in general, amateur radio was associated with various amateur experimenters and hobbyists. Amateur radio enthusiasts have contributed to science, engineering and social services. Research by amateur operators has founded new industries, built economies, empowered nations, saved lives in times of emergency. Ham radio can be used in the classroom to teach English, map skills, math and computer skills; the term "ham" was first a pejorative term used in professional wired telegraphy during the 19th century, to mock operators with poor Morse code sending skills. This term continued to be used after the invention of radio and the proliferation of amateur experimentation with wireless telegraphy; the use of "ham" meaning "amateurish or unskilled" survives today in other disciplines. The amateur radio community subsequently began to reclaim the word as a label of pride, by the mid-20th century it had lost its pejorative meaning.
Although not an acronym, it is mistakenly written as "HAM" in capital letters. The many facets of amateur radio attract practitioners with a wide range of interests. Many amateurs begin with a fascination of radio communication and combine other personal interests to make pursuit of the hobby rewarding; some of the focal areas amateurs pursue include radio contesting, radio propagation study, public service communication, technical experimentation, computer networking. Amateur radio operators use various modes of transmission to communicate; the two most common modes for voice transmissions are single sideband. FM offers high quality audio signals, while SSB is better at long distance communication when bandwidth is restricted. Radiotelegraphy using Morse code known as "CW" from "continuous wave", is the wireless extension of landline telegraphy developed by Samuel Morse and dates to the earliest days of radio. Although computer-based modes and methods have replaced CW for commercial and military applications, many amateur radio operators still enjoy using the CW mode—particularly on the shortwave bands and for experimental work, such as earth-moon-earth communication, because of its inherent signal-to-noise ratio advantages.
Morse, using internationally agreed message encodings such as the Q code, enables communication between amateurs who speak different languages. It is popular with homebrewers and in particular with "QRP" or very-low-power enthusiasts, as CW-only transmitters are simpler to construct, the human ear-brain signal processing system can pull weak CW signals out of the noise where voice signals would be inaudible. A similar "legacy" mode popular with home constructors is amplitude modulation, pursued by many vintage amateur radio enthusiasts and aficionados of vacuum tube technology. Demonstrating a proficiency in Morse code was for many years a requirement to obtain an amateur license to transmit on frequencies below 30 MHz. Following changes in international regulations in 2003, countries are no longer required to demand proficiency; the United States Federal
A heliograph is a wireless telegraph that signals by flashes of sunlight reflected by a mirror. The flashes are produced by momentarily pivoting the mirror, or by interrupting the beam with a shutter; the heliograph was a simple but effective instrument for instantaneous optical communication over long distances during the late 19th and early 20th century. Its main uses were military and forest protection work. Heliographs were standard issue in the British and Australian armies until the 1960s, were used by the Pakistani army as late as 1975. There were many heliograph types. Most heliographs were variants of the British Army Mance Mark V version, it used a mirror with a small unsilvered spot in the centre. The sender aligned the heliograph to the target by looking at the reflected target in the mirror and moving their head until the target was hidden by the unsilvered spot. Keeping their head still, they adjusted the aiming rod so its cross wires bisected the target, they turned up the sighting vane, which covered the cross wires with a diagram of a cross, aligned the mirror with the tangent and elevation screws so the small shadow, the reflection of the unsilvered spot hole was on the cross target.
This indicated. The flashes were produced by a keying mechanism that tilted the mirror up a few degrees at the push of a lever at the back of the instrument. If the sun was in front of the sender, its rays were reflected directly from this mirror to the receiving station. If the sun was behind the sender, the sighting rod was replaced by a second mirror, to capture the sunlight from the main mirror and reflect it to the receiving station; the U. S. Signal Corps heliograph mirror did not tilt; this type produced flashes by a shutter mounted on a second tripod. The heliograph had some great advantages, it allowed long distance communication without a fixed infrastructure, though it could be linked to make a fixed network extending for hundreds of miles, as in the fort-to-fort network used for the Geronimo campaign. It was portable, did not require any power source, was secure since it was invisible to those not near the axis of operation, the beam was narrow, spreading only 50 feet per mile of range.
However, anyone in the beam with the correct knowledge could intercept signals without being detected. In the Boer War, where both sides used heliographs, tubes were sometimes used to decrease the dispersion of the beam. In some other circumstances, though, a narrow beam made it difficult to stay aligned with a moving target, as when communicating from shore to a moving ship, so the British issued a dispersing lens to broaden the heliograph beam from its natural diameter of 0.5 degrees to 15 degrees. The distance that heliograph signals could be seen depended on the clarity of the sky and the size of the mirrors used. A clear line of sight was required, since the Earth's surface is curved, the highest convenient points were used. Under ordinary conditions, a flash could be seen 30 miles with the naked eye, much farther with a telescope; the maximum range was considered to be 10 miles for each inch of mirror diameter. Mirrors ranged from 1.5 inches to 12 inches or more. The record distance was established by a detachment of U.
S. signal sergeants by the inter-operation of stations on Mount Ellen and Mount Uncompahgre, Colorado, 183 miles apart on September 17, 1894, with Signal Corps heliographs carrying mirrors only 8 inches square. The German professor Carl Friedrich Gauss of the University of Göttingen developed and used a predecessor of the heliograph in 1821, his device directed a controlled beam of sunlight to a distant station to be used as a marker for geodetic survey work, was suggested as a means of telegraphic communications. This is the first reliably documented heliographic device, despite much speculation about possible ancient incidents of sun-flash signalling, the documented existence of other forms of ancient optical telegraphy. For example, one author in 1919 chose to "hazard the theory" that the mainland signals Roman emperor Tiberius watched for from Capri were mirror flashes, but admitted "there are no references in ancient writings to the use of signaling by mirrors", that the documented means of ancient long-range visual telecommunications was by beacon fires and beacon smoke, not mirrors.
The story that a shield was used as a heliograph at the Battle of Marathon is a modern myth, originating in the 1800s. Herodotus never mentioned any flash. What Herodotus did write was that someone was accused of having arranged to "hold up a shield as a signal". Suspicion grew in the 1900s; the conclusion after testing the theory was "Nobody flashed a shield at the Battle of Marathon". In a letter dated 3 June 1778, John Norris, High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire, notes: "Did this day heliograph intelligence from Dr Franklin in Paris to Wycombe". However, there is little evidence that "heliograph" here is other than a misspelling of "holograph"; the term "heliograph" for solar telegraphy did not enter the English language until the 1870s—even the word "telegraphy" was not coined until the 1790s. Henry Christopher Mance, of the British Government Persian Gulf Telegraph Department, developed the first accepted heliograph about 1869 while stationed at Karachi, in the Bombay Presidency in British India.
Mance was familiar with heliotropes by their use for the Great India Survey. The Mance Heliograph was operated by one man, since it weighed about seven pounds, the operator could carry the devi
History of broadcasting
It is recognised that the first radio transmission was made from a temporary station set up by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895. This followed on from pioneering work in the field by a number of people including Alessandro Volta, André-Marie Ampère, Georg Ohm and James Clerk Maxwell; the radio broadcasting of music and talk intended to reach a dispersed audience started experimentally around 1905-1906, commercially around 1920 to 1923. VHF stations started 30 to 35 years later. In the early days, radio stations broadcast on the long wave, medium wave and short wave bands, on VHF and UHF. However, in the United Kingdom, Hungary and some other places, from as early as 1890 there was a system whereby news, live theatre, music hall, fiction readings, religious broadcasts, etc. were available in private homes via the conventional telephone line, with subscribers being supplied with a number of special, personalised headsets. In Britain this system was known as Electrophone, was available as early as 1895 or 1899 and up until 1926.
In Hungary, it was called Telefon Hírmondó, in France, Théâtrophone ). The Wikipedia Telefon Hírmondó page includes a 1907 program guide which looks remarkably similar to the types of schedules used by many broadcasting stations some 20 or 30 years later. By the 1950s every country had a broadcasting system one owned and operated by the government. Alternative modes included commercial radio, as in the United States. Today, most countries have evolved into a dual system, including the UK. By 1955 every family in North America and Western Europe, as well as Japan, had a radio. A dramatic change came in the 1960s with the introduction of small inexpensive portable transistor radio, the expanded ownership and usage. Access became universal across the world. Argentina was a world pioneer in broadcasting, being the third country in the world to make its first regular broadcasts in 1920, having been the first Spanish-speaking country in Latin America to offer daily radio broadcasts; the main stations were in Buenos Córdoba.
Among the historical facts related to Argentine radio, it can be mentioned that the first radio broadcast was made with the live broadcast of Richard Wagner's opera Parsifal from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires, on August 27, 1920, in charge of the Radio Argentina Society of Enrique Susini, César Guerrico, Miguel Mugica, Luis Romero and Ignacio Gómez, who installed a transmitting device on the roof of the building, for which they are remembered as "The crazy people on the roof". In 1921, the transmission of classical music became a daily occurrence; the following year, the assumption of President Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear was broadcast live. In September 1923 the famous "fight of the century" was issued between Luis Ángel Firpo and Jack Dempsey from the Polo Grounds in New York, in October of the following year the match between the Argentine and Uruguayan national teams was broadcast. At that time the first advertisements, called "reclames", were put on the air. At the end of the decade the radio drama was born.
In those years several radio stations arose, Culture, Mitre, Belgrano, Del Pueblo -, America-, Municipal, Porteña and Stentor. The introduction of the loudspeakers modified the listening conditions; the receiving apparatus was gaining an important place in the home. Meanwhile, the multiplication of the stations generated the first conflicts over the airwaves, which led to the first regulations on emission frequencies at the end of the 20s; the History of broadcasting in Australia has been shaped for over a century by the problem of communication across long distances, coupled with a strong base in a wealthy society with a deep taste for aural communications. Australia developed its own system, through its own engineers, retailers, entertainment services, news agencies; the government set up the first radio system, business interests marginalized the hobbyists and amateurs. The Labor Party was interested in radio because it allowed them to bypass the newspapers, which were controlled by the opposition.
Both parties agreed on the need for a national system, in 1932 set up the Australian Broadcasting Commission, as a government agency, separate from political interference. The first commercial broadcasters known as "B" class stations, were on the air as early as 1925; the number of stations remained dormant throughout World War II and in the post-war era. Australian radio hams can be traced to the early 1900s; the 1905 Wireless Telegraphy Act whilst acknowledging the existence of wireless telegraphy, brought all broadcasting matters in Australia under the control of the Federal Government. In 1906, the first official Morse code transmission in Australia was by the Marconi Company between Queenscliff and Devonport, Tasmania; the first broadcast of music was made during a demonstration on 13 August 1919 by Ernest Fisk of AWA – Amalgamated Wireless. A number of amateurs commenced broadcasting music in 1920 and 1921. Many other amateurs soon followed. 2CM w
Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services available introduces challenges of definition. User-generated content, such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, data generated through all online interactions, is the lifeblood of social media. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups. Users access social media services via web-based technologies on desktops and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices; as users engage with these electronic services, they create interactive platforms through which individuals and organizations can share, co-create and modify user-generated content or pre-made content posted online.
Networks formed through social media change the way groups of people communicate. They "introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations and individuals." These changes are the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies. Social media differ from paper-based media and traditional electronic media such as TV broadcasting in many ways, including quality, frequency, usability and performance. Social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system; this is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a monologic transmission model, such as a newspaper, delivered to many subscribers, or a radio station which broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Some of the most popular social media websites, with over 100 million registered users, include Facebook, YouTube, WeChat, Instagram, QQ, QZone, Twitter, Telegram, Baidu Tieba, LinkedIn, LINE, Pinterest, VK. Observers have noted a range of negative impacts of social media use. Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities, can be an effective communication tool for corporations, nonprofit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, governments.
Social media may have been influenced by the 1840s introduction of the telegraph in the US, which connected the country. The PLATO system launched in 1960, developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation, offered early forms of social media with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-forum application. ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network etiquette described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. ARPANET became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, established in 1980. A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system, known as Community Memory, had appeared by 1973. True electronic bulletin board systems arrived with the Computer Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on 16 February 1978.
Before long, most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, similar personal computers. The IBM PC was introduced in 1981, subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone. Message forums arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout early 1990s; when the Internet proliferated in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated online, becoming Internet forums due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people than telco modem banks. GeoCities was one of the Internet's earliest social networking websites, appearing in November 1994, followed by Classmates in December 1995 and Six Degrees in May 1997.
According to CBS news, Six Degrees is "widely considered to be the first social networking site", as it included "profiles, friends lists and school affiliations" that could be used by registered users. Open Diary was launched in October 1998. 360° in March 2005.
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is the seat of government of the Netherlands. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam; the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of 2.7 million, is the 13th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation; the Hague is the seat of the Cabinet, the States General, the Supreme Court, the Council of State of the Netherlands, but the city is not the constitutional capital of the Netherlands, Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander lives in Huis ten Bosch and works at the Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, together with Queen Máxima; the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and other Dutch companies.
Most foreign embassies in the Netherlands and 200 international governmental organisations are located in the city, including the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court, which makes The Hague one of the major cities hosting a United Nations institution along with New York City, Vienna and Nairobi. Because of this, The Hague is known as the home of international law and arbitration; the Hague was first mentioned as Die Haghe in 1242. In the 15th century, the name des Graven hage came into use "The Count's Wood", with connotations like "The Count's Hedge, Private Enclosure or Hunting Grounds". "'s Gravenhage" was used for the city from the 17th century onward. Today, this name is only used in some official documents like marriage certificates; the city itself uses "Den Haag" in all its communications. Little is known about the origin of The Hague. There are no contemporary documents describing it, sources are of dubious reliability. What is certain is that The Hague was founded by the last counts of the House of Holland.
Floris IV owned two residences in the area, but purchased a third court situated by the present-day Hofvijver in 1229 owned by a woman called Meilendis. Floris IV intended to rebuild the court into a large castle, but he died in a tournament in 1234, before anything was built, his son and successor William II lived in the court, after he was elected King of the Romans in 1248, he promptly returned to The Hague, had builders turn the court into a "royal palace", which would be called the Binnenhof. He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished during the reign of his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal, still intact, is the most prominent, it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onward, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative center and residence when in Holland; the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Die Haghe in a charter dating from 1242.
It became the primary residence of the Counts of Holland in 1358, thus became the seat of many government institutions. This status allowed the village to grow. In its early years, the village was located in the ambacht, or rural district, of Monster, governed by the Lord of Monster. Seeking to exercise more direct control over the village, the Count split the village off and created a separate ambacht called Haagambacht, governed directly by the Counts of Holland; the territory of Haagambacht was expanded during the reign of Floris V. When the House of Burgundy inherited the counties of Holland and Zeeland in 1432, they appointed a stadtholder to rule in their stead with the States of Holland and West Friesland as an advisory council. Although their seat was located in The Hague, the city became subordinate to more important centres of government such as Brussels and Mechelen, from where the sovereigns ruled over the centralised Burgundian Netherlands. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, as it allowed Spanish troops to occupy the town.
In 1575, the States of Holland, temporarily based in Delft considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William the Silent. In 1588, The Hague became the permanent seat of the States of Holland as well as the States General of the Dutch Republic. In order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, "city rights" have no place anymore. Only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France; as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, while the government was situated in The Hague.
When the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague expanded. Many streets were built for the large number of civil se