Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Portal (video game)
Portal is a puzzle-platform video game developed and published by Valve Corporation. It was released in a bundle package called The Orange Box for Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 in 2007; the game has since been ported to other systems, including OS X, Android. Portal consists of a series of puzzles that must be solved by teleporting the player's character and simple objects using "the Aperture Science Handheld Portal Device", a device that can create inter-spatial portals between two flat planes; the player-character, Chell, is challenged and taunted by an artificial intelligence named GLaDOS to complete each puzzle in the Aperture Science Enrichment Center using the portal gun with the promise of receiving cake when all the puzzles are completed. The game's unique physics allows kinetic energy to be retained through portals, requiring creative use of portals to maneuver through the test chambers; this gameplay element is based on a similar concept from the game Narbacular Drop.
Portal was acclaimed as one of the most original games of 2007, despite criticisms of its short duration and limited story. The game received praise for its originality, unique gameplay and dark story with a humorous series of dialogue. GLaDOS, voiced by Ellen McLain in the English-language version, received acclaim for her unique characterization, the end credits song "Still Alive", written by Jonathan Coulton for the game, was praised for its original composition and humorous twist. Portal is cited as one of the greatest video games of all time. Excluding Steam download sales, over four million copies of the game have been sold since its release, spawning official merchandise from Valve including plush Companion Cubes, as well as fan recreations of the cake and portal gun, a standalone version, titled Portal: Still Alive, on the Xbox Live Arcade service in October 2008, which added an additional 14 puzzles to the gameplay, a sequel, Portal 2, released in 2011, adding several new gameplay mechanics and a cooperative multiplayer mode.
In Portal, the player controls the protagonist, from a first-person perspective as she is challenged to navigate through a series of rooms using the Aperture Science Handheld Portal Device, or portal gun, under the watchful supervision of the artificial intelligence GLaDOS. The portal gun can create two distinct portal ends and blue; the portals create a visual and physical connection between two different locations in three-dimensional space. Neither end is an entrance or exit. An important aspect of the game's physics is momentum redirection; as moving objects pass through portals, they come through the exit portal at the same direction that the exit portal is facing and with the same speed with which they passed through the entrance portal. For example, a common maneuver is to jump down to a portal on the floor and emerge through a wall, flying over a gap or another obstacle; this allows the player to launch objects or Chell over great distances, both vertically and horizontally, referred to as'flinging' by Valve.
As GLaDOS puts it, "In layman's terms: speedy thing goes in, speedy thing comes out." If portal ends are not on parallel planes, the character passing through is reoriented to be upright with respect to gravity after leaving a portal end. Chell and all other objects in the game that can fit into the portal ends will pass through the portal. However, a portal shot cannot pass through an open portal. Creating a portal end deactivates an existing portal end of the same color. Moving objects, special wall surfaces, liquids, or areas that are too small will not be able to anchor portals. Chell is sometimes provided with cubes that she can pick up and use to climb on or to hold down large buttons that open doors or activate mechanisms. Particle fields known as emancipation grills called "fizzlers" in the developer commentary, exist at the end of all and within some test chambers; the fields block attempts to fire portals through them. Although Chell is equipped with mechanized heel springs to prevent damage from falling, she can be killed by various other hazards in the test chambers, such as turret guns, bouncing balls of energy, toxic liquid.
She can be killed by objects falling through portals, by a series of crushers that appear in certain levels. Unlike most action games at the time, there is no health indicator; some obstacles, such as the energy balls and crushing pistons, deal fatal damage with a single blow. GameSpot noted, in its initial review of Portal, that many solutions exist for completing each puzzle, that the gameplay "gets crazier, the diagrams shown in the trailer showed some crazy things that you can attempt". Two additional modes are unlocked upon the completion of the game that challenge the player to work out alternative methods of solving each test chamber. Challenge maps are unlocked near the halfway point and Advanced Chambers are unlocked when the game is completed. In Challenge mode, levels are revisited with the added goal of completing the test chamber either with as little time, with the least number of portals, or with the fewest footsteps possible. In Advanced mode, certain levels are made m
Gary Leslie Whitta is an English-born American screenwriter, game designer, video game journalist. He is known as the former editor-in-chief of both the UK and US editions of PC Gamer magazine and contributor to gaming magazine ACE. Whitta was the screenwriter of The Book of Eli, co-wrote After Earth with M. Night Shyamalan, co-developed the story for Rogue One. Whitta began his career as a writer and games journalist for ACE magazine; when ACE closed down in 1992, he became deputy editor of The One for Amiga Games and was involved with founding the original PC Gamer magazine in the UK. He subsequently served as the editor of Total Football. A few years he moved to the United States to become editor-in-chief of the newer, US version, of PC Gamer. Besides his involvement setting up PC Gamer, Whitta has a long history of involvement with print and online magazines of all kinds. ACE magazine was owned by UK publisher Future Publishing, in early 2000 Whitta worked with Future to establish a film magazine, Total Movie magazine.
Due to financial difficulties at the publisher, Total Movie was canceled after only four issues in early 2001. While no longer managing or editing, Whitta still contributes game reviews and opinion pieces for a number of gaming publications, his articles can be found in various places, including PC Gamer and 1UP. He shows up in industry podcasts, for example with Tested.com, PC Gamer and Next Generation. In addition to contributing to periodicals, Whitta has written a number of screenplays and TV episodes. A partial list, including the text of those which were not picked up, could at one time be found on his homepage. Whitta has found Hollywood success as the screenwriter of the film The Book of Eli, he was working on a script known as the "Monkey Project" with Chris Weston, which would have reimagined the classic Buddhist novel Journey to the West as an animated series. However, Weston pulled out of the project. More recent rumors have tied him to a Blizzard project a title based on the Diablo series of games.
It was announced on FirstShowing.net that Whitta was set to write the script for the live-action version of Akira. However, Whitta is no longer attached to the project, he wrote the script for the action thriller film Undying. His latest screenwriting work was the sci-fi film After Earth, he was hired to script Rogue One, directed by Gareth Edwards. On 9 January 2015, he was announced to have amicably parted ways with the film. On 27 October 2016, Variety reported that Warner Bros. Village Roadshow and Team Downey had put together a writers' room for the third of the Guy Ritchie Sherlock Holmes movies, with several top names, including Whitta, Nicole Perlman, Justin Malen, Geneve Dworet-Robertson and Kieran Fitzgerald. In the realm of game development, Whitta has consulted on a number of game titles, his best known contributions have been as a writer for Duke Nukem Forever and Gears of War. He has consulted on general game design for Microsoft, Electronic Arts, Midway Games, others. More Whitta was tapped to oversee the narrative development of Telltale Games' episodic video game adaptation of The Walking Dead, while writing its fourth episode.
Though he left Telltale after completing the first season, he returned to help complete The Walking Dead: The Final Season. Whitta is the writer behind a popular short series of comic books based on the Death, Jr. character, together with cover artist Mike Mignola and illustrator Ted Naifeh. Having been extended to a second three-part series, the writing has received praise as "charming and cleverly subversive" and for its "quirky characters and slick humor". Whitta spoke about his experience writing this comic with Silver Bullet Comics in May 2005. Whitta is co-creating the comic OLIVER with Transmetropolitan/The Boys co-creator and illustrator Darick Robertson for a 2015 release from Image Comics. Whitta was a frequent commentator on the PC Gamer podcast and he co-hosted the Game Theory podcast with Colin Campbell, which has since stopped being produced. In September 2011, Whitta and Campbell News and Features Editor at IGN, started a new podcast in the same vein as Game Theory, called IGN's Game Business Show.
He commentated on the Next Gen podcast until the podcast was canceled. He was a weekly co-host of This is Only a Test and an occasional guest on Behind the Screened Door, the Giant Bombcast the Comic Vine Podcast, before Whiskey Media was sold in two deals to CBS Interactive and BermanBraun. In October 2011, Whitta helped raise over $50,000 for Child's Play when he co-hosted a 24-hour-long, live-streamed edition of This is Only a Test with Tested creators Will Smith and Norman Chan. Whitta continues to chair the Octoberkast charity event every year, creating the "Space Rocks" game in 2013. Whitta has returned as a guest on Giant Bomb's Giant Bombcast in recent years. In November 2017, Whitta became an official co-host for the video game podcast, Kinda Funny Games Daily after numerous guest appearances on this and one of Kinda Funny's other podcasts GameOverGreggy twice. Whitta resides in California. In 2009, he became a US citizen; as writer Film The Book of Eli After Earth – Co-wrote the script with M. Night Shyamalan from a story written by Will Smith Rogue One: A Star Wars Story – Co-wrote only the story with John Knoll.
Future plc is a British media company founded in 1985. It publishes more than 50 magazines in fields such as video games, films, photography and knowledge, it is a constituent of the FTSE Fledgling Index. The company owns the US company Future US; the company was founded as Future Publishing in Somerton, Somerset in 1985 by Chris Anderson with the sole magazine Amstrad Action. An early innovation was the inclusion of free software on magazine covers, the first company to do so. In the 1990s, the company published Arcane, a magazine which focused on tabletop games. Anderson sold Future to Pearson PLC for £52.7m in 1994, but bought it back in 1998, with Future chief executive Greg Ingham and Apax Venture Partners, for £142m. In 2001, Anderson left Future. In 2007, the State of Texas filed a lawsuit against Future plc for violating the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act; the lawsuit alleges that the Future plc owned website GamesRadar "failed to include necessary disclosures and obtain parental consent before collecting personal information from children."
The owner of the other websites settled in March 2008, though the final disposition against Future plc is not public record. In November 2009, Future reported a fall in profits from £9.5 million to £3.7 million in the fiscal year that ended 30 September 2009. Future attributed this to problems with their US market, hit by a fall in the general advertising market. In March 2010, Future announced that it was exploring the possibility of reviving its GamesMaster brand on television; the video games show had run from 1992 until 1998 but while the spin-off magazine continued to be published for a further 20 years, its last issue hit the newsstands on 1 November 2018. Future won the Association of Online Publishers Consumer Digital Publisher of the Year Award for the third year in a row in 2010. Future published the official magazines for the consoles of all three major games console manufacturers; the company had a period of shuttering print media properties in favour of digital media, closing many titles and selling off others.
In January 2012, Future sold its U. S. consumer music magazines, including Guitar World and Revolver, to NewBay Media for $3 million. In April 2013, it completed the sale of major components of its UK media-music brands for £10.2 million to Team Rock Ltd. In September 2013 – but bought these back for £800,000 in 2017 after Team Rock went into administration. In August 2013, Future acquired two Australian computing titles, APC and TechLife from Bauer Media Group. Future announced it would cut 55 jobs from its UK operation as part of a restructuring to adapt "more to the company's rapid transition to a digital business model." The company announced in March 2014 that it would close all of its U. S.-based print publications and shift U. S. print support functions such as consumer marketing and editorial leadership for Future's international print brands to the UK. In 2014, Future sold its sport and craft titles to Immediate Media, its auto titles to Kelsey Media. In 2016, Future started to expand its web portfolio through a series of acquisitions.
It bought Blaze Publishing to diversify into the shooting market and acquired Noble House Media to increase its interest in telecoms media. Future completed the purchase of rival specialist magazine publisher Imagine on 21 October 2016 after receiving approval from the Competition and Markets Authority. In 2018, Future made further major acquisitions, it bought the What Hi-Fi?, FourFourTwo, Practical Caravan and Practical Motorhome brands from Haymarket. Future acquired NewBay Media, publisher of numerous broadcast, professional video, systems integration trade titles, as well as several consumer music magazines.. It intends to complete the acquisition of U. S. B2C publisher Purch for $132m by September 2018. Future purchased nextmedia computing and tech assets in the same month and incorporating PC PowerPlay articles into the online versions of PC Gamer. In January 2019, Future sold some B2B brands to Datateam Media Group. In February 2019, Future acquired Mobile Nations including Android Central, iMore, Windows Central and Thrifter.
In March 2014, it was announced that the company's CFO Zillah Byng-Maddick would become the company's fourth CEO in nine years on 1 April 2014 after Mark Wood, CEO since 2011, stepped down. Richard Huntingford is chairman. Official website
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol; the city became a World Heritage site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis c. 60 AD when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century.
Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a major centre for tourism, with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy and the Holburne Museum; the city has two universities – the University of Bath and Bath Spa University – with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C.. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset; the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.
Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down. Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths' main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists; the tablets were written in Latin, cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them. For example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, a bathing complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.
In the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, the baths fell into disrepair and were lost as a result of rising water levels and silting. In March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig; the coins, believed to date from the 3rd century, were found about 150 m from the Roman baths. Bath may have been the site of the Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur is said to have defeated the Anglo-Saxons; the town was captured by the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. A monastery was founded at an early date – reputedly by Saint David although more in 675 by Osric, King of the Hwicce using the walled area as its precinct. Nennius, a 9th-century historian, mentions a "Hot Lake" in the land of the Hwicce along the River Severn, adds "It is surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone, men may go there to bathe at any time, every man can have the kind of bath he likes.
If he wants, it will be a cold bath. Bede described hot baths in the geographical introduction to the Ecclesiastical History in terms similar to those of Nennius. King Offa of Mercia gained control of the monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. According to the Victorian churchman Edward Churton, during the Anglo-Saxon era Bath was known as Acemannesceastre, or'aching men's city', on account of the reputation these springs had for healing the sick. By the 9th century the old Roman street pattern was lost and Bath was a royal possession. King Alfred laid out the town afresh. In the Burghal Hidage, Bath is recorded as a burh and is described as having walls of 1,375 yards and was allocated 1000 men for defence. During the reign of Edward the Elder coins were minted in Bath based on a design from the Winchester mint but with'BAD' on the obverse relating to the Anglo-Saxon name for the town, Baðum, Baðan or Baðon, meaning "at the baths", this was the
Mad Dog McCree
Mad Dog McCree is the first live-action laserdisc video game released by American Laser Games. It appeared as an arcade game in 1990, it gained considerable attention for its live-action video style, bearing similarities to contemporary Hollywood westerns. The player assumes the first-person role of the game's silent protagonist, a nameless individual addressed only as "stranger"; the stranger rides into an unnamed Old West town and is approached by an elderly prospector, who appeals to him for help. He tells the stranger that the mayor and his daughter have been kidnapped by a gang of outlaws led by the notorious "Mad Dog" McCree, when the sheriff tried to stop them, they locked him up in the jail. Two of the gang appear to silence the prospector; the prospector tells him that One-Eyed Jack holds the keys to the jail, is in the saloon. For the remainder of the game, the exact order of events depends on the player's decisions; the stranger enters the saloon, where his cohorts are making trouble.
The stranger takes the jail keys. He frees the sheriff; the stranger and sheriff set out to stop Mad Dog, but are ambushed by three of his gang outside the jail. They defeat them. With his dying breaths, he tells the stranger that the map to Mad Dog's hideout is hidden in the local mine, that he should consult the prospector before going there; the stranger sees. After he stops the robbery, a thankful boy advises him not to enter Mad Dog's hideout from the back entrance, he finds the prospector has been tied up to a pile of live explosives by Mad Dog himself, saves him by severing the fuse. After finding the map in the mine, the stranger follows the path to the hideout, he shoots out the smokestack. He shoots them down as they saves the mayor. However, McCree himself has escaped with the mayor's daughter, leaving behind a taunting note for the stranger; the stranger confronts Mad Dog in a final quick-draw showdown. Forewarned that Mad Dog wears a bulletproof vest, the stranger defeats him by shooting both his hands.
The mayor unties his daughter. As the townsfolk congratulate the stranger, Mad Dog recovers, is seen riding a horse off into the distance. In a series of stages, the player must shoot enemies before they fire, avoid shooting innocent bystanders, reload each time their six-round revolver is depleted of bullets. Shooting a bystander or getting hit by a gunfighter results in the loss of one life out of three and is followed by a clip showing the town doctor commenting on the player's actions. However, this traditional light gun shooter gameplay is interspersed with "showdowns", which are fast draw duels that play the same as American Laser Games's release Fast Draw Showdown; the arcade version is equipped with a specialized light gun which can detect whether or not the player had properly lowered the light gun at the beginning of the duel. Home versions of the game attempted to simulate this mechanic by having the player's gun unloaded at the beginning of the duel, not allowing it to be reloaded until the same moment when the arcade version would allow the player to draw.
The home versions allow the player to choose from three difficulty modes. Mad Dog McCree was the first title released by American Laser Games, a company, born out of the founders' previous venture of producing police training simulators. American Laser Games filmed all the footage for the game in its home state, New Mexico, used local actors to fill all the roles. Local rancher Russ Dillen played various outlaws in the game including the titular Mad Dog, for which he had to dye his natural blonde hair black, his wife Lori played the saloon barfly. Ben Zeller, who plays the prospector, went on to have major roles in two further American Laser Games productions, Mad Dog II: The Lost Gold and Space Pirates; the arcade edition of the game has been released with four different hardware setups, using a laserdisc player as well as a Commodore Amiga 500 motherboard with special interfaces for controls and booting, a genlock. Home versions were released for the Sega CD, CD-i, 3DO, Microsoft Windows and the Nintendo 3DS.
A port for the Atari Jaguar CD was announced in 1994 and in development but it was never released. Mad Dog McCree was the first in a series of American Laser Games releases to be reissued by Digital Leisure with updated video and sound quality in 2001 for DVD, playable with a standard DVD remote. In 2009 the game was released for the Nintendo Wii as part of the Mad Dog McCree: Gunslinger Pack. Included in this collection are its sequel Mad Dog II: The Lost Gold and The Last Bounty Hunter. In 2011, it was released for iOS. On June 14, 2012, it was released on the Nintendo eShop for the Nintendo 3DS. Sony revealed on January 21, 2013 that the game would be released for PlayStation 3 the following day; the PlayStation 3 version features remastered video presented in a new interface. A sequel was released entitled Mad Dog II: The Lost Gold. Electronic Gaming Monthly gave the 3DO version a 5.5 out of 10, commenting that the video quality is poor by 3DO standards and that the controls are so bad with the 3DO gamepad that the game is unplayable.
They noted that the game might be better with the upcoming 3DO Gamegun, but that no 3DO light gun or mouse was yet available. GamePro praised the video footage of the arcade game for its amusing cowboy stereotypes, but rated the 3DO version as an unacceptably bad port, citing load times that break the player's immersion and the abysmal control when not
4th Golden Satellite Awards
The 4th Golden Satellite Awards, given by the International Press Academy, were awarded on January 16, 2000. Mary Pickford Award – Maximilian Schell Outstanding Contribution to New Media – Artisan Entertainment Outstanding New Talent – Haley Joel Osment Special Achievement Award – Dale Olson Terence Stamp – The Limey Russell Crowe – The Insider Richard Farnsworth – The Straight Story Al Pacino – The Insider Kevin Spacey – American Beauty Denzel Washington – The Hurricane Philip Seymour Hoffman – Flawless Jim Carrey – Man on the Moon Johnny Depp – Sleepy Hollow Rupert Everett – An Ideal Husband Sean Penn – Sweet and Lowdown Steve Zahn – Happy, Texas Hilary Swank – Boys Don't Cry Annette Bening – American Beauty Elaine Cassidy – Felicia's Journey Nicole Kidman – Eyes Wide Shut Youki Kudoh – Snow Falling on Cedars Sigourney Weaver – A Map of the World Janet McTeer – Tumbleweeds Julianne Moore – An Ideal Husband Frances O'Connor – Mansfield Park Julia Roberts – Notting Hill Cecilia Roth – All About My Mother Reese Witherspoon – Election Toy Story 2 The Iron Giant Princess Mononoke South Park: Bigger Longer & Uncut Stuart Little Tarzan Sleepy Hollow – Ken Court, John Dexter, Rick Heinrichs, Andy Nicholson Anna and the King An Ideal Husband The Emperor and the Assassin The Legend of 1900 Titus Sleepy Hollow – Emmanuel Lubezki American Beauty Anna and the King Eyes Wide Shut Snow Falling on Cedars The Talented Mr. Ripley Sleepy Hollow – Colleen Atwood Anna and the King The Emperor and the Assassin An Ideal Husband The Red Violin Titus Michael Mann – The Insider Paul Thomas Anderson – Magnolia Scott Hicks – Snow Falling on Cedars Sam Mendes – American Beauty Anthony Minghella – The Talented Mr. Ripley Kimberly Peirce – Boys Don't Cry Buena Vista Social Club 42: Forty Two Up American Movie Mr. Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr.
Return with Honor The Source The Sixth Sense – Andrew Mondshein American Beauty Buena Vista Social Club The Insider Sleepy Hollow The Talented Mr. Ripley The Insider American Beauty Boys Don't Cry Magnolia Snow Falling on Cedars The Talented Mr. Ripley Being John Malkovich Bowfinger Dick Election An Ideal Husband Notting Hill All About My Mother, France / Spain Three Seasons, USA / Vietnam The Emperor and the Assassin The King of Masks The Red Violin Run Lola Run "Sleepy Hollow" – Danny Elfman "The Legend of 1900" – Ennio Morricone "Ravenous" – Damon Albarn and Michael Nyman "The Red Violin" – John Corigliano "Snow Falling on Cedars" – James Newton Howard "The Thomas Crown Affair" – Bill Conti "When She Loved Me" performed by Sarah McLachlan – Toy Story 2 "Get Lost" – The Story of Us "Mountain Town" – South Park: Bigger Longer & Uncut "Save Me" – Magnolia "Still" – Dogma "The World Is Not Enough" – The World Is Not Enough The Cider House Rules – John Irving Felicia's Journey – Atom Egoyan A Map of the World – Peter Hedges and Polly Platt Onegin – Peter Ettedgui and Michael Ignatieff The Talented Mr. Ripley – Anthony Minghella Titus – Julie Taymor The Sixth Sense – M. Night Shyamalan American Beauty – Alan Ball Being John Malkovich – Charlie Kaufman Magnolia – Paul Thomas Anderson Three Kings – David O. Russell and John Ridley A Walk on the Moon – Pamela Gray Sleepy Hollow – Frank Morrone, Skip Lievsay, Gary Alpers Buena Vista Social Club The Emperor and the Assassin Eyes Wide Shut The Sixth Sense Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace Harry J. Lennix – Titus Michael Caine – The Cider House Rules Tom Cruise – Magnolia Doug Hutchison – The Green Mile Jude Law – The Talented Mr. Ripley Christopher Plummer – The Insider William H. Macy – Happy, Texas Dan Hedaya – Dick Rhys Ifans – Notting Hill Bill Murray – Cradle Will Rock Ving Rhames – Bringing Out the Dead Alan Rickman – Dogma Chloë Sevigny – Boys Don't Cry Erykah Badu – The Cider House Rules Toni Collette – The Sixth Sense Jessica Lange – Titus Sissy Spacek – The Straight Story Charlize Theron – The Cider House Rules Catherine Keener – Being John Malkovich Cate Blanchett – An Ideal Husband Cameron Diaz – Being John Malkovich Samantha Morton – Sweet and Lowdown Antonia San Juan – All About My Mother Tori Spelling – Trick Stuart Little The Matrix The Mummy Sleepy Hollow Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace Titus Magnolia Martin Sheen – The West Wing James Gandolfini – The Sopranos Dylan McDermott – The Practice Eamonn Walker – Oz Sam Waterston – Law & Order Jay Mohr – Action Ted Danson – Becker Thomas Gibson – Dharma & Greg Eric McCormack – Will & Grace David Hyde Pierce – Frasier William H. Macy – A Slight Case of Murder Beau Bridges – P. T. Barnum Don Cheadle – A Lesson Before Dying Delroy Lindo – Strange Justice Brent Spiner – Introducing Dorothy Dandridge Camryn Manheim – The Practice Lorraine Bracco – The Sopranos Edie Falco – The Sopranos Mariska Hargitay – Law & Order: Special Victims Unit Kelli Williams – The Practice Illeana Douglas – Action Jennifer Aniston – Friends Jenna Elfman – Dharma & Greg Calista Flockhart – Ally McBeal Jane Leeves – Frasier Linda Hamilton – The Color of Courage Kathy Bates – Annie Halle Berry – Introducing Dorothy Dandridge Leelee Sobieski – Joan of Arc Regina Taylor – Strange Justice Hornblower: The Even Chance Bonanno: A Godfather's Story Joan of Arc P. T. Barnum Purgatory The West Wing Law & Order Oz The Practice The Sopranos Action Becker Dharma & Greg Frasier Sex and the City Strange Justice Introducing Dorothy Dandridge A Lesson Before Dying RKO 281 A