Pablo Escobar

Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria was a Colombian drug lord and narcoterrorist who founded and was the sole leader of the Medellín Cartel. Dubbed "The King of Cocaine," Escobar is the wealthiest criminal in history, having amassed an estimated net worth of US$30 billion by the time of his death—equivalent to $59 billion as of 2019—while his drug cartel monopolized the cocaine trade into the United States in the 1980s and 1990s. Born in Rionegro and raised in Medellín, Escobar studied at Universidad Autónoma Latinoamericana of Medellín, but left without graduating. In the early 1970s, he began to work for various drug smugglers kidnapping and holding people for ransom. In 1976, Escobar founded the Medellín Cartel, which distributed powder cocaine, established the first smuggling routes into the U. S. Escobar's infiltration into the U. S. created exponential demand for cocaine, by the 1980s, it was estimated Escobar led monthly shipments of 70 to 80 tons of cocaine into the country from Colombia. As a result, he became one of the richest people in the world, but battled rival cartels domestically and abroad, leading to massacres and the murders of police officers, judges and prominent politicians, making Colombia the murder capital of the world.

In the 1982 parliamentary election, Escobar was elected as an alternate member of the Chamber of Representatives as part of the Liberal Alternative movement. Through this, he was responsible for community projects, such as the construction of houses and football fields, which gained him popularity among the locals of the towns that he frequented. However, Escobar was vilified by the Colombian and U. S. governments, who stifled his political ambitions and pushed for his arrest, with Escobar believed to have orchestrated the DAS Building and Avianca Flight 203 bombings in retaliation. In 1991, Escobar surrendered to authorities, was sentenced to five years' imprisonment on a host of charges, but struck a deal of no extradition with Colombian President Cesar Gaviria, with the ability of being housed in his own, self-built prison, La Catedral. In 1992, Escobar escaped and went into hiding when authorities attempted to move him to a more standard holding facility, leading to a nation-wide manhunt.

As a result, the Medellín Cartel crumbled, in 1993, Escobar was killed in his hometown by Colombian National Police, a day after his 44th birthday. Escobar's legacy remains controversial. Additionally, his private estate, Hacienda Nápoles, has been transformed into a theme park, he has been praised and criticized for importing hippopotamuses to Colombia, his life has served as inspiration for or has been dramatized in film, in music. Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria was born on 1 December 1949, in Rionegro, in the Antioquia Department of Colombia, he was the third of seven children of the farmer Abel de Jesús Dari Escobar Echeverri, with his wife Hilda de Los Dolores Gaviria Berrío, an elementary school teacher. Raised in the nearby city of Medellín, Escobar is thought to have begun his criminal career as a teenager stealing gravestones and sanding them down for resale to local smugglers, his brother, Roberto Escobar, denies this, instead claiming that the gravestones came from cemetery owners whose clients had stopped paying for site care and that he had a relative who had a monuments business.

Escobar's son, Sebastián Marroquín, claims his father's foray into crime began with a successful practice of selling counterfeit high school diplomas counterfeiting those awarded by the Universidad Autónoma Latinoamericana of Medellín. Escobar left without obtaining a degree. Escobar became involved in many criminal activities with Oscar Benel Aguirre, with the duo running petty street scams, selling contraband cigarettes, fake lottery tickets, stealing cars. In the early 1970s, prior to entering the drug trade, Escobar acted as a thief and bodyguard earning US$100,000 by kidnapping and holding a Medellín executive for ransom. Escobar began working for Alvaro Prieto, a contraband smuggler who operated around Medellín, aiming to fulfill a childhood ambition to have COL $1 million by the time he was 22, he is known to have had a bank deposit of COL $100 million, when he turned 26. In The Accountant's Story, Roberto Escobar discusses how Pablo rose from middle-class simplicity and obscurity to one of the world's wealthiest men.

Beginning in 1975, Pablo started developing his cocaine operation, flying out planes several times between Colombia and Panama, along smuggling routes into the United States. When he bought fifteen bigger airplanes, including a Learjet and six helicopters, according to his son, a dear friend of Pablo's died during the landing of an airplane, the plane was destroyed. Pablo reconstructed the airplane from the scrap parts that were left and hung it above the gate to his ranch at Hacienda Nápoles. In May 1976, Escobar and several of his men were arrested and found in possession of 39 pounds of white paste, attempting to return to Medellín with a heavy load from Ecuador. Pablo tried to bribe the Medellín judges who were forming a case against him and was unsuccessful. After many months of legal wrangling, he ordered the murder of the two arresting officers, the


The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis. It is a long work of literary and antiquarian references set in Rome at a series of banquets held by the protagonist Publius Livius Larensis for an assembly of grammarians, jurists and hangers-on, it is sometimes called the oldest surviving cookbook. The Greek title Deipnosophistaí derives from the combination of deipno- and sophistḗs, it and its English derivative deipnosophists thus describe people who are skilled at dining the refined conversation expected to accompany Greek symposia. However, the term is shaded by the harsh treatment accorded to professional teachers in Plato's Socratic dialogues, which made the English term sophist into a pejorative. In English, Athenaeus's work known by its Latin form Deipnosophistae but is variously translated as The Deipnosophists, Sophists at Dinner, The Learned Banqueters, The Banquet of the Learned, Philosophers at Dinner, or The Gastronomers.

The Deipnosophistae professes to be an account, given by Athenaeus to his friend Timocrates, of a series of banquets held at the house of Larensius, a scholar and wealthy patron of the arts. It is thus a dialogue within a dialogue, after the manner of Plato, although each conversation is so long that, realistically, it would occupy several days. Among the numerous guests, Zoilus, Galen and Plutarch are named, but most are to be taken as fictitious personages, the majority take little or no part in the conversation. If Ulpian is identical with the famous jurist, the Deipnosophistae must have been written after his death in 223. Prosopographical investigation, has shown the possibility of identifying several guests with real persons from other sources; the work is invaluable for providing fictionalized information about the Hellenistic literary world of the leisured class during the Roman Empire. To the majority of modern readers more useful is the wealth of information provided in the Deipnosophistae about earlier Greek literature.

In the course of discussing classic authors, the participants make quotations and short, from the works of about 700 earlier Greek authors and 2,500 separate writings, many of them otherwise unrecorded. Food and wine, music, sexual mores, literary gossip and philology are among the major topics of discussion, the stories behind many artworks such as the Venus Kallipygos are transmitted in its pages; the Deipnosophistae is an important source of recipes in classical Greek. It quotes the original text of one recipe from the lost cookbook by Mithaecus, the oldest in Greek and the oldest recipe by a named author in any language. Other authors quoted for their recipes include Glaucus of Locri, Epaenetus, Hegesippus of Tarentum, Diocles of Carystus, Timachidas of Rhodes, Philistion of Locri, Euthydemus of Athens, Chrysippus of Tyana and Harpocration of Mende, it describes in detail the meal and festivities at the wedding feast of Caranos. In expounding on earlier works Athenaeus wrotes that Aeschylus "very improperly" introduces the Greeks to be "so drunk as to break their vessels about one another's heads": In addition to its main focuses, the text offers an unusually clear portrait of homosexuality in late Hellenism.

Books XII-XIII holds a wealth of information for studies of homosexuality in Roman Greece. It is subject to a big discussion that includes Alcibiades, Autolycus and Sophocles. Furthermore, numerous books and now lost plays on the subject are mentioned, including the dramatists Diphilus, Cratinus and Sophocles and the philosopher Heraclides of Pontus; the Deipnosophistae was in fifteen books. The work survives in one manuscript from which the whole of books 1 and 2, some other pages too, disappeared long ago. An Epitome or abridgment was made in medieval times, survives complete: from this it is possible to read the missing sections, though in a disjointed form; the English polymath Sir Thomas Browne noted in his encyclopaedia Pseudodoxia Epidemica- Athenæus, a delectable Author various, justly stiled by Casaubon, Græcorum Plinius. There is extant of his, a famous Piece, under the name of Deipnosophista, or Coena Sapientum, containing the Discourse of many learned men, at a Feast provided by Laurentius.

It is a laborious Collection out of many Authors, some whereof are mentioned no where else. It containeth strange and singular relations, not without some spice or sprinkling of all Learning; the Author was a better Grammarian Philosopher, dealing but hardly with Aristotle and Plato, betrayeth himself much in his Chapter De Curiositate Aristotelis. In brief, he is an Author of excellent use, may with discretion be read unto great advantage: and hath therefore well deserved the Comments of Casaubon and Dalecampius. Browne's interest in Athenaeus reflects a revived interest in the Banquet of the Learned amongst scholars following the publication of the Deipnosophistae in 1612 by the Classical scholar Isaac Casaubon. Browne was the author of a Latin essay on Athenaeus. By the nineteenth century however, the poet James Russell Lowell in 1867 characterized the Deipnosophistae and its author thus: the somewhat greasy heap of a literary rag-and-bone-picker like Athenaeus is turned to gold by time. Modern readers

Stephen Gooden

Stephen Frederick Gooden R. A. R. E. C. B. E. was an English artist and illustrator. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers in 1933 and a Fellow of the Royal Academy in 1946, he was created a Commander of the British Empire in the 1942 Birthday Honours. Gooden was the son of a picture dealer, Stephen Thomas Gooden, who joined Frederick W. Fox to create the company Gooden and Fox. S. F. Gooden was educated at Rugby School and studied at the Slade School of Fine Art from 1909 to 1913, he served in the Royal Engineers during World War I. Gooden was best known as an engraver on copper, his designs have been described as finely engraved and inventive. He was associated with the Nonesuch Press in its early years for which he provided decorations and title pages, he illustrated fine editions of the King James Bible and the odes of Anacreon, he designed banknotes for the Bank of England, but only one was issued, for several other countries. He designed and engraved many pictorial bookplates including designs for Queen Elizabeth II, Stephen Courtauld and several others.

Gooden's design of St George and the dragon on the bookplate for the Royal Library at Windsor Castle was used as the basis for the design of the reverse of the George Medal, for which he was awarded the CBE. In 1925 he married the poet Mona Steele Price for whom he illustrated an anthology of poems about cats. Gooden's work can be found in the collections of the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, the Fitzwilliam Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, USA. Campbell Dodgson. An Iconography of the Engravings of Stephen Gooden. London: Elkin Matthews