Constitution of Argentina
The Constitution of Argentina is the basic governing document of Argentina, the primary source of existing law in Argentina. Its first version was written in 1853 by a Constitutional Assembly gathered in Santa Fe, the doctrinal basis was taken in part from the United States Constitution, it was reformed in 1860, 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957, the current version is the reformed text of 1994. The first attempt to divide political power in Argentina was during the government created after the May Revolution: the Primera Junta could not create new taxes without the Cabildo's authorization. Many revolutionary leaders, led by Mariano Moreno, wanted to declare independence and to make a constitution in order to build an independent state. In October 1811, the Junta Grande, which succeeded the Primera Junta, enacted the Regulation for the Division of Power, but it was not accepted by the executive power; the freedom of press and the Decree on Individual Security were accepted by November. In 1813, the General Constitutional Assembly was intended to declare a constitution but it could only declare the freedom for slaves' sons.
In 1819 and 1826 were declared two constitutions that failed because of the disagreement between Federalists and Unitarians. Many other constitutional pacts existed between 1820 and 1853; the most important of them are: the Treaty of Pilar, the Treaty of the Cuadrilátero, the Federal Pact, the Palermo Protocol, the Treaty of San Nicolás. The Federal Pact urged all the provinces to call a General Federal Congress, however this would have limited Juan Manuel de Rosas's power, the most powerful province governor, so the Congress was never called; when Rosas was defeated, in 1852, the Treaty of San Nicolás called the Constitutional Congress that, in Santa Fe, on May 1, 1853, sworn to make effective the federal Constitution. The Province of Buenos Aires left the Argentine Confederation until 1859; the first constitutional amendment to the original 1853 text was performed in 1860 after Buenos Aires rejoined the Argentine Confederation. It consisted of several changes to many of the original articles.
One of the major changes was the renaming of the state: according to the reform, the country would be named República Argentina and, for legal purposes, Nación Argentina, replacing the older Argentine Confederation denomination in all articles of the constitution. Another important inclusion was the constitutional recognizing of Buenos Aires' exclusive rights guaranteed by the Treaty of San Nicolás; the following reform was done in 1866 and established that exportation and importation taxes would be destined to the National Treasury indefinitely, no longer until 1866 as the 1860 reform did. In 1898, another minor constitutional amendment was approved, it allowed a more flexible ratio for proportional apportionment in the Chamber of Deputies and set the number of ministries to eight. During Juan Domingo Perón's government the Argentine Constitution of 1949 was passed, a major revision of the constitution, its goal was to modernize and adapt the text to the twentieth century's concepts of democracy, as for example, including a list of social rights including better working conditions for the working class, right to good education, etc.
This was included into the principles stated on the Preamble. It permitted the indefinite reelection of the president. During the military regime known as the Revolución Libertadora that had deposed Perón's government in 1955, in 1957 and before the elections that had to be held in 1958, a Constitutional Convention was elected to reform the constitution; this reform does not include 1949's, implicitly annulling it. The only changes done were to include a summary of Perón's social articles known as article 14 bis and to establish the necessity to have a Labour and Social Security Code. In 1972, a "Constitutional Amendment" done by the military government led by general Alejandro A. Lanusse reformed the 1957 text; this had to last until 1977 but its application could be extended until 1981 if no Constitutional Convention in 1976 decided either to accept it or reject it definitively. This amendment was not applied by the democratic government of Perón in his third term nor by his wife Isabel Perón acting as President after his death.
Some changes were related to the size of Senate and one-term reelection of president and vice-president. Reduced presidential and deputies' terms all to four years; the last version of the Argentine Constitution was done by Carlos Saúl Menem in 1994. It included many of the modifications from the 1972 "amendment" as the growth of the Senate size, one-term presidential reelection and reduction of its term to four years, it made Buenos Aires City an autonomous entity with its own authorities. Other changes were done to ensure a softer presidentialist regime, the inclusion of a new chapter into the Bill of Rights related to politics and environment, the adoption of a much faster legislative procedure for creating laws. In addition with the 1994 constitutional reform, the requirement of belonging to the Roman Catholic faith in order to be President or Vice President of the Republic, was abolished; the Argentine Constitution has four major division types. For example, the First Part is divided into Chapters but not into Sections.
The scheme of the Constitution is the following: Pream
Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous Argentinian province. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be part of the province and the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since in spite of bearing the same name, the province does not include the national capital city proper, though it does include all other localities of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area surrounding it; the current capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882. The province is the only within the whole Argentina to be divided into partidos and furtherly into localidades, borders the provinces of Entre Ríos to the northeast. Uruguay is just near the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the entire province is part of the Pampas geographical region. The province has a population of 39 % of Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater Buenos Aires; the area of the province, 307,571 km2, makes it the largest in Argentina with around 11% of the country's total area.
The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and the Querandíes. Their culture was lost over the next 350 years, they were subjected to Eurasian plagues from. The survivors joined other tribes or have been absorbed by Argentina's European ethnic majority. Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile; the city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires. Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region.
Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite frequent malones; the end to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert in which the aboriginals were completely exterminated. After the independence from Spain in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, over the Port of Buenos Aires fueled periodic hostilities; the province was declared independent on September 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires.
Concessions gained in the 1859 Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, administratively separated from the province. La Plata was founded in 1882 by Governor Dardo Rocha for the purpose of becoming the provincial capital; the equivalent of a billion dollars of British investment and pro-development and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914; this era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices and led to a halt in the flow of investment funds between nations.
The new Concordance and Perón governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, schools and massive regional hospitals. The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires; these suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Governor Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more, more orderly, development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people, it did not address worsening pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made itself evident since aroun
Paraguay the Republic of Paraguay, is a country of South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, Bolivia to the northwest. Although it is one of the only two landlocked countries in South America, the country has coasts and ports on the Paraguay and Paraná rivers that give exit to the Atlantic Ocean through the Paraná-Paraguay Waterway. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica. Spanish conquistadores arrived in 1524 after navigating northwards from the Río de la Plata to the Paraná River, up the Paraguay River. In 1537, they established the city of Asunción, the first capital of the Governorate of Paraguay and Río de la Plata. Paraguay was the epicenter of the Jesuit Missions, where the Guaraní people were educated and introduced to Christianity and European culture under the direction of the Society of Jesus in Jesuit reductions during the 17th century. However, after the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish territories in 1767, Paraguay became a peripheral colony, with few urban centers and settlers.
Following independence from Spain at the beginning of the 19th century, Paraguay was ruled by a series of authoritarian governments who implemented nationalist and protectionist policies. This period ended with the disastrous Paraguayan War, during which Paraguay lost at least 50% of its prewar population and around 25–33% of its territory to the Triple Alliance of Argentina and Uruguay. In the 20th century, Paraguay faced another major international conflict – the Chaco War – against Bolivia, from which the Paraguayans emerged victorious. Afterwards, the country entered a period of military dictatorships, ending with the 35 year regime of Alfredo Stroessner that lasted until he was toppled in 1989 by an internal military coup; this marked the beginning of the "democratic era" of Paraguay. With around 7 million inhabitants, Paraguay is a founding member of Mercosur, an original member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Lima Group; the city of Luque, in Asuncion's Metropolitan Area, is the seat of the CONMEBOL.
The Guarani culture is influential and more than 90% of the people speak different forms of the Guarani language on top of Spanish. Paraguayans are known for being a happy and easy-living people and many times the country topped the "world's happiest place" charts because of the "positive experiences" lived and expressed by the population; the indigenous Guaraní had been living in eastern Paraguay for at least a millennium before the arrival of the Spanish. Western Paraguay, the Gran Chaco, was inhabited by nomads of whom the Guaycuru peoples were the most prominent; the Paraguay River was the dividing line between the agricultural Guarani people to the east and the nomadic and semi-nomadic people to the west in the Gran Chaco. The Guarcuru nomads were known for their warrior traditions and were not pacified until the late 19th century; these indigenous tribes belonged to five distinct language families, which were the bases of their major divisions. Differing language speaking groups were competitive over resources and territories.
They were further divided into tribes by speaking languages in branches of these families. Today 17 separate ethnolinguistic groups remain; the first Europeans in the area were Spanish explorers in 1516. The Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar de Espinosa founded the settlement of Asunción on 15 August 1537; the city became the center of a Spanish colonial province of Paraguay. An attempt to create an autonomous Christian Indian nation was undertaken by Jesuit missions and settlements in this part of South America in the eighteenth century, which included portions of Uruguay and Brazil, they developed Jesuit reductions to bring Guarani populations together at Spanish missions and protect them from virtual slavery by Spanish settlers and Portuguese slave raiders, the Bandeirantes. In addition to seeking their conversion to Christianity. Catholicism in Paraguay was influenced by the indigenous peoples; the reducciones flourished in eastern Paraguay for about 150 years, until the expulsion of the Jesuits by the Spanish Crown in 1767.
The ruins of two 18th-century Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue have been designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. In western Paraguay Spanish settlement and Christianity were resisted by the nomadic Guaycuru and other nomads from the 16th century onward. Most of these peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population in the 19th centuries. Paraguay overthrew the local Spanish administration on 14 May 1811. Paraguay's first dictator was José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia who ruled Paraguay from 1814 until his death in 1840, with little outside contact or influence, he intended to create a utopian society based on the French theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract. Rodríguez de Francia established new laws that reduced the powers of the Catholic church and the cabinet, forbade colonial citizens from marrying one another and allowed them to marry only blacks, mulattoes or natives, in order to break the power of colonial-era elites and to create a mixed-race or mestizo society.
He cut off the rest of South America. Because of Francia's restrictions of freedom, Fulgencio Yegros and several other Independence-era
Governor of Buenos Aires Province
The Governor of Buenos Aires province is a citizen of the Buenos Aires Province of Argentina, holding the office of governor for the corresponding period. The governor is elected alongside a vice-governor; the governor of Buenos Aires Province is Maria Eugenia Vidal since December 10, 2015. For being able to be elected as governor, the citizen must have been born in Argentina, or be the child of an Argentine citizen if born at a foreign country; the citizen must be of at least 30 years old, have at least 5 uninterrupted years of residence in the province if not natural from it. The period lasts 4 years, with the chance of a single reelection. Buenos Aires Province
Foreign relations of Argentina
This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Argentina. At the political level, these matters are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Relations known as the Cancillería, which answers to the President; the Minister of Foreign Relations, since June 2016, is Chancellor Jorge Faurie. Owing to its geographical remoteness, local authorities in what is today Argentina developed an early sense of autonomy. Based on economic needs, during colonial times their pragmatism led to a flourishing unofficial market in smuggled goods, out of the then-small port of Buenos Aires, in blatant contravention of the Spanish mercantilist laws. With the Enlightened despotism of the late-eighteenth-century Bourbon kings and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, trade increased as the political importance of the port-city of Buenos Aires soared; the urgency for a complete liberalization of commerce remained a powerful political cause for Criollos and Mestizos, further stimulated by the politically egalitarian and revolutionary ideals spread by the French and Anglo-American revolutions.
The actual experience of defending without Spanish aid the viceroyalty from a foreign invader during the 1806–1807 British invasions of the Río de la Plata, triggered a decisive quest for greater autonomy from the colonial metropolis. Between 1808 and 1810, the Napoleonic French Empire invaded Spain, after deposing King Ferdinand VII and taking him prisoner. A Spanish resistance formed an emergency government, the Supreme Central and Governing Junta of the Kingdom in order to govern themselves and the Spanish Empire in the absence of Ferdinand VII. But, when the Supreme Central Junta dissolved itself on 29 January 1810, under extreme pressure from Napoleonic forces, most of the main cities of Spanish America refused to acknowledge its successor, a Regency Council, as the legitimate depositary of sovereignty, they proceed to name their own local juntas, as a means to exercise government in the absence of the prisoner king. On 25 May 1810, a Criollo-led cabildo abierto formally assumed the authority from Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros.
However, the ensuing United Provinces of South America declared itself independent on 9 July 1816, after Ferdinand VII was restored in 1815. During the Independence Wars no sovereign state recognized the United Provinces; until the fall of the Royalist stronghold of Lima in 1821, the Battle of Ayacucho of 1824, territorial integrity was sustained by the military brilliance of Generals José de San Martín and Manuel Belgrano, the continuous efforts of northern provinces defenders Martín Miguel de Güemes and Juana Azurduy, among many others. However, during this same period, internecine power conflicts among diverse leaders, ideological and economical struggles developed between Buenos Aires Province and much of the rest of the United Provinces, with many of the Provinces bonding themselves into a Federal League, inspired by Federalist José Gervasio Artigas' leadership. In practice, each side treated the other's grievances as a "foreign policy" matter; the Unitarian Constitution of 1819 was rejected by the provinces, a state of anarchy ensued following the Battle of Cepeda.
The only cause that could regain unity among the hostile factions was the 1825 invasion of what today is Uruguay on the part of Brazilian Empire. Uruguay known as the Province of the Eastern Bank of the Uruguay River, was considered a somewhat breakaway Province, since Montevideo served as the seat of the Royalist Viceroy Francisco Javier de Elío during its war on the May Revolution; the war crisis led to a new Constitution and a first semblance of a united national government, at the same time it represented the first foreign policy crisis of the young nation, as it forced the nation into war with Brazil. The common cause the crisis provided did lead to enough institutional stability to have the British Empire recognize Argentina and led to the election of the first President of Argentina; the opportunity for unity, was wasted because the new President, Bernardino Rivadavia, pushed a new Constitution more biased towards Buenos Aires' agenda than the failed 1819 document. The war with Brazil, went badly.
Land battles were won, early on, despite some heroic feats on the part on Irish-born Admiral Guillermo Brown, the war dragged on, resulting in bankruptcy. This and the hated new constitution led to the end of the first republic by 1828. 26 September 1828 treaty itself became another foreign policy crisis, as it triggered a violent coup d'état by generals opposed to what they saw as a unilateral surrender. The murder of the man responsible for the treaty, Buenos Aires Governor Manuel Dorrego, itself led to a countercoup that brought with it the promise of a lasting peace; the countercoup brought in a new governor for the Buenos Aires Province, who would in time become the leading figure of a loose confederation of Argentine Provinces. Juan Manuel de Rosas made it his mission to stabilize Argentina in a confederacy under the tutelage of Buenos Aires Province; this led to repression, massacres of Native
Battle of Caseros
The Battle of Caseros was fought near the town of El Palomar, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, on 3 February 1852, between the Army of Buenos Aires commanded by Juan Manuel de Rosas and the Grand Army led by Justo José de Urquiza. The forces of Urquiza and governor of Entre Ríos, defeated Rosas, who fled to the United Kingdom; this defeat marked a sharp division in the history of Argentina. As provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation, Urquiza sponsored the creation of the Constitution in 1853, became the first constitutional President of Argentina in 1854. Rosas had declared war on Brazil in 1851, which led to the signing of a treaty, on 21 November 1851, among the governments of Entre Ríos, Corrientes and the Brazilian Empire. In compliance with the treaty, Urquiza led a joint army and crossed Morón creek, positioning his forces in Monte Caseros; the Brazilian Empire contributed with 3,500 troops, were the only professional soldiers, but the bulk of the Brazilian Army remained out of the battlefield.
Rosas' forces comprised 12,000 cavalrymen and 60 guns. Among his captains were Jerónimo Costa, who defended Martín García island from the French in 1838. Due to desertion that of General Ángel Pacheco and poor morale, several historians and military analysts reckon that for Rosas the battle was lost before it started. However, his opponent suffered from desertions like that of the Regimiento Aquino, a regiment composed by soldiers loyal to Rosas, who murdered their captain Pedro León Aquino and joined the Rosist army. Urquiza's army was 24,000-men strong, among them 3,500 Brazilians and 1,500 Uruguayans, 50 guns. Only the Brazilians were professional soldiers. Urquiza did not conduct the battle: each chief was free to fight as they saw fit. Urquiza himself led a charge against the enemy left in front of their cavalrymen from Entre Ríos. Meanwhile, the Brazilian infantry, supported by a Uruguayan brigade and an Argentine cavalry squadron seized the Palomar, a circular building near the right of the Rosist line and used for pigeon breeding, extant to this day.
After both flanks collapsed only the center under Chilavert's command continued the fighting, reduced to an artillery duel that lasted until he ran out of ammunition. The armies clashed in Buenos Aires province; the whole battle fled. Urquiza's triumph terminated the 20-year term of Rosas as Governor of Buenos Aires and de facto ruler of Argentina. Within a few days, Urquiza's troops entered the city of Buenos Aires without further resistance; the President of the Superior Tribunal, Vicente López y Planes, was appointed interim governor. Gálvez, Manuel. Vida de Juan Manuel de Rosas. Buenos Aires: Editorial Tor
President of Paraguay
The President of Paraguay known as the President of the Republic of Paraguay, is according to the Constitution of Paraguay the head of the executive branch of the Government of Paraguay, both head of state and head of government. His honorific title is Excelentísimo Señor. Under the 1992 constitution, the President is limited to a single five-year term. An attempt by the Senate to abolish term limits on 1 April 2017 resulted in protests; the Presidential seat is the Palacio de los López, in Asunción. The Presidential residence is the Mburuvichá Roga in Asunción. Once Presidents leave office, they are granted by the Constitution of Paraguay the speaking-but-non-voting position of Senator for life; the current President of Paraguay is Mario Abdo Benítez, since 15 August 2018. First Lady of Paraguay Presidency of the Republic of Paraguay