Battle of Caseros
The Battle of Caseros was fought near the town of El Palomar, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, on 3 February 1852, between the Army of Buenos Aires commanded by Juan Manuel de Rosas and the Grand Army led by Justo José de Urquiza. The forces of Urquiza and governor of Entre Ríos, defeated Rosas, who fled to the United Kingdom; this defeat marked a sharp division in the history of Argentina. As provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation, Urquiza sponsored the creation of the Constitution in 1853, became the first constitutional President of Argentina in 1854. Rosas had declared war on Brazil in 1851, which led to the signing of a treaty, on 21 November 1851, among the governments of Entre Ríos, Corrientes and the Brazilian Empire. In compliance with the treaty, Urquiza led a joint army and crossed Morón creek, positioning his forces in Monte Caseros; the Brazilian Empire contributed with 3,500 troops, were the only professional soldiers, but the bulk of the Brazilian Army remained out of the battlefield.
Rosas' forces comprised 12,000 cavalrymen and 60 guns. Among his captains were Jerónimo Costa, who defended Martín García island from the French in 1838. Due to desertion that of General Ángel Pacheco and poor morale, several historians and military analysts reckon that for Rosas the battle was lost before it started. However, his opponent suffered from desertions like that of the Regimiento Aquino, a regiment composed by soldiers loyal to Rosas, who murdered their captain Pedro León Aquino and joined the Rosist army. Urquiza's army was 24,000-men strong, among them 3,500 Brazilians and 1,500 Uruguayans, 50 guns. Only the Brazilians were professional soldiers. Urquiza did not conduct the battle: each chief was free to fight as they saw fit. Urquiza himself led a charge against the enemy left in front of their cavalrymen from Entre Ríos. Meanwhile, the Brazilian infantry, supported by a Uruguayan brigade and an Argentine cavalry squadron seized the Palomar, a circular building near the right of the Rosist line and used for pigeon breeding, extant to this day.
After both flanks collapsed only the center under Chilavert's command continued the fighting, reduced to an artillery duel that lasted until he ran out of ammunition. The armies clashed in Buenos Aires province; the whole battle fled. Urquiza's triumph terminated the 20-year term of Rosas as Governor of Buenos Aires and de facto ruler of Argentina. Within a few days, Urquiza's troops entered the city of Buenos Aires without further resistance; the President of the Superior Tribunal, Vicente López y Planes, was appointed interim governor. Gálvez, Manuel. Vida de Juan Manuel de Rosas. Buenos Aires: Editorial Tor
Battle of Pavón
The Battle of Pavón was a key battle of the Argentine civil wars. It was fought in Pavón, Santa Fé Province, Argentina on 17 September 1861, between the Army of the State of Buenos Aires, commanded by Bartolomé Mitre, the Army of Republic of the Argentine Confederation commanded by Justo José de Urquiza; the withdrawal of Urquiza left the field to Mitre. It led to the dissolution of the national government and the reincorporation of Buenos Aires Province into the Argentine Republic as a dominant member of the nation. Governor Bartolomé Mitre would act as interim President, ratified by the National Congress, as the first President of a unified Argentine Republic. During most of the 19th Century, Argentine history was defined by the theoretical and military confrontation between two postures: On one side, the province of Buenos Aires wanted to impose their hegemony over the whole country. On the other, the remaining provinces wanted to decentralize the nation, giving state autonomy to the provinces.
One difference between the porteños from Buenos Aires and people from the provinces was that the former did not align directly with the two political parties of the time. Unitarians and Federalists existed both in the provinces. Though they were against each other politically, when it came to defend their own local interests, they joined to confront their common enemy. Since the secession of Buenos Aires Province on 11 September 1852, on the aftermath of the Battle of Caseros, Argentina was divided between two competing states, the Argentine Confederation and the State of Buenos Aires; the Battle of Cepeda and the subsequent Pact of San José de Flores of 1860 set the conditions for Buenos Aires to rejoin the confederation. However, both sides would clash again soon after. During president Urquiza's government, the provinces had been at peace, with the notable exception of San Juan Province, where a political crime served as the catalyst for the Battle of Cepeda between Buenos Aires Province and the confederation.
This changed. Several local caudillos, generically unitarians, had been at peace with the government of the Argentine Confederation; when Derqui assumed office, they publicly became part of the opposition. Such were the cases of Manuel Taboada, from Santiago del Estero Province, José María del Campo of Tucumán Province. Córdoba's governor Mariano Fragueiro maneuvered poorly in his relations with the opposition; when the situation became violent, President Derqui intervened the provincial government. The most serious situation developed once again in San Juan Province, where governor José Antonio Virasoro was deposed and assassinated with the apparent support of some politicians acting in Buenos Aires, among them the future President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, born in San Juan. President Derqui again sent the national army to intervene that province, but the new governor, Antonino Aberastain, attempted to resist the intervention with the local militia. Aberastain was defeated and assassinated, which allowed the Buenos Aires government to accuse President Derqui of having committed a crime.
As a part of the process leading to the reincorporation of the State of Buenos Aires into the Argentine Confederation, established in the Pact of San José de Flores, after the 1859 Battle of Cepeda, Buenos Aires elected provincial deputies to the National Congress. However, the elections were carried out following the electoral laws of the State of Buenos Aires instead of those of the confederation; the elected deputies were rejected by the National Congress and the Buenos Aires Senators staged a walkout, in solidarity. President Santiago Derqui issued a decree invalidating the elections in Buenos Aires and established a new date for a rerun, but the Buenos Aires authorities rebelled against the national government and declared the Pact of San José de Flores null. The National Congress considered this as an act of sedition, so President Derqui named Entre Ríos's general and former president Justo José de Urquiza as the commander in chief of the national army with the task of returning the rebel province to the fold.
In Buenos Aires, Governor Bartolomé Mitre took the post of commander in chief of the provincial army. There were several attempts at mediation, from individuals, foreign governments. All of them failed due to Derqui's intransigence. Urquiza tried, until the last moment, to preserve the peace and declined to take the initiative against the porteño army as it was the request of his colonels Ricardo López Jordán and Prudencio Arnold. President Derqui organized an army in Córdoba; these forces were augmented by Urquiza's, with people from Entre Ríos, Corrientes and Santa Fé provinces, plus some porteño defectors. In sum, the federalist army had about 17,000 men, where 8,000 came from the center region and 9,000 from Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires and Santa Fé. Mitre's army was made of 22,000 men and 35 artillery pieces, plus a considerable numeric superiority of arms and artillery and infantry training; the British had supplied the artillery pieces and the trained British artillery crews to operate them.
Derqui advanced up to Rosario, where he left the command of the troops in the hands of general Urquiza, while Mitre advanced to the north of Buenos Aires and advanced into Santa Fé province. The armies clashed by the Pavón creek, (40 km south of the city of Rosario, Santa Fé Province, about 260 km northwest of Buenos Aires. Urquiza formed his tro
A civil war known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies; the term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile, used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. A civil war is a high-intensity conflict involving regular armed forces, sustained and large-scale. Civil wars may result in the consumption of significant resources. Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M. Regan in his book Civil Wars and Foreign Powers about two thirds of the 138 intrastate conflicts between the end of World War II and 2000 saw international intervention, with the United States intervening in 35 of these conflicts. Civil wars since the end of World War II have lasted on average just over four years, a dramatic rise from the one-and-a-half-year average of the 1900–1944 period.
While the rate of emergence of new civil wars has been steady since the mid-19th century, the increasing length of those wars has resulted in increasing numbers of wars ongoing at any one time. For example, there were no more than five civil wars underway in the first half of the 20th century while there were over 20 concurrent civil wars close to the end of the Cold War. Since 1945, civil wars have resulted in the deaths of over 25 million people, as well as the forced displacement of millions more. Civil wars have further resulted in economic collapse. James Fearon, a scholar of civil wars at Stanford University, defines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies". Ann Hironaka further specifies; the intensity at which a civil disturbance becomes a civil war is contested by academics. Some political scientists define a civil war as having more than 1,000 casualties, while others further specify that at least 100 must come from each side.
The Correlates of War, a dataset used by scholars of conflict, classifies civil wars as having over 1000 war-related casualties per year of conflict. This rate is a small fraction of the millions killed in the Second Sudanese Civil War and Cambodian Civil War, for example, but excludes several publicized conflicts, such as The Troubles of Northern Ireland and the struggle of the African National Congress in Apartheid-era South Africa. Based on the 1,000-casualties-per-year criterion, there were 213 civil wars from 1816 to 1997, 104 of which occurred from 1944 to 1997. If one uses the less-stringent 1,000 casualties total criterion, there were over 90 civil wars between 1945 and 2007, with 20 ongoing civil wars as of 2007; the Geneva Conventions do not define the term "civil war". This includes civil wars; the International Committee of the Red Cross has sought to provide some clarification through its commentaries on the Geneva Conventions, noting that the Conventions are "so general, so vague, that many of the delegations feared that it might be taken to cover any act committed by force of arms".
Accordingly, the commentaries provide for different'conditions' on which the application of the Geneva Convention would depend. The conditions listed by the ICRC in its commentary are as follows: That the Party in revolt against the de jure Government possesses an organized military force, an authority responsible for its acts, acting within a determinate territory and having the means of respecting and ensuring respect for the Convention; that the legal Government is obliged to have recourse to the regular military forces against insurgents organized as military and in possession of a part of the national territory. That the de jure Government has recognized the insurgents as belligerents; that the insurgents have an organization purporting to have the characteristics of a State. That the insurgent civil authority exercises de facto authority over the population within a determinate portion of the national territory; that the armed forces act under the direction of an organized authority and are prepared to observe the ordinary laws of war.
That the insurgent civil authority agrees to be bound by the provisions of the Convention. According to a 2017 review study of civil war research, there are three prominent explanations for civil war: greed-based explanations which center on individuals’ desire to maximize their profits, grievance-based explanations which center on conflict as a response to socioeconomic or political injustice, opportunity-based explanations which center on factors that make it easier to engage in violent mobilization. According to the study, the most influential explanation for civil war onset is the opportunity-based explanation by James Fearon a
A flag is a piece of fabric with a distinctive design and colours. It is used for decoration; the term flag is used to refer to the graphic design employed, flags have evolved into a general tool for rudimentary signalling and identification in environments where communication is challenging. The study of flags is known as "vexillology" from the Latin vexillum, meaning "flag" or "banner". National flags are patriotic symbols with varied interpretations that include strong military associations because of their original and ongoing use for that purpose. Flags are used in messaging, advertising, or for decorative purposes; some military units are called "flags" after their use of flags. A flag is equivalent to a brigade in Arab countries. In Spain, a flag is a battalion-equivalent in the Spanish Legion. In antiquity, field signs or standards were used in warfare that can be categorised as vexilloid or'flag-like'; this is considered originated in Assyria. Examples include the Sassanid battle standard Derafsh Kaviani, the standards of the Roman legions such as the eagle of Augustus Caesar's Xth legion, or the dragon standard of the Sarmatians.
Flag as recognized today, made of a piece of cloth representing a particular entity, is considered invented in the Indian subcontinent or Chinese Zhou dynasty. Chinese flags depicted animals decorated in certain colors. A royal flag is considered being used as well, required to be treated with a similar level of respect attributed to the ruler. Indian flags were triangular shaped and decorated with attachments such as yak's tail and the state umbrella; these usages spread to Southeast Asia as well, considered transmitted to Europe through the Muslim world where plainly colored flags were being used due to Islamic prescriptions. In Europe, during the High Middle Ages, flags came to be used as a heraldic device in battle, allowing more to identify a knight than only from the heraldic device painted on the shield. During the high medieval period, during the Late Middle Ages, city states and communes such as those of the Old Swiss Confederacy began to use flags as field signs. Regimental flags for individual units became commonplace during the Early Modern period.
During the peak of the age of sail, beginning in the early 17th century, it was customary for ships to carry flags designating their nationality. Flags became the preferred means of communications at sea, resulting in various systems of flag signals. Use of flags outside of military or naval context begins only with the rise of nationalist sentiment by the end of the 18th century. One of the most popular uses of a flag is to symbolise a country; some national flags have been inspirational to other nations, countries, or subnational entities in the design of their own flags. Some prominent examples include: The flag of Denmark, the Dannebrog, is attested in 1478, is the oldest national flag still in use, it inspired the cross design of the other Nordic countries: Norway, Finland and regional Scandinavian flags for the Faroe Islands, Åland and Bornholm, as well as flags for the non-Scandinavian Shetland and Orkney. The flag of the Netherlands is the oldest tricolour, its three colours of red and blue go back to Charlemagne's time, the 9th century.
The coastal region of what today is the Netherlands was known for its cloth in these colours. Maps from the early 16th century put flags in these colours next to this region, like Texeira's map of 1520. A century before that, during the 15th century, the three colours were mentioned as the coastal signals for this area, with the three bands straight or diagonal, single or doubled; as state flag it first appeared around 1572 as the Prince's Flag in orange–white–blue. Soon the more famous red–white–blue began appearing, becoming the prevalent version from around 1630. Orange made a comeback during the civil war of the late 18th century, signifying the orangist or pro-stadtholder party. During World War II the pro-Nazi NSB used it. Any symbolism has been added to the three colours, although the orange comes from the House of Orange-Nassau; this use of orange comes from Nassau, which today uses orange-blue, not from Orange, which today uses red-blue. However, the usual way to show the link with the House of Orange-Nassau is the orange pennant above the red-white-blue.
It is said that the Dutch Tricolour has inspired many flags but most notably those of Russia, New York City, South Africa. As the probable inspiration for the Russian flag, it is the source too for the Pan-Slavic colours red and blue, adopted by many Slavic states and peoples as their symbols; the national flag of France was designed in 1794. As a forerunner of revolution, France's tricolour flag style has been adopted by other nations. Examples: Italy, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Mexico; the Union Flag of the United Kingdom is the most used. British colonies flew a flag bas
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Governor of Buenos Aires Province
The Governor of Buenos Aires province is a citizen of the Buenos Aires Province of Argentina, holding the office of governor for the corresponding period. The governor is elected alongside a vice-governor; the governor of Buenos Aires Province is Maria Eugenia Vidal since December 10, 2015. For being able to be elected as governor, the citizen must have been born in Argentina, or be the child of an Argentine citizen if born at a foreign country; the citizen must be of at least 30 years old, have at least 5 uninterrupted years of residence in the province if not natural from it. The period lasts 4 years, with the chance of a single reelection. Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires Customs
The Buenos Aires Customs House is a government building and architectural landmark in the Montserrat section of Buenos Aires. The French neoclassical building housing the Argentine General Customs Directorate was commissioned during the administration of President José Figueroa Alcorta, resulted from the marked expansion in Argentine foreign trade and the economy in the generation up to 1910, when the nation's GDP was estimated to have grown by over 8% a year. Local architects Eduardo Lanús and Pablo Hary were commissioned in 1909 to design the new administrative offices for the Aduana, noteworthy not only for its 100 metres façade and its two turrets, but for its use of carrara marble cladding throughout, as well as its numerous allegorical details such as the ornamental bull's heads and the marble caryatids along the cornice, some bearing intricate wrought-iron acanthus and laurel wreaths; the building was inaugurated by President Figueroa Alcorta in October 1910, days before his retirement.
Following refurbishment works, on September 28, 2009, the Customs Building was declared a National Historic Monument by President Cristina Kirchner. The government bureau housed therein, the DGA, traces its origins to the San Nicolás Agreement of 1852, whereby all customs duties were nationalized; the provision, rejected by the Province of Buenos Aires, was first enforced following Buenos Aires leader Bartolomé Mitre's 1860 defeat at the Battle of Cepeda. The National Customs Administration was established in 1862, when following Mitre's election as president, Economy Minister Dalmacio Vélez Sársfield established the bureau; the building reflected the importance of customs duties to the national treasury itself, which from the colonial era of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata until 1930, accounted for around 80 percent of government revenues. The bureau's importance declined after 1945, since which date these revenues have contributed 10-20 percent of the national budget; the bureau's autonomy led to significant improprieties, notably the development in 1988 of a "parallel customs" by President Raúl Alfonsín's administrator of the office, Carlos Delconte, that of a racketeering network in 1991 overseen by President Carlos Menem's customs administrator and brother-in-law, Ibrahim al-Ibrahim.
The customs bureau was transferred to the Federal Public Revenue Administration by a 1997 decree signed by President Menem