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Paella is a Spanish rice dish from Valencia. Paella is one of the best-known dishes in the Spanish cuisine. For this reason, it may be seen internationally as Spain's national dish, but Spaniards unanimously consider it to be a dish from the Valencian region. Paella takes its name from the shallow traditional pan used to cook the dish on an open fire. Paella means "frying pan" in Valencia's regional language; as a dish, it may have ancient roots, but in its modern form it is traced back to the mid-19th century, in the rural area around the Albufera lagoon adjacent to the city of Valencia, on the east coast of Spain. Paella valenciana is the traditional paella of the Valencia region, believed to be the original recipe, consists of round grain rice and tavella, chicken, sometimes duck, garrofó, optionally snails. Artichoke hearts and stems may be used as seasonal ingredients. Olive oil is used as a base, saffron and whole rosemary branches are used as seasoning. Paella de marisco replaces meat with seafood and omits beans and green vegetables, while paella mixta combines meat from livestock, seafood and sometimes beans, with the traditional rice.

Other popular local variations of paella are cooked all through the Mediterranean area, the rest of Spain and internationally. Moors in Muslim Spain began rice cultivation around the 10th century. Eastern Iberian Península locals made casseroles of rice and spices for family gatherings and religious feasts, thus establishing the custom of eating rice in Spain; this led to rice becoming a staple by the 15th century. Afterwards, it became customary for cooks to combine rice with vegetables and dry cod, providing an acceptable meal for Lent. Along Spain's eastern coast, rice was predominantly eaten with fish. Spanish food historian Lourdes March notes that the dish "symbolizes the union and heritage of two important cultures, the Roman, which gives us the utensil and the Arab which brought us the basic food of humanity for centuries." Paella is a Valencian word. The dish gets its name from it. Valencian speakers use the word paella for all pans, including the traditional shallow pan used for cooking the homonym dish.

The pan is made out of coated steel with two side handles. In many regions of Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries, the term paellera may be used for the traditional pan, while paella is reserved for the rice dish prepared in it. Both paella and paellera are correct terms for the pan; the word paella may derive from the Old French word paelle for frying pan, which in turn comes from the Latin word patella for pan. The word paella is related to paila used in many Latin American countries. Paila in Latin American Spanish refers to a variety of cookware resembling metal and clay pans, which are used for both cooking and serving; the Latin root patella from which paella derives is akin to the modern French poêle, the Italian padella, the Old Spanish padilla. Some claim that the word paella comes from the Arabic بَقَايَا, pronounced baqaayya, meaning "leftovers"; this claim is based on the 8th-century custom in which Moorish kings' servants would take home the rice and vegetables their employers left at the end of the meal.

It has been said, that a problem with this etymology is that the word paella is not attested until six centuries after Moorish Valencia was conquered by Jaume I. On special occasions, 18th century Valencians used calderos to cook rice in the open air of their orchards near lake Albufera. Water vole meat was one of the main ingredients of early paellas, along with butter beans. Novelist Vicente Blasco Ibáñez described the Valencia custom of eating water voles in Cañas y Barro, a realistic novel about life among the fishermen and peasants near lake Albufera. Living standards rose with the sociological changes of the late 19th century in Spain, giving rise to gatherings and outings in the countryside; this led to a change in paella's ingredients, as well, using instead rabbit, chicken and sometimes snails. This dish became so popular that in 1840, a local Spanish newspaper first used the word paella to refer to the recipe rather than the pan; the most used, complete ingredient list of this era was: short-grain white rice, rabbit, duck, butter beans, great northern beans, runner beans, tomatoes, fresh rosemary, sweet paprika, garlic, olive oil, water.

Poorer Valencians, sometimes used nothing more than snails for meat. Valencians insist. On the Mediterranean coast, Valencians used seafood instead of meat and beans to make paella. Valencians regard this recipe as authentic, as well. In this recipe, the seafood is served in the shell. A variant of this is paella del senyoret. However, Spaniards living outside of Valencia combined seafood with meat from land animals and mixed paella was born; this paella is sometimes called preparación barroca due to the variety of ingredients and its final presentation. During the 20th century, paella's popularity spread past Spain's borders; as other cultures set out to make paella, the dish invariably acquired regional influences. Paella recipes went from being simple to including a wide variety of seafood, sausage, vegetables


MutS protein homolog 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSH5 gene. This gene encodes a member of the mutS family of proteins that are involved in DNA mismatch repair or meiotic recombination processes; this protein is similar to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein that participates in meiotic segregation fidelity and crossing-over. This protein forms heterooligomers with another member of this family, mutS homolog 4. Alternative splicing results in four transcript variants encoding three different isoforms. Mice homozygous for a null Msh5 mutation are sterile. In these mice, the prophase I stage of meiosis is defective due to the disruption of chromosome pairing; this meiotic failure leads, in male mice, to diminution of testicular size, in female mice, to a complete loss of ovarian structures. A genetic investigation was performed to test women with premature ovarian failure for mutations in each of four meiotic genes. Among 41 women with premature ovarian failure two were found to be heterozygous for a mutation in the MSH5 gene.

These findings in mouse and human indicate that the MSH5 protein plays an important role in meiotic recombination. In the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the MSH5 protein is required during meiosis both for normal spontaneous and for gamma-irradiation induced crossover recombination and chiasma formation. Meiotic recombination is initiated by double strand breaks. MSH5 mutants retain the competence to repair DNA double-strand breaks that are present during meiosis, but they accomplish this repair in a way that does not lead to crossovers between homologous chromosomes; the known mechanism of non-crossover recombinational repair is called synthesis dependent strand annealing. MSH5 thus appears to be employed in directing the recombinational repair of some double-strand breaks towards the cross over option rather than the non-cross over option. MSH5 has been shown to interact with MSH4

Max Lucado

Max Lucado is a best-selling Christian author and pastor at Oak Hills Church in San Antonio, Texas. Lucado was born in San Angelo, the youngest of four children to Jack and Thelma Lucado, he grew up in Texas. His father was an oil field worker. Lucado attended Abilene Christian University where he received an undergraduate degree in Mass Communication. While a student at Abilene Christian, Lucado worked to pay his way through college by selling books door-to-door with the Southwestern Advantage entrepreneurial program, he wished to become a lawyer, but has said that a required Bible course at the university and a mission trip made him change his mind, deciding instead to become a missionary. However, this required that Lucado get a graduate degree in Biblical Studies. Lucado graduated from Abilene Christian University with a master's degree in Bible and Biblical Studies. After graduation, Lucado became an associate minister at Central Church of Christ in Florida, his responsibilities included overseeing a singles' group and writing a column for the church's newsletter.

After two years in Miami, the now newlywed Lucado and his wife, Denalyn Lucado, moved to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to become full-time missionaries. In 1987, Lucado's father died from Lou Gehrig's disease. After five years in Brazil, he brought his family back to the United States to be closer to his mother. Max and his wife appeared on Fixer Upper when his daughter Sara and her husband Jeff Jones purchased a home, to be remodeled by Chip & Joanna Gaines. Max asked that a quote that he had written for his daughter’s wedding when he officiated be incorporated in some way into the new home without the couple knowing ahead of time; the quote was “Would you take these two of dust and bone, born of flesh would you make them one? Would you speak again the words you spoke when Adam slept and Eve Awoke? Would you let your wine replace our water and look with grace on this son, this daughter? Oh Lord of Eden in your majesty create again your tapestry. One heart where there were two; this is the prayer we lift to you.”

Joanna asked Clayton Thompson to make the wall art and it was placed in the "moffice". In 1988, he was hired as a minister to the Oak Hills Church of Christ in Texas, he stopped taking a salary from the church in 1990, because he was an established successful author. During his tenure, Oak Hills began using musical instruments in worship services and held the belief that baptism isn't required for salvation. After serving as the senior minister at Oak Hills Church in San Antonio, TX for 20 years, Lucado announced in early 2007 that he was stepping down due to health concerns related to atrial fibrillation. Lucado has since resumed the more limited ministry role of writing and preaching at Oak Hills with co-pastor Randy Frazee of Willow Creek Community Church of South Barrington, Illinois. Lucado has written 100 books with 130 million copies in print, he was recipient of the Charles "Kip" Jordon Gold Medallion Christian Book of the Year award three times for his books Just Like Jesus, In the Grip of Grace and When God Whispers Your Name), has appeared on several bestseller lists including the New York Times Best Seller List.

Lucado was named "America's Pastor" by Christianity Today magazine and in 2005 was named by Reader's Digest as "The Best Preacher in America." He has been featured on The Fox News Channel, NBC Nightly News, Larry King Live, LLBN, USA Today. He has been a featured speaker at the National Prayer Breakfast. B. A. Abilene Christian University M. A. Abilene Christian University On the Anvil: Being Shaped into God's Image, Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House, 1985. ISBN 978-1-4143-1553-9. No Wonder They Call Him the Savior, New York, New York: Doubleday Publishing, 1986. ISBN 978-0-8807-0611-7. God Came Near: Chronicles of the Christ, Oregon: Multnomah Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0-8807-0206-5. Six Hours One Friday: Anchoring to the Power of the Cross Portland, Oregon: Multnomah Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8807-0314-7; the Applause of Heaven, Texas: Word Publishing, 1990. ISBN 978-0-8499-1324-2. In the Eye of the Storm: A Day in the Life of Jesus, Texas: Word Publishing, 1991. ISBN 978-0-8499-4325-6. Just In Case You Ever Wonder, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, 1992.

P And the Angels Were Silent, Oregon: Multnomah Press, 1992. Tell Me the Story Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books, 1992, he Still Moves Stones, Texas: Word Publishing, 1993. Tell Me the Secrets, Illinois: Crossway Books, 1993; the Crippled Lamb, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, 1994. When God Whispers Your Name, Texas: Word Publishing, 1994; the Children of the King, Illinois: Crossway Books, 1994. The Final Week of Jesus Portland, Oregon: Multnomah Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0-88070-630-8. A Gentle Thunder, Texas: Word Publishing, 1995; the Song of the King, Illinois: Crossway Books, 1995. The Inspirational Study Bible Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, 1995. ISBN 978-0-84995-123-7. In the Grip of Grace, Texas: Word Publishing, 1996; the Glory of Christmas, Texas: Word Publishing, 1996. God's Inspirational Promises, Texas: Word Publishing, 1996. Walking with the Savior, Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House, 1996. Alabaster's Song, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, 1996. Life Lessons Bible Study Guides 1996-1998; the Grea

Shamau Shareef

Shamau Shareef is a Maldivian politician. He is the Deputy Mayor of Malé City Council, elected to the council from Maafannu Hulhangu Constituency, he represents the Maldivian Democratic Party, is Vice Chair of the party's Rights Committee. Prior to Shamau's political affiliation, he was the founder and President of Youth For Equality and director of Sanco Maldives Pvt. Ltd, a family owned business specializing in maritime operation. After joining the Maldivian Democratic Party, Shamau participated in many campaigns and canvassed in different areas of the country. Shamau was the Deputy Coordinator for Malé City during the 2013 Presidential Elections campaign for MDP candidate President Mohamed Nasheed, he stood for office in the February 2014 local council elections and was elected to Malé City Council. Shamau represented at the second Board of Local Government Authority of Maldives. Https://

Alicia Viteri

Alicia Viteri is a Panamanian artist, a leading figure in Latina contemporary art. Viteri began her career with printmaking and installations and turned to digital arts on the mid-to-late 1990s. In 1968, Alicia Viteri was a college student at the Centro Colombia-Norte Americano in Bogota, where she participated in her first group exhibition as an artist. In 1970, she was a proud graduate from the School of Fine Arts at the Universidad de los Andres in Bogota, Colombia. In 1972, Viteri moved to Panama, where she had her first solo exhibition. Within the same year, she began working as a professor at the University of Panama for a printmaking course. For a short time, Viteri lived and worked in Ecuador from 1977-78. 1970-76 was a period of intense pictorial activity and participation in local and international exhibitions and biennials. One of Viteri's first artistic activities was in 1970 with the Young Artists Biennia at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Colombia. Three years she participated in the Second Graphic Arts Biennial in Cali and later, her work was featured in the Casa de la Cultura in Quito, Ecuador.

Viteri's art incorporates many types of media, including drawing, printmaking, fabric, book making, audio for her famous installation/mural titled Pictorial Space. Viteri's work displays an interest in insects and she developed a powerful passion for observing them at the Printmaking Workshop at the Universidad de los Andres, under the supervision of Umberto Giangrandi and the knowing gaze of Juan Antonio Roda. On in Viteri's artwork, these beetles and flies become humanized, taken to represent an examination of the inner self, she got rid of wings and insect-like limbs and joined carnivals and funerals as men and women of extravagant features and expressions walked through canvases to congregate in the large mural Pictorial Space. Alicia Viteri specialized in lithography at the Blau Workshop in Formentara, Spain in 1983. Within the same year, Viteri worked on creating her new work, Pictorial Spaces, a 7’x3’ mural, the first example of installation art in Panama; this mural is an exhibit of artwork presented at the Centro Colombo Americano in Bogota and has traveled to many locations around the world such as the Intar Gallery in New York, the Hispanic At Center in New York, the Galeria of Quito, the Museo de Arte Contemporaneo in Panama City, La Tertulia Museum in Cali, the Banco de la Republica in Pasto.

The mural includes six panels executed in oil on canvas, in black, white and gold showing a theme of carnivals and funerals. Some of the color palette includes colors red, pink and orange that Viteri chose to be projected onto the panels with figures of people. At the time, installation work was still a newly-explored medium in Panama. An early example is the work of Miguel Angels Rojas, who began to explore the medium at the end of the 1970s in the Atenas Salon and the project room at the Museum of Modern Art in Bogota, Colombia. Viteri's work uses recordings of urban noise with music and lighting; the exhibition includes the primary drafts for the mural, along with the series of drawings and prints of insects and the series entitled The Mummy. Her artwork examines the relationship between her inner world and the transposition of human perception in profane concepts. In 1979, Viteri founded the Printmaking Workshop at the Panamanian Institute of Art, where she was responsible for revitalizing an interest in printmaking as an artistic medium in Panama.

She retired from this position in 1983. During her years of teaching at the Panamanian Institute of Art, Alicia planned and carried out the project “Eleven Prints,” a portfolio with works by the best Panamanian artist of that time. In 1981, she directed the graphic series Panarte Editions. In 1984, Viteri was part of a graphic design club portfolio printed at Prografica, the portfolio of the Religious Music Festival in Popayan, both in Colombia. Alicia Viteri's book Memoria Digital/Digital Memory was published in 2000, where she uses the technique of computer art and recreated digital photography of her family and friends, recounting her life through images and brief legends. In 2009, it won second place for Best Arts Book in the Spanish/Bilingual category of the 11th Annual International Latino Book Awards; the landscape she has been working on since sometime ago became a parallel production that allows her to approach color and to leave behind the black- and- white world of her insects and funerals while deepening her mastery of the craft of painting.

They are bright. In the middle of her new project, Viteri became ill and while overcoming all obstacles with great tenacity, with the support of Benjamin Villegas, the book project moved forward and came to life; the project was finished and launched in March 2009 in Panama City, in mid-April in Bogota at the Gabriel Garcia Marquez Cultural Center. Alicia Viteri created these pieces of artwork by putting her pictorial and graphic expertise to the limit by using the services provided by technology, she used computer software to replace brushes and the sharp point of a pencil. The format of the book features a violet silk cover and the image of Alicia as a child, which turns into a delicate object. A translucent-paper sheet precedes it as if one was looking through a photo-album

Sabarimala Trek

Sabarimala Trek is an important trek route to Sannidhanam, the abode of Lord Ayyappa. It covers a distance of about 35 kilometres through the mountainous terrains and thick forests which are inhabited by many wild animals, it is believed that Ayyappa used this path in his expedition to kill a demoness. Now, many pilgrims heading towards Sabarimala use this route the pilgrims from Kerala, Andhra Pradesh,Telangana and Tamil Nadu. Peroorthodu is a stream as well as the first stop on this path 4 km from Erumely. Devotees take bath here and the Kanniayyappas offers "Malarpodi" and "Aripodi" before their journey. Kalaketty is situated about 6 kilometres from Perurthodu. According to the legends, Lord Shiva came on his ox and tied it to a banyan tree to witness the killing of the demoness Mahishi by his beloved son, Ayyappa. There is a shrine here dedicated to Lord Shiva and the pilgrims burn camphor and break coconuts as a part of the rituals. Azhutha, a tributary of Pamba River is just 2 kilometres from Kalaketty.

In Sanskrit, Azhutha is termed as Alamba. Pilgrims have facilities to take rest here. There is a temple here administrated by the "Malayaraya mahasabha", who has the administrative controls of Kalaketty and Mukkuzhy temples; the far river side is known as the "Azhutha medu", a steep slope. The steep Azhutha medu ends at the summit Kallidamkunnu; as part of the customs, the devotees take a pebble from Azhutha river which they drop at Kallidamkunnu to cover the remains of Mahishi. Devotees burns a camphor here before their journey; the place got its name due to the presence of a fort built by Udaya. There is a temple here named Kottayil sastha temple, dedicated to the Inchippara moopan, the guardian of the sacred forests. Mukkuzhy is situated at a valley. A temple dedicated to Devi is situated here, administrated by the'Malayaraya Mahasabha'. Devotees who are tired and unable to continue trekking should get help here, it is near to Kuzhimavu Bus stand in Koruthodu Panchayat and connected by a concrete road.

From Kuzhimavu and taxi are available to Pamba/Sabarimala. Frequent buses are available from Kuzhimavu to Mundakayam. Karimala is a hazardous point on the trail, inhabited by lots of elephants. Pilgrims will have to cross eight levels in Karimala hill to reach its summit. Here, Devotees lights fire to escape from the wild animals and cold. There is a Nazhikkinar here, they offer their prayers to Karimala Bhagavathy for a risk free journey. The steep Karimala hill ends at Valiyanavattom, the abode of wild elephants, it is the stop just before Pamba