Nampo spelled Namp'o, is a city and seaport in South Pyongan Province, North Korea, which lies on the northern shore of the Taedong River, 15 km east of the river's mouth. Known as Chinnamp'o, it was a provincial-level "Directly Governed City" from 1980 to 2004, was designated a "Special City", in 2010, made a part of South P'yŏngan. Namp'o is 50 km southwest of P'yŏngyang, at the mouth of the Taedong River. Namp'o was a small fishing village that became a port for foreign trade in 1897, developing into a modern port in 1945 after World War II. With the rapid increase in state investment, the city's industrial capacity grew; some of the city's industrial facilities include the city's Smelter Complex, Glass Corporation, Shipbuilding Complex, Fishery Complex, other central and local factories. Namp'o is a center for the DPRK shipbuilding industry. North of the city are facilities for freight transportation, aquatic products, fishery, a sea salt factory. Apples grown in the city's Ryonggang district are a famous local product.
Namp'o is divided into 5 kuyŏk and 2 kun, which are in turn subdivided into tong and ri: The Youth Hero Motorway connects Namp'o to P'yŏngyang. Onch'ŏn Airport in Onch'ŏn-gun serves Namp'o Special City; the greater Namp'o area is densely served by the Korean State Railway, with 18 stations on the P'yŏngnam Line, the entirety of the Ryonggang Sŏhaekammun and Taean lines, one station on the Ŭllyul Line being located inside the boundaries of Namp'o-t'ŭkpyŏlsi. The West Sea Barrage of the port of Namp'o, built by erecting an 8-km long sea wall, has three lock chambers which allow the passage of ships up to 50,000 tons, 36 sluices. Namp'o Harbour is used as the primary port of call for receiving foreign food aid assistance into North Korea; the port of Namp'o has modern harbour facilities that can accommodate ships of 20,000 tonnes but is frozen during the winter. Namp'o serves as Pyongyang's port on the Yellow Sea. In 2008, the harbour received several batches of grain delivery. A South Korean-based relief organisation, Join Together Society, donated one batch of flour in October of the same year weighing 500 tons.
Institutes of higher learning in Namp'o include Namp'o University Sŏhae University Samgwang College Sunhwa College Namp'o University of Medicine Namp'o University of Agriculture Namp'o College of Shipping Industry Namp'o Building Materials College Namp'o University of Fisheries Saint Petersburg, Russia Chiautempan, Mexico Loja, Ecuador List of cities in North Korea Geography of North Korea Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification. Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5 Korea Tourist Map North Korea Uncovered, North Korea Google Earth: labels most of Namp'o's infrastructure locations including hotels, nearby UNESCO sites, West Sea Barge, electricity grid, shipping facilities. Nampo City on YouTube North Korea – Passing through Nampo on YouTube Profiles of the cities of DPR Korea – Nampho, koreanologie.univie.ac.at.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Japanese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria can either refer to a region that falls within the People's Republic of China or a larger region divided between China and Russia. "Manchuria" is used outside China to denote the geographical and historical region. This region is the traditional homeland of the Xianbei and Jurchen peoples, who built several states within the area historically; the definition of Manchuria can be any one of several regions of various size. These are, from smallest to largest: Northeast China: consisting of Heilongjiang and Liaoning; this is the area referred to as "Manchuria" in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions. Inner Manchuria: the above, plus parts of modern Inner Mongolia, plus Chengde; the above, plus Outer Manchuria: the area from the Amur and Ussuri rivers to the Stanovoy Mountains and the Sea of Japan. In Russian administrative terms, Ussuri krai, southern Harbin oblast', Primorskiy kray.
These were part of the Qing dynasty China according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk that defined the border in the region between China and Russia, but were ceded to Russia by the unequal treaties of the Treaty of Aigun and the Treaty of Peking. The above, plus Sakhalin Island, included on Qing dynasty maps as part of Outer Manchuria though it is not explicitly mentioned in the Treaty of Nerchinsk; the island was included in Manchuria on maps made by the Japanese Shogunate and Russian Empire. Despite lines on maps and empires' political claims, the island was inhabited by Ainu people until the Soviet Union enforced an evacuation policy after 1945. Three centuries and a half must now pass away before entering upon the next act of the Manchu drama; the Nü-chêns had been scotched, but not killed, by their Mongol conquerors, one hundred and thirty-four years were themselves driven out of China, a pure native dynasty being re-established under the style of Ming, "Bright." During the ensuing two hundred years the Nü-chêns were scarcely heard of, the House of Ming being busily occupied in other directions.
Their warlike spirit, found scope and nourishment in the expeditions organised against Japan and Tan-lo, or Quelpart, as named by the Dutch, a large island to the south of the Korean peninsula. It may be noted here that "Manchuria" is unknown to the Chinese or to the Manchus themselves as a geographical expression; the present extensive home of the Manchus is spoken of as the Three Eastern Provinces, namely, Shêngking, or Liao-tung, or Kuan-tung and Heilungchiang or Tsitsihar. – Herbert A. Giles and the Manchus, 1912 "Manchuria" is a translation of the Japanese word Manshū, which dates from the 19th century; the name Manju was invented and given to the Jurchen people by Hong Taiji in 1635 as a new name for their ethnic group. According to the Japanese scholar Junko Miyawaki-Okada, the Japanese geographer Takahashi Kageyasu was the first to use the term "満州" as a place name in 1809 in the Nippon Henkai Ryakuzu, it was from that work that Westerners adopted the name. According to Mark C. Elliott, Katsuragawa Hoshū's 1794 work, the "Hokusa bunryaku", was where "満州" first appeared as a place name was in two maps included in the work, "Ashia zenzu" and "Chikyū hankyū sōzu" which were created by Katsuragawa.
"満州" began to appear as a place names in more maps created by Japanese like Kondi Jūzō, Takahashi Kageyasu, Baba Sadayoshi and Yamada Ren, these maps were brought to Europe by the Dutch Philipp von Siebold. According to Nakami Tatsuo, Philip Franz von Siebold was the one who brought the usage of the term Manchuria to Europeans after borrowing it from the Japanese, who were the first to use it in a geographic manner in the eighteenth century although neither the Manchu nor Chinese languages had a term in their own language equivalent to "Manchuria" as a geographic place name; the Manchu and Chinese languages had no such word as "Manchuria" and the word has imperialist connotations. According to Bill Sewell, it was Europeans who first started using the name Manchuria to refer to the location and it is "not a genuine geographic term"; the historian Gavan McCormack agreed with Robert H. G. Lee's statement that "The term Manchuria or Man-chou is a modern creation used by westerners and Japanese", with McCormack writing that the term Manchuria is imperialistic in nature and has no "precise meaning" since the Japanese deliberately promoted the use of "Manchuria" as a geographic name to promote its separation from China at the time they were setting up their puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Japanese had their own motive for deliberately spreading the usage of the term Manchuria. The historian Norman Smith wrote that "The term'Manchuria' is controversial". Professor Mariko Asano Tamanoi said that she "should use the term in quotation marks" when referring to Manchuria. In his 2012 dissertation on the Jurchen peo
May 16 coup
The May 16 military coup d'état was a military coup d'état in South Korea in 1961, organized and carried out by Park Chung-hee and his allies who formed the Military Revolutionary Committee, nominally led by Army Chief of Staff Chang Do-yong after the latter's acquiescence on the day of the coup. The coup rendered powerless the democratically elected government of Yun Bo-seon and ended the Second Republic, installing a reformist military Supreme Council for National Reconstruction led by Park, who took over as Chairman after General Chang's arrest in July; the coup was instrumental in bringing to power a new developmentalist elite and in laying the foundations for the rapid industrialization of South Korea under Park's leadership, but its legacy is controversial for the suppression of democracy and civil liberties it entailed, the purges enacted in its wake. Termed the "May 16 Military Revolution" by Park and his allies, "a new, mature national debut of spirit", the coup's nature as a "revolution" is controversial and its evaluation contested.
The background to the coup can be analysed both in terms of its immediate context, the broader setting of the development post-liberation South Korea. While the Second Republic presented South Korea with a singularly problematic economic and political climate which encouraged a military intervention, the direct roots of the coup stretch back to the late Rhee period, more recent historians such as Yong-Sup Han argue that the recurring image of the coup as an inevitable direct response purely to the vagaries of a new regime paralyzed by endemic instability is over-simplistic. From 1948, South Korea was governed by President Syngman Rhee, an anti-Communist who used the Korean War to consolidate a monopoly on political power in the republic. Rhee represented the interests of a conservative ruling class, the so-called "liberation aristocrats" who had risen to positions of influence under American occupation; these "liberation aristocrats" formed the bulk of the political class, encompassing both Rhee's supporters and his rivals in the Democratic Party, which advanced a vision of society broadly similar to his own.
Rhee eliminated any significant source of real opposition, securing for example the execution of Cho Bong-am, who had campaigned against him in the presidential elections of 1956 on a platform of peaceful reunification and had attracted some 30% of the vote, an unacceptably high level of support for an opposition candidate. Such significant opposition figures as Cho, can be considered to have been part of the broad conservative consensus of the governing class, which rested on a traditionalist, Confucian worldview that saw "pluralism in ideology and equality in human relationships foreign concepts", which upheld the value of paternalist government and the power of extensive networks of political patronage. Rhee, under this traditionalist model, was the foremost "elder" in Korean society, to whom Koreans owed familial allegiance, this relationship was strengthened by the ties of obligation that connected Rhee to many in the ruling class. One result of the rule of the "liberation aristocrats" was the stalling of development in South Korea, in marked contrast to the situation in nearby Japan.
Where South Korea had been intensively developed under the Japanese colonial system, Rhee's presidency saw little significant effort to develop the South Korean economy, which remained stagnant and agrarian. The lack of development under Rhee provoked a growing nationalistic intellectual reaction which called for a radical restructuring of society and a thorough political and economic reorganization, rejecting the American model being pursued by the governing elite. Park Chung-hee, the leader of the May Coup who at that time was a second-tier army officer with decidedly ambiguous political leanings, was influenced by this unfolding intellectual reaction. After rigged elections in March 1960, growing protests developed into the April Revolution, Rhee was pressured by the United States into a peaceful resignation on April 26. With Rhee out of the way, a new constitution was promulgated establishing the Second Republic, legislative elections on June 29 resulted in a landslide victory for the Democratic Party, with Rhee's Liberals reduced to a mere two seats in the newly constituted lower house of the National Assembly.
The Democrat Yun Bo-seon was elected as figurehead president in August, Chang Myon, former Vice-President, took over as Prime Minister with executive authority under the parliamentary republican system established by the new constitution. The Second Republic was beset with problems from the start, with bitter factionalism in the ruling Democratic Party competing with implacable popular unrest for the government's attention; the South Korean economy deteriorated under heavy inflation and high rates of unemployment, while recorded crime rates more than doubled. Widespread food shortages resulted. Chang Myon, representing the Democratic Party's "New Faction", had been elected Prime Minister by the thin margin of three votes. Purges of Rhee's appointees were rendered ineffective in the public eye by Chang's manipulation of the suspect list to favour wealthy businessmen and powerful generals. Although Rhee had been removed and a democratic constitution instituted, the "liberation aristocrats" remained in power, the worsening problems facing South Korea were proving insurmountable for the new government.
The breakdown of South Korean politics and the administrative purges racking the army combined to demoralise and discourage the Military Security
Battle of Inchon
The Battle of Inchon was an amphibious invasion and battle of the Korean War that resulted in a decisive victory and strategic reversal in favor of the United Nations. The operation involved some 75,000 troops and 261 naval vessels, led to the recapture of the South Korean capital of Seoul two weeks later; the code name for the operation was Operation Chromite. The battle ended on 19 September. Through a surprise amphibious assault far from the Pusan Perimeter that UN and South Korean forces were defending, the undefended city of Incheon was secured after being bombed by UN forces; the battle ended a string of victories over the Korean People's Army. The subsequent UN recapture of Seoul severed the KPA's supply lines in South Korea; the UN and South Korean forces were commanded by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur of the United States Army. MacArthur was the driving force behind the operation, overcoming the strong misgivings of more cautious generals to a risky assault over unfavorable terrain.
The battle was followed by a rapid collapse of the North Korean army. From the outbreak of the Korean War following the invasion of South Korea by North Korea on 25 June 1950, the Korean People's Army, had enjoyed superiority in both manpower and ground combat equipment over the South Korean Army and United Nations forces dispatched to South Korea to prevent it from collapsing; the North Korean strategy was to aggressively pursue UN and South Korean forces on all avenues of approach south and to engage them, attacking from the front and initiating a double envelopment of both flanks of the defending units, which allowed the North Koreans to surround and cut off the opposing force, forcing it to retreat in disarray. From their initial 25 June offensive to fighting in July and early August, the North Koreans used this tactic to defeat the UN forces they encountered and push it south. However, with the establishment of the Pusan Perimeter in August, UN forces held a continuous line which the North Koreans could not flank.
The KPA advantages in numbers decreased daily as the superior UN logistical system brought in more troops and supplies to the UN forces. When the North Koreans approached the Busan Perimeter on 5 August, they attempted the same frontal assault technique on the four main avenues of approach into the perimeter. Throughout August, they conducted direct assaults resulting in the Battle of Masan, the Battle of Battle Mountain, the First Battle of Naktong Bulge, the Battle of Taegu, the Battle of the Bowling Alley. On the east coast of the Korean Peninsula, the South Koreans repulsed three North Korean divisions at the Battle of P'ohang-dong; the North Korean attacks stalled. All along the front, the North Korean troops reeled from these defeats, the first time in the war North Korean tactics had failed. By the end of August the North Korean troops had been pushed beyond their limits and many of the original units were at far reduced strength and effectiveness. Logistic problems wracked the KPA, shortages of food, weapons and replacement soldiers proved devastating for North Korean units.
However, the North Korean force retained high morale and enough supply to allow for another large-scale offensive. On 1 September the North Koreans threw their entire military into one final bid to break the Pusan Perimeter, the Great Naktong Offensive, a five-pronged simultaneous attack across the entire perimeter; the attack caught UN forces by surprise and overwhelmed them. North Korean troops attacked Kyongju, surrounded Taegu and Ka-san, recrossed the Naktong Bulge, threatened Yongsan, continued their attack at Masan, focusing on Nam River and Haman. However, despite their efforts, in one of the most brutal fights of the Korean War, the North Koreans were unsuccessful. Unable to hold their gains, the KPA retreated from the offensive a much weaker force, vulnerable to counterattack. Days after the beginning of the war, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, the US Army officer in command of all UN forces in Korea, envisioned an amphibious assault to retake the Seoul area; the city had fallen in the first days of the war in the First Battle of Seoul.
MacArthur wrote that he thought the North Korean army would push the Republic of Korea Army back far past Seoul. He said he decided days after the war began that the battered and under-equipped South Koreans, many of whom did not support the South Korean government put in power by the United States, could not hold off the North Korean forces with American support. MacArthur felt that he could turn the tide if he made a decisive troop movement behind North Korean lines, preferred Inchon, now known as Incheon, over Chumunjin-up or Kunsan as the landing site, he had envisioned such a landing, code named Operation Bluehearts, for 22 July, with the US Army's 1st Cavalry Division landing at Incheon. However, by 10 July the plan was abandoned as it was clear the 1st Cavalry Division would be needed on the Pusan Perimeter. On 23 July, MacArthur formulated a new plan, code-named Operation Chromite, calling for an amphibious assault by the US Army's 2nd Infantry Division and the United States Marine Corps' 5th Marine Regiment in mid-September 1950.
This, too fell through. MacArthur decided instead to use the US Army's 7th Infantry Division, his last reserve unit in East Asia, to conduct the operation as soon as it could be raised to wartime strength. In preparation for the invasion, MacArthur activated the US Army's X Corps to act as the command for the landin
Third Battle of Seoul
The Third Battle of Seoul known as the Chinese New Year's Offensive, the January–Fourth Retreat or the Third Phase Campaign Western Sector, was a battle of the Korean War, which took place from December 31, 1950, to January 7, 1951, around the South Korean capital of Seoul. In the aftermath of the major Chinese victory at the Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River, the United Nations Command started to contemplate the possibility of evacuation from the Korean Peninsula. Upon learning of this development, China's Chairman Mao Zedong ordered the Chinese People's Volunteer Army to cross the 38th parallel in an effort to pressure the United Nations forces to withdraw from South Korea. On December 31, 1950, the Chinese 13th Army attacked the South Korean army's 1st, 2nd, 5th and 6th Infantry Divisions along the 38th parallel, breaching United Nations Forces' defenses at the Imjin River, Hantan River and Chuncheon in the process. To prevent the Chinese forces from overwhelming the defenders, the U. S. Eighth Army under the command of Lieutenant General Matthew B. Ridgway evacuated Seoul on January 3, 1951.
Although Chinese forces captured Seoul by the end of the battle, the Chinese invasion of South Korea galvanized the United Nations' support for South Korea, while the idea of evacuation was soon abandoned by the United Nations Command. At the same time, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army were exhausted after months of nonstop fighting since the start of the Chinese intervention, thereby allowing the United Nations forces to regain the initiative in Korea. With the People's Republic of China entering the Korean War in late 1950, the conflict had entered a new phase. To prevent North Korea from falling under United Nations control after the UN landing at Incheon, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army entered Korea and launched a series of surprise attacks against the UN forces near the Sino-Korean border at the end of 1950; the resulting battles at the Ch'ongch'on River Valley and the Chosin Reservoir forced the UN forces to retreat back to the 38th parallel by December 1950, with Chinese and North Korean forces recapturing much of North Korea.
On the Korean western front, after the United States Eighth Army suffered a disastrous defeat at the Ch'ongch'on River, the Eighth Army retreated back to the Imjin River while setting up defensive positions around the South Korean capital of Seoul. Although the US Eighth Army was ordered to hold Seoul for as long as possible, General Douglas MacArthur planned a series of withdrawals to the Pusan Perimeter under the assumption that UN forces were about to be overwhelmed in Korea. General Walton Walker, commander of the US Eighth Army, was killed in a traffic accident on December 23, Lieutenant General Matthew B. Ridgway assumed command of the Eighth Army on December 26, 1950. At the UN, a ceasefire along the 38th parallel was proposed to China on December 11, 1950 in order to avoid any further escalation of hostility between China and the US. Although the PVA had been weakened from their earlier battles, with nearly 40 percent of its forces rendered combat ineffective, its unexpected victories over the UN forces had convinced the Chinese leadership of the invincibility of the PVA.
After the PVA 13th Army's victory over the US Eighth Army at the Ch'ongch'on River, China's Chairman Mao Zedong started to contemplate another offensive against the UN forces on the urging of North Korean Premier Kim Il-sung. After learning of MacArthur's plans and the UN ceasefire, Mao believed that the UN evacuation of the Korean Peninsula was imminent. Although the over-stretched Chinese logistics prevented the PVA from launching a full-scale invasion against South Korea, Mao still ordered the PVA 13th Army to launch an intrusion, dubbed the "Third Phase Campaign", to hasten the UN withdrawal and to demonstrate China's desire for a total victory in Korea. On December 23, 1950, China's Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai formally rejected the UN ceasefire while demanding all UN forces to be withdrawn from the Korean Peninsula. Seoul is the capital city of South Korea, bisected into northern and southern halves by the Han River. Seoul is located 35 mi south of the 38th parallel; the battle was fought over the UN defenses at the 38th parallel, which stretches horizontally from the Imjin River mouth on the Korean west coast to the town of Chuncheon in central Korea.
A road dubbed "Route 33" runs south across the 38th parallel at the Hantan River, passes through Uijeongbu and arrives at Seoul, it is an ancient invasion route towards Seoul. Another road ran across the Imjin River, it connects Seoul and Kaesong through the town of Munsan and Koyang. A road runs through Chuncheon and it connects to Seoul from the northeast; the harsh Korean winter, with temperatures as low as −20 °C, had frozen the Imjin and the Hantan River over most of the river crossings, eliminating a major obstacle for the attacking Chinese forces. By December 22, 1950, the US Eighth Army's front had stabilized along the 38th parallel. Just days before his death, Walker placed the US I Corps, the US IX Corps, the Republic of Korea III Corps of the Eighth Army along the 38th parallel to defend Seoul; the US I and IX Corps were to defend the Imjin and Hantan River while the ROK III Corps were to guard the areas around Chuncheon. The boundary between US I and IX Corps was marked by Route 33, was defended by the ROK 1st Infantry Division on the west side and the ROK 6th Infantry Division on the east side.
Because the South Korean forces had suffered nearly 45,000 casualties at the end of 1950, most of the South Korean units were composed of raw recruits with little combat training. After inspect
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o