National Register of Historic Places architectural style categories
In the United States, the National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of architecture. Listed properties are given one or more of 40 standard architectural style classifications that appear in the National Register Information System database. Other properties are given a custom architectural description with "vernacular" or other qualifiers, others have no style classification. Many National Register-listed properties do not fit into the several categories listed here, or they fit into more specialized subcategories; the complete list of the 40 architectural style codes in the National Register Information System—NRIS follows: Obs — ARSTYLCD — ARSTYL 1 — 01 NO STYLE LISTED 2 — 10 COLONIAL 3 — 11 GEORGIAN 4 — 20 EARLY REPUBLIC 5 — 21 FEDERAL 6 — 30 MID 19TH CENTURY REVIVAL 7 — 31 GREEK REVIVAL 8 — 32 GOTHIC REVIVAL 9 — 33 ITALIAN VILLA 10 — 34 EXOTIC REVIVAL 11 — 40 LATE VICTORIAN 12 — 41 GOTHIC 13 — 42 ITALIANATE 14 — 43 SECOND EMPIRE 15 — 44 STICK/EASTLAKE 16 — 45 QUEEN ANNE 17 — 46 SHINGLE STYLE 18 — 47 ROMANESQUE 19 — 48 RENAISSANCE 20 — 49 OCTAGON MODE 21 — 50 LATE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY REVIVALS 22 — 51 COLONIAL REVIVAL 23 — 52 CLASSICAL REVIVAL 24 — 53 TUDOR REVIVAL 25 — 54 LATE GOTHIC REVIVAL 26 — 55 MISSION/SPANISH REVIVAL 27 — 56 BEAUX ARTS 28 — 57 PUEBLO 29 — 60 LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURY AMERICAN MOVEMENTS 30 — 61 PRAIRIE SCHOOL 31 — 62 EARLY COMMERCIAL 32 — 63 CHICAGO 33 — 64 SKYSCRAPER 34 — 65 BUNGALOW/CRAFTSMAN 35 — 70 MODERN MOVEMENT 36 — 71 MODERNE 37 — 72 INTERNATIONAL STYLE 38 — 73 ART DECO 39 — 80 OTHER 40 — 90 MIXED Some selected National Register Information System styles, with examples, include: Federal architecture was the classicizing architecture style built in the newly founded United States between c. 1780 and 1830.
Examples include: the Old Town Hall in Massachusetts, Plumb House in Virginia. Greek Revival architecture is a Neoclassical movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe, it emerged in the U. S. following the War of 1812 and while a revolutionary war in Greece attracted America's interest. Greek Revival architecture was popularized by Minard Lafever's pattern books: The Young Builders' General Instructor in 1829, the Modern Builders' Guide in 1833, The Beauties of Modern Architecture in 1835, The Architectural Instructor in 1850. Greek Revival in the U. S. includes vernacular versions such as the 1839 Simsbury Townhouse built by an unknown craftsman and the Dicksonia Plantation, high-style versions such as the Second Bank of the United States, Philadelphia. Plantation houses Many plantation houses in the Southern United States were built in Greek Revival variations, including Millford Plantation, Melrose and Annandale Plantation Examples of the American revival of classical Palladian architecture include: The Rotunda by Thomas Jefferson at the University of Virginia, the Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis, Maryland.
Late Victorian architecture is distributed on the register's listings, for many building types in every state. The Carpenter Gothic style was popular for Late Victorian wooden churches; the Queen Anne style was popular in American Victorian architecture, after the earlier Italianate style, is frequent on NRHP residential listings. The Shingle Style is an American variation of Queen Anne. A grouping of historicist architecture Revival styles, with the title Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals, has been applied by the NRHP for many listings. There are numerous listed buildings designed in an amalgam of several to many revival styles that defy a singular or simpler classification title. Mission/Spanish Revival is an amalgam of two distinct styles popular in different but adjacent eras: the late-19th-century Mission Revival Style architecture and early-20th-century Spanish Colonial Revival architecture; the combined term, or the individual terms, are used in the style classifications of NRHP listed buildings.
Pueblo Revival Style architecture is a revival style based on traditional Native American Pueblo architecture of adobe dwellings–communities in the Pueblo culture in present-day New Mexico, northeastern Arizona, southwestern Colorado. Examples include the Institute of American Indian Arts, La Fonda on the Plaza, the Mabel Dodge Luhan House in New Mexico, the Painted Desert Inn in Arizona. Exotic Revival architecture is another style that may reflect a mix of Moorish Revival architecture, Egyptian Revival architecture, other influences. Just a few of many National Register-listed places identified with this style are El Zaribah Shrine Auditorium, Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery, Fort Smith Masonic Temple, Algeria Shrine Temple. Examples in California include Grauman's Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood, the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose; the Mayan Revival architecture style blends Maya architectural and artistic motifs with those of other Mesoamerican cultures of Aztec architecture. Examples include: the Mayan Theater in Downtown Los Angeles.
S. Route 66 in Southern California. "Postmedieval English" architecture is a style term used for a number of NRHP listings, including William Ward Jr. House in Middlefield, Connecticut. "Late 19th and Early 20th Century American Movements" ar
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is the seat of Santa Fe County; this area was occupied for at least several thousand years by indigenous peoples who built villages several hundred years ago, on the current site of the city. It was known by the Tewa inhabitants as Ogha Po'oge; the city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is the oldest state capital in the United States. Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012, it is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. Before European colonization of the Americas, the area Santa Fe occupied between 900 CE and the 1500s was known to the Tewa peoples as Oghá P'o'oge and by the Navajo people as Yootó. In 1610, Juan de Oñate established the area as Santa Fe de Nuevo México–a province of New Spain.
Formal Spanish settlements were developed leading the colonial governor Pedro de Peralta to rename the area La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The phrase "Santa Fe" is translated as "Holy Faith" in Spanish. Although more known as Santa Fe, the city's full, legal name remains to this day as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís; the standard Spanish variety pronounces it SAHN-tah-FAY as contextualized within the city's full, Spaniard name La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Aśis. However, due to the large amounts of tourism and immigration into Santa Fe, an English pronunciation of SAN-tuh-FAY is commonly used; the area of Santa Fe was occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west.
The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway; as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, which it has constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States. Discontent with the colonization practices led to the Pueblo Revolt, when groups of different Native Pueblo peoples were successful in driving the Spaniards out of the area now known as New Mexico, maintaining their independence from 1680 to 1692, when the territory was reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas.
Santa Fe was Spain's provincial seat at outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Missouri; when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis; the city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it attempted to claim Santa Fe and other parts of Nuevo México as part of the western portion of Texas along the Río Grande. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, intending to take control of the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico.
Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule; some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote: I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported; the country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy; the streets are narrow... A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime, they are the poorest looking people I saw. They subsist principally on mutton and red pepper. In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived, becoming bishop of New Mexico, Utah, C
Billy the Kid
Billy the Kid was an American Old West outlaw and gunfighter who killed eight men before he was shot and killed at age 21. He took part in New Mexico's Lincoln County War, during which he committed three murders. McCarty was orphaned at age 14; the owner of a boarding house gave him a room in exchange for work. His first arrest was for stealing food at age 16 in late 1875. Ten days he robbed a Chinese laundry and was arrested, but he escaped only two days later, he tried to stay with his stepfather, fled from New Mexico Territory into neighboring Arizona Territory, making him both an outlaw and a federal fugitive. In 1877, McCarty began to refer to himself as "William H. Bonney". After murdering a blacksmith during an altercation in August 1877, Bonney became a wanted man in Arizona Territory and returned to New Mexico, where he joined a group of cattle rustlers, he became a well-known figure in the region when he joined the Regulators and took part in the Lincoln County War. In April 1878, the Regulators killed three men, including Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady and one of his deputies.
Bonney and two other Regulators were charged with killing all three men. Bonney's notoriety grew in December 1880 when the Las Vegas Gazette in Las Vegas, New Mexico, The Sun in New York City carried stories about his crimes. Sheriff Pat Garrett captured Bonney that month. In April 1881, Bonney was tried and convicted of the murder of Brady, was sentenced to hang in May of that year, he escaped from jail on April 28, 1881, killing two sheriff's deputies in the process and evading capture for more than two months. Garrett shot and killed Bonney—aged 21—in Fort Sumner on July 14, 1881. During the following decades, legends that Bonney had survived that night grew, a number of men claimed to be him. Henry McCarty was born to Catherine McCarty in New York City. While his birth year has been confirmed to be 1859, the exact date of his birth has been disputed as either September 17 or November 23 of that year. A letter from an official of Saint Peters's Church in Manhattan states it is in possession of records showing McCarty was baptized in that church on September 28, 1859.
Census records indicate his younger brother, Joseph McCarty, was born in 1863. Following the death of her husband Patrick, Catherine McCarty and her sons moved to Indianapolis, where she met William Henry Harrison Antrim; the McCarty family moved with Antrim to Wichita, Kansas, in 1870. After moving again a few years Catherine married Antrim on March 1, 1873, at the First Presbyterian Church in Santa Fe, New Mexico Territory. Shortly afterward, the family moved from Santa Fe to Silver City, New Mexico, Joseph McCarty began using the name Joseph Antrim. Catherine McCarty died of tuberculosis on September 16, 1874. McCarty was about 15 years old. Sarah Brown, the owner of a boarding house, gave him board in exchange for work. On September 16, 1875, McCarty was caught stealing food. Ten days McCarty and George Schaefer robbed a Chinese laundry, stealing clothing and two pistols. McCarty was jailed, he escaped two days and became a fugitive, as reported in the Silver City Herald the next day, the first story published about him.
McCarty stayed with him until Antrim threw him out. It was the last time. After leaving Antrim, McCarty traveled to southeastern Arizona Territory, where he worked as a ranch hand and gambled his wages in nearby gaming houses. In 1876, he was hired as a ranch hand by well-known rancher Henry Hooker. During this time, McCarty became acquainted with John R. Mackie, a Scottish-born criminal and former U. S. Cavalry private who, following his discharge, remained near the U. S. Army post at Camp Grant; the two men soon began stealing horses from local soldiers. McCarty became known as "Kid Antrim" because of his youth, slight build, clean-shaven appearance, personality. On August 17, 1877, McCarty was at a saloon in the village of Bonita when he got into an argument with Francis P. "Windy" Cahill, a blacksmith who had bullied McCarty and on more than one occasion, called McCarty a "pimp". McCarty in turn called Cahill a "son of a bitch," whereupon Cahill threw McCarty to the floor and the two struggled for McCarty's revolver.
McCarty shot and mortally wounded Cahill. A witness said, " had no choice. Cahill died the following day. McCarty fled but returned a few days and was apprehended by Miles Wood, the local justice of the peace. McCarty was detained and held in the Camp Grant guardhouse but escaped before law enforcement could arrive. McCarty stole a horse and fled Arizona Territory for New Mexico Territory, but Apaches took the horse from him, leaving him to walk many miles to the nearest settlement. At Fort Stanton in the Pecos Valley, McCarty—starving and near death—went to the home of friend and Seven Rivers Warriors gang member John Jones, whose mother Barbara nursed McCarty back to health. After regaining his health, McCarty went to Apache Tejo, a former army post, where he joined a band of rustlers who raided herds owned by cattle magnate John Chisum in Lincoln County. After McCarty was spotted in Silver City, his involvement with the gang was mentioned in a local newspaper. At some point in 1877, McCarty began to refer to himself as "William H. Bonney".
After returning to New Mexico, Bonney worked for English businessman and rancher John Henry Tunstall, as a cowboy near the Rio Felix—a tributary of the Rio Grande—in Lincoln County. Tu
Lincoln County War
The Lincoln County War was an Old West conflict between rival factions which began in 1878 in New Mexico Territory, the predecessor to the state of New Mexico, dragged on until 1881. The feud became famous because of the participation of Billy the Kid. Other notable figures included Sheriff William J. Brady, cattle rancher John Chisum and businessman Alexander McSween, James Dolan, Lawrence Murphy; the conflict arose between two factions over the control of dry goods and cattle interests in the county. The older, established faction was led by James Dolan, who operated a dry goods monopoly through a general store locally referred to as "The House". English-born John Tunstall and his business partner Alexander McSween opened a competing store in 1876, with backing from established cattleman John Chisum; the two sides gathered lawmen, Tunstall's ranch hands, criminal gangs to their support. The Dolan faction was allied with Lincoln County Sheriff Brady and supported by the Jesse Evans Gang; the Tunstall-McSween faction organized their own posse of armed men, known as the Regulators, had their own lawmen consisting of town constable Richard M. Brewer and Deputy US Marshal Robert A. Widenmann.
The conflict was marked by revenge killings, starting with the murder of Tunstall by members of the Evans Gang. In revenge for this, the Regulators killed others in a series of incidents. Further killings continued unabated for several months, climaxing in the Battle of Lincoln, a five-day gunfight and siege that resulted in the death of McSween and the scattering of the Regulators. Pat Garrett was named County Sheriff in 1880, he hunted down Billy the Kid, killing two other former Regulators in the process; the war was fictionalized in several Hollywood films, including Sam Peckinpah's Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid in 1973, The Left Handed Gun in 1958, John Wayne's Chisum in 1970 and Young Guns in 1988. Ron Hansen's novel The Kid is inspired by the Lincoln County War. In November 1876, a wealthy Englishman named John Tunstall arrived in Lincoln County, New Mexico, where he intended to develop a cattle ranch and bank in partnership with the young attorney Alexander McSween and cattleman John Chisum.
At the time Lincoln County was controlled both economically and politically by Lawrence Murphy and James Dolan, the proprietors of LG Murphy and Co. James J. Dolan and Co. the only store in the county. The factions were divided along ethnic and sectarian lines, with the Murphy faction being Irish Catholic, while Tunstall and his allies were English Protestant. LG Murphy and Co. lent thousands of dollars to the Territorial Governor, the Territorial Attorney General held the mortgage on the firm. Tunstall learned that Murphy and Dolan, who bought many of their cattle from rustlers, had lucrative beef contracts from the United States government to supply forts and Indian agencies; the government contracts, along with their monopoly on merchandise and financing for farms and ranches, allowed Murphy and their partner Riley to run Lincoln County as a personal fiefdom. The main event that led up to the beginning of the Lincoln County War was controversy over the disbursement of Emil Fritz's insurance policy.
Emil Fritz was a partner of L. G. Murphy; when he died in 1874, the executors of the estate hired Alexander McSween to collect his insurance policy. After collecting the policy, McSween refused to turn over the money to the executor of the estate because The House claimed that the money was owed to them as a debt and McSween suspected that the executor of the estate would turn the money over to them. McSween knew how badly strapped for cash the House was and as a business competitor was loathe to see the money go to them, whether their claim was legitimate or not. In February 1878, in a court case, dismissed, they obtained a court order to seize all of McSween's assets, but mistakenly included all of Tunstall's assets with those of McSween. Sheriff Brady formed a posse to attach Tunstall's remaining assets at his ranch 70 miles from Lincoln. Dolan enlisted the John Kinney Gang, Seven Rivers Warriors and the Jesse Evans Gang, their job was to harass and rustle cattle from Tunstall's and Chisum's ranches, as well as being the faction's hired guns.
On February 18, 1878, members of the Sheriff's posse caught up to Tunstall while he and his ranch-hands, Richard "Dick" Brewer, Billy the Kid, John Middleton, Henry Newton Brown, Robert A. Widenmann, Fred Waite, were herding his last nine horses back to Lincoln. Frank Warner Angel, a special investigator for the Secretary of the Interior determined that Tunstall was shot in "cold blood" by Jesse Evans, William Morton, Tom Hill. Tunstall's murder was witnessed from a distance by several of his men, including Richard Brewer and Billy the Kid. Tunstall's murder catalyzed the Lincoln County War. Tunstall's cowhands and other local citizens formed a group known as the Regulators to avenge his murder, since the territorial criminal justice system was controlled by allies of Murphy, co. While the Regulators at various times consisted of dozens of American and Mexican cowboys, the main dozen or so members were known as the "iron clad", including McCarty, Richard "Dick" Brewer, Frank McNab, Doc Scurlock, Jim French, John Middleton, George Coe, Frank Coe, Jose Chavez y Chavez, Charlie Bowdre, Tom O'Folliard, Fred Waite, Henry Newton Brown.
The Regulators set out to apprehend the sheriff's posse members. After the Regulators were deputized by the Lincoln County justice of the peace, together with Constable Martinez, they attempted to serve the issued warrants on Tunstall's murderers. Sheriff Brady arrested and jailed Martinez and his de
National Register of Historic Places listings in California
Buildings, sites and objects in California listed on the National Register of Historic Places: There are more than 2,800 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the 58 counties of California, including 145 designated as National Historic Landmarks. The following are approximate tallies of current listings in California on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008, new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in California List of National Historic Landmarks in California List of California Historical Landmarks State of California Office of Historic PreservationNational Register of Historic Places travel itineraries: World War II in the San Francisco Bay Area Early History of the California Coast Santa Clara County: California's Historic Silicon Valley Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms
National Register of Historic Places listings in Arkansas
This is a list of properties and historic districts in Arkansas that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are more than 2,600 listings in the state, including at least 8 listings in each of Arkansas's 75 counties; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are tallies of current listings in Arkansas on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Arkansas
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution; the U. S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general; the Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation. It was elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, was transformed by the Postal Reorganization Act in 1970 into the USPS as an independent agency; the USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world; the USPS is obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.
S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx. Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail. Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to prefund employee retirement health benefits, revenue dropped due to recession-influenced declining mail volume, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit. In the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service.
These early attempts were of small scale and involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, setting up a location in Boston where one could post a letter back home to England. Other attempts focused on a dedicated postal service between two of the larger colonies, such as Massachusetts and Virginia, but the available services remained limited in scope and disjointed for many years. For example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service. On February 17, 1691, a grant of letters patent from the joint sovereigns, William III and Mary II, empowered him: to erect and establish within the chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, to receive and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.
The patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later. Neale appointed Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster; the first postal service in America commenced in February 1692. Rates of postage were fixed and authorized, measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed postal laws, a imperfect post office system was established. Neale's patent expired in 1710; the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies. Most of the mail went forth to counting houses and government offices in London; the revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the information hub of the new nation. News, new laws, political intelligence, military orders circulated with a new urgency, a postal system was necessary.
Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at low cost, to exchange news from newspapers between the thirteen states. Overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774–1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, created a new postal system; the United States Post Office was created on July 26, 1775, by decree of the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin headed it briefly. Before the Revolution, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post; the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress "To establish post offices and post roads"; the 1792 law provided for a expanded postal network, served editors by charging newspapers an low rate.
The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, provided the entire country with low-cost access to information on public affairs, while establishing a right to personal privacy. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St. Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger. Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west o