Bellesguard known as Casa Figueres, is a modernist manor house designed by Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí, constructed between 1900 and 1909. It is located at the Sarrià-Sant Gervasi district of Barcelona in Spain; the ground on which Bellesguard stands had been the site of a country residence belonging to Martin, king of Aragon and count of Barcelona. Gaudí was assisted by Joan Rubio whilst Domènec Sugrañes i Gras created the various mosaics that adorn the house. Gaudí drew inspiration for Casa Figueras from the medieval castle that once stood on the same site, built for the King of Aragon in the early 15th century; when the King of Aragon died without an heir in 1410, his widow, Margaret of Prades, inherited the estate. Following her death, the castle fell into decline and was passed from hand to hand over centuries until Jaume Figueres purchased the estate in 1900; when Jaume Figueres and his wife, María Sagues Molíns, commissioned Gaudí for the project in 1900, all that remained of the initial structure were a few walls and the patio.
Still, Gaudí was aware of the important history this location bore to Catalonia, so he worked to preserve the medieval spirit of the ruins, as is evident in the exterior resemblance to a medieval castle, complemented by signature aspects of Gaudí's architectural style. As always, Gaudí sought to blend the construction with its natural surroundings, hence the exterior is made with stone slate. Through Gaudí's incorporation of decorative elements resonant of natural surroundings together with traditional gothic characteristics, the façade of the structure is still best understood as neogothic, though there is no denying the modernist elements in the actual Torre Bellesguard. Gaudí designed the home in a period. For instance, while the building displays Gaudí's iconic mosaic detailing and incorporation of natural elements, it does not include Moorish accents and bright colors, which are key distinctive characteristics in much of his works. Gaudí was given free rein to design and construct what was intended as a second home for the Jaume family, however this freedom bestowed to the artist proved disastrous for the family.
Figueres died before the construction had finished, leaving the responsibility of overseeing the final construction to his wife, who grew frustrated with constant delays due to Gaudí's obsessive detailing. While the months Gaudí dedicated to placing tencadís on the structure are part of what makes the home so beautiful today, the process added such significant time and cost to the construction that Molíns was never able to live in the home and had to sell it to avoid bankruptcy; the house changed hands for several years until the Guilera family purchased the home in 1944 and has continued to own it for over 70 years. When Lluis Guilera Molas first bought Casa Figueres in 1944, the esteemed doctor intended to convert the building into a modernist hospital, similar to Sant Pau, dedicated to cancer treatment and research; the building continued to serve medical purposes following Lluis' death in 1969 when his son, Lluís Guilera Soler, a gynecologist and obstetrician, inherited the home and hospital.
Several Barcelona citizens were born in Casa Figueres until 1974 when the site of the hospital relocated to a more accessible area better suited to medical needs. From that point on, the original building has served the purpose that Gaudí always intended—a private home. For the past 30 years, the Guilera family has left the gates open permitting guests to stroll the gardens and observe the home's exquisite exterior. Over the years, they received countless requests from visitors to explore inside the home and enjoy Gaudí's more modernist interior detailing. Both due to the popular demand from visitors as well as the family's realization that restoration was necessary, the Guilera family began plans to open their home to the public in 2009; the need for restoration was a strong factor in influencing the Guilera family to open their home to the public, as they realized that in living in such a historic and architectural jewel they assumed responsibility of its preservation. As areas of the home began to deteriorate and the bustling urban life of Barcelona began to encroach on their secluded natural sanctuary, the family realized that it was time to open the home to tours to ease the finances required to maintain the unique Gaudí landmark.
The family began inviting tours in September 2013, offering access to the interior accompanied by explanations of the history and architecture. Casa Figueres is constructed of stone and brick; the general structure is 19.5 m high, with an area of 900 m. The exterior façade is more neogothic, as Gaudí intended to pay tribute to the original medieval castle that once stood at the site; as is such, Gaudí used more straight lines seen in his usual work, apparent in the parapets and surface of the walls. The iconic tower, Torre Bellesguard, juts out from a corner of a base, adding to the vertical alignment of the structure created by the straight, vertical lines in his design. Torre Bellesguard is what the building is most recognized for, displaying Gaudí's typical cross of four arms decorated with red and yellow mosaics to mimic the Catalan flag. At the base of the cross one can see what appears to be a crown wrapped around the circumference Gaudi's symbolic acknowledgment of the site's significance to the crown of Aragon.
At the entrance of the house, one can find an inscription that reads, “Maria Purrisima sens pecat fou concebuda,” meaning “
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
El Raval is a neighbourhood in the Ciutat Vella district of Barcelona, Spain. The area the part closest to the old port, was informally known as Barri Xinès or Barrio Chino, meaning "Chinatown". El Raval is one of the two historical neighborhoods that border La Rambla, the other being the Barri Gòtic, contains some 50,000 people. An area infamous for its nightlife and cabarets, as well as prostitution and crime, El Raval has changed in recent years and due to its central location has become a minor attraction of Barcelona, it has a diverse immigrant community. It is home to many bars and night spots; the northern border of the neighborhood is marked by Plaça Catalunya and Plaça Universitat, the street which connects them, Carrer de Pelai. It ends in the east with La Rambla, in the west and south, the neighborhood is delimited by Ronda Sant Antoni, Ronda Sant Pau and Avinguda del Paral·lel. There are a few historical monuments such as the Monastery of Sant Pau del Camp, as well as newer additions such as the Rambla del Raval, the MACBA or the Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona.
In the southern part of the neighborhood an old wall and gate of the medieval city called Portal de Santa Madrona still exists as part of the Maritime Museum. The Raval is known for its large statue of a cat by Fernando Botero, located on the Rambla del Raval; the city's most famous market, La Boqueria, is situated in the Raval. In the east of the neighbourhood, Antoni Gaudí's Palau Güell is located on the Carrer Nou de la Rambla. Drassanes Liceu Paral·lel Sant Antoni Josep Maria de Sagarra's 1932 book Vida Privada Rafael Gil's 1948 film La calle sin sol Jean Genet's 1949 book, The Thief's Journal Joan Colom's photos of the neighbourhood, starting in the 1950s Eduardo Mendoza's 1975 book La verdad sobre el caso Savolta Terenci Moix's 1976 book La caiguda de l'imperi sodomita José Antonio de la Loma's 1977 film Las alegres chicas de El Molino Ivà's comic strip Makinavaja, started in 1986. Francisco Casavella's 1990 book El Triunfo Maruja Torres's 1997 book Un calor tan cercano Francisco Casavella's 1997 book Un enano español se suicida en Las Vegas Roberto Bolaño's 1998 novel The Savage Detectives José Luis Guerin's 2001 documentary En construcción Carlos Ruiz Zafón's 2001 novel The Shadow of the Wind Francisco Casavella's 2002-2003 book trilogy El día del Watusi Cesc Gay's 2003 film En la ciudad Pau Miró's 2004 play Llueve en Barcelona Joaquim Jordà's 2005 film De nens Juan Marsé's 2005 book Canciones de amor en Lolita's Club Mireia Ros's 2005 film El Triunfo Ferran Aisa i Mei Vidal, 2006 book El Raval, un espail al marge Antoni Verdaguer's 2006 film Raval, Raval... Fernando Gómez's 2008 book El misterio de la Calle Poniente Marc Pastor's 2009 book La mala dona Francesc Betriu's 2009 documentary Mónica del Raval Jo Sol's 2009 film The Runner's Salary Javier Calvo's 2009 novel Corona de Flores Maruja Torres's 2009 book Esperadme en el cielo Alejandro González Iñárritu's 2010 film Biutiful Javier Zuloaga's 2011 novel Librería Libertad Mathias Énard's 2012 novel Rue des voleurs Xavier Artigas and Xapo Ortega's 2014 documentary Ciutat morta Enriqueta Martí, serial killer known as the Vampyre of Barcelona.
Terenci Moix, writer. Peret, singer. Maruja Torres, writer. Manuel Vázquez Montalbán, writer. Andreu Jacob, Film music composer La Paloma Raval Pakistanis in Spain Ravalnet.org El Raval Solidari Fundació Tot Raval Casal dels Infants del Raval Ravalear: guide to visit "el Raval" day and night
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Sagrada Família Schools
The Sagrada Família Schools building was constructed in 1909 by the modern Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí near the site of the Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Sagrada Família. It was a small school building for the children of the workers building the Sagrada Familia although other children of the neighborhood attended from the underprivileged classes; the building has a rectangular footprint of 10 m by 20 m, contains three classrooms, a hall, a chapel, with lavatories in an addition to the building. The construction was done with a brick facade, in three overlapping layers, following the Catalan technical tradition. Both the walls and the roof have a wavy form, that gives the structure a sensation of lightness but, at the same time, great strength. On the exterior three areas intended; the building has been seen as an example of constructive genius and has served as a source of inspiration for many architects for its simplicity, original volume and geometrical purity. Its undulating form has been applied by architects like Le Corbusier, Pier Luigi Nervi, Felix Candela, Santiago Calatrava.
The building was designed on the commission of the Devout of San José, presided over by Josep Maria Bocabella, founder of the Basilica of the Sagrada Familia. Its principal promoter was Gil Parés, the first parish priest of the Sagrada Familia, the school's principal until 1930. At first he followed the pedagogic method of Andrés Manjón, founder of the school of Ave Maria de Granada, but from 1915 on he applied the Montessori method; the schools were inaugurated on November 15, 1909 by the bishop of Barcelona, Juan José Laguarda y Fenollera. It was located on ground destined to face the Glory facade, in a site which would not be needed during the initial phases of the planned development of the Sagrada Família; the school suffered grave damage during the Spanish Civil War, for which the building was dismantled in blocks and reconstructed later. Doménic Sugrañes was charged with its restoration in 1940 with limited funds, resulting in its collapse and the need for renewed intervention in 1943 under Francesc Quintana.
In 2002, the original schools site was required for the ongoing development of the church, the schools building was again dismantled, transferred to the southern corner of the site, between Sardenya and Mallorca Streets. Joan Bassegoda Nonell: Gaudí o espacio, luz y equilibrio, Madrid, 2002, ISBN 84-95437-10-4. Maria Antonietta Crippa: Gaudí, Colonia, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8228-2519-8. María José Gómez Gimeno: La Sagrada Familia, Mundo Flip Ediciones, 2006, ISBN 84-933983-4-9. Media related to Sagrada Família schools at Wikimedia Commons
John Joseph Nicholson is an American actor and filmmaker who has performed for over sixty years. He is known for playing a wide range of starring or supporting roles, including satirical comedy and dark portrayals of anti-heroes and villainous characters. In many of his films, he has played the "eternal outsider, the sardonic drifter", someone who rebels against the social structure, his most known and celebrated films include the road drama Easy Rider. Nicholson has not acted in a film since How Do You Know in 2010, but does not consider himself to be retired, he has directed three films, including The Two Jakes, the sequel to Chinatown. Nicholson's 12 Academy Award nominations make him the most nominated male actor in the Academy's history. Nicholson has won the Academy Award for Best Actor twice – one for the drama One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, the other for the romantic comedy As Good as It Gets, he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the comedy-drama Terms of Endearment.
Nicholson is one of three male actors to win three Academy Awards. Nicholson is one of only two actors to be nominated for an Academy Award for acting in every decade from the 1960s to the 2000s, he has won six Golden Globe Awards, received the Kennedy Center Honor in 2001. In 1994, at 57, he became one of the youngest actors to be awarded the American Film Institute's Life Achievement Award, he has had a number of high-profile relationships, most notably with Anjelica Huston and Rebecca Broussard, was married to Sandra Knight from 1962 until their divorce in 1968. Nicholson has five children – one with Knight, two with Broussard, one each with Susan Anspach and Winnie Hollman. Nicholson was born on April 22, 1937, in Neptune City, New Jersey, the son of a showgirl, June Frances Nicholson. Nicholson's mother was of Irish and German descent, she married Italian-American showman Donald Furcillo in 1936, before realizing that he was married. Biographer Patrick McGilligan stated in his book Jack's Life that Latvian-born Eddie King, June's manager, may have been Nicholson's biological father, rather than Furcillo.
Other sources suggest. As June was only seventeen years old and unmarried, her parents agreed to raise Nicholson as their own child without revealing his true parentage, June would act as his sister. In 1974, Time magazine researchers learned, informed Nicholson, that his "sister", was his mother, his other "sister", was his aunt. By this time, both his mother and grandmother had died. On finding out, Nicholson said it was "a pretty dramatic event, but it wasn't what I'd call traumatizing... I was pretty well psychologically formed". Nicholson grew up in New Jersey, he was raised in his mother's Roman Catholic religion. Before starting high school, his family moved to an apartment in New Jersey. "When Jack was ready for high school, the family moved once more—this time two miles farther south to old-money Spring Lake, New Jersey's so-called Irish Riviera, where Ethel May set up her beauty parlor in a rambling duplex at 505 Mercer Avenue." "Nick", as he was known to his high school friends, attended nearby Manasquan High School, where he was voted "Class Clown" by the Class of 1954.
He was in detention every day for a whole school year. A theatre and a drama award at the school are named in his honor. In 2004, Nicholson attended his 50-year high school reunion accompanied by his aunt Lorraine. In 1957, Nicholson joined the California Air National Guard, a move he sometimes characterized as an effort to "dodge the draft". After completing the Air Force's basic training at Lackland Air Force Base, Nicholson performed weekend drills and two-week annual training as a fire fighter assigned to the unit based at the Van Nuys Airport. During the Berlin Crisis of 1961, Nicholson was called up for several months of extended active duty, he was discharged at the end of his enlistment in 1962. Nicholson first came to Hollywood in 1954, he took a job as an office worker for animators William Hanna and Joseph Barbera at the MGM cartoon studio. They offered him a starting-level job as an animator, but he declined, citing his desire to become an actor, he trained to be an actor with a group called the Players Ring Theater, after which time he found small parts performing on the stage and in TV soap operas.
He made his film debut in a low-budget teen drama The Cry Baby Killer. For the following decade, Nicholson was a frequent collaborator with the film's producer, Roger Corman. Corman directed Nicholson on several occasions, most notably in The Little Shop of Horrors, as masochistic dental patient and undertaker Wil
Modernisme known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predominant cultures within Spain. Nowadays it is considered a movement based on the cultural reivindication of a catalan identity, its main form of expression was in architecture, but many other arts were involved, the design and the decorative arts, which were important in their role as support to architecture. Modernisme was a literary movement. Although Modernisme was part of a general trend that emerged in Europe around the turn of the 20th century, in Catalonia the trend acquired its own unique personality. Modernisme's distinct name comes from its special relationship with Catalonia and Barcelona, which were intensifying their local characteristics for socio-ideological reasons after the revival of Catalan culture and in the context of spectacular urban and industrial development. At the end of the 19th century, architectural tendencies arise in Europe that break with the traditional criteria and seek new ways of building with the intention of the twentieth century, which give great relevance to aesthetics.
This movement is a consequence of the Second Industrial Revolution, which has taken root in the various countries, the advances derived from it, such as electricity, the railroad and the steam engine, which have changed the way of living population and have led to the growth of cities, in which industries have been established that run a growing number of bourgeois. Modernisme was, therefore, an urban and bourgeois style, on horseback between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it was an international movement with different names being developed all over the western world: Art Nouveau in France and Belgium, Modern Style or Glasgow Style in Scotland and the United Kingdom, Jugendstil in Germany, Secession in Austria, Liberty in Italy, etc. In Catalonia, it had his own personality to speak of Catalan modernisme, due to the large quantity and quality of the works carried out and the great number of leading artists who cultivated this style. Stylistically, it is a heterogeneous movement, with many differences between artists, each one with its personal stamp, but with the same spirit, an eagerness to modernize and Europeanise Catalonia.
The recovery of the medieval architectural past advocated by John Ruskin and Viollet-le-Duc and the aesthetics of William Morris, Walter Crane, Mackintosh, among others, were accepted as the basis for artistic renewal. The Modernistas believed in the creative imagination as a creator of symbols in contrast to eclectics who thought of art as an objective representation of reality. In fact, Modernisme represents all over the world and in Catalonia the freedom to create new forms unacceptable, removing the art of academicism; these new trends become evident in different arts such as architecture, painting, decorative arts, in literature and music. It is considered that Catalan Modernisme began in 1888 as the first universal exhibition in Barcelona but there are features of Modernisme in the new Provincial School of Architecture, inaugurated in Barcelona in 1871 and directed by the architect Elies Rogent i Amat, and before this milestone trends of Modernisme are presented in the work of architects such as Josep Domènech i Estapà, although he himself, refused to be a follower of Modernisme.
The circumstance occurred that to the demolition of the walls of Barcelona and to become effective the construction of the Barcelona extension until uniting the different municipalities of the plain, it is put underway the growth of the city taking the dimension from on from the big city, as a result of it a large number of witnesses of that urbanization and construction fever. Catalan nationalism was an important influence upon Modernista artists, who were receptive to the ideas of Valentí Almirall and Enric Prat de la Riba and wanted Catalan culture to be regarded as equal to that of other European countries; such ideas can be seen in some of Rusiñol's plays against the Spanish army, in some authors close to anarchism or in the articles of federalist anti-monarchic writers such as Miquel dels Sants Oliver. They opposed the traditionalism and religiousness of the Renaixença Catalan Romantics, whom they ridiculed in plays such as Santiago Rusiñol's Els Jocs Florals de Canprosa, a satire of the revived Jocs Florals and the political milieu which promoted them.
Modernistes rejected bourgeois values, which they thought to be the opposite of art. They adopted two stances: they either set themselves apart from society in a bohemian or culturalist attitude or they attempted to use art to change society At the end of the 19th century, product of industrialization, throughout Europe there was an intellectual debate in kee