Michelangelo Antonioni, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI, was an Italian film director, screenwriter and short story author. Best known for his "trilogy on modernity and its discontents" — L'Avventura, La Notte, L'Eclisse —as well as the English-language films Blowup and The Passenger, Antonioni produced "enigmatic and intricate mood pieces" that rejected action and plot in favor of contemplation and design. According to AllMovie, he "redefined the concept of narrative cinema" and challenged traditional approaches to storytelling and drama. Antonioni received numerous awards and nominations throughout his career, including the Cannes Film Festival Jury Prize, Palme d'Or, 35th Anniversary Prize, he is one of three directors to have won the Palme d'Or, the Golden Lion and the Golden Bear, the only director to have won these three and the Golden Leopard. Antonioni was born into a prosperous family of landowners in Ferrara, Emilia Romagna, in northern Italy, he was the son of Ismaele Antonioni. The director explained to Italian film critic Aldo Tassone: My childhood was a happy one.
My mother... was a warm and intelligent woman, a laborer in her youth. My father was a good man. Born into a working-class family, he succeeded in obtaining a comfortable position through evening courses and hard work. My parents gave me free rein to do what I wanted: with my brother, we spent most of our time playing outside with friends. Curiously enough, our friends were invariably proletarian, poor; the poor still existed at that time, you recognized them by their clothes. But in the way they wore their clothes, there was a fantasy, a frankness that made me prefer them to boys of bourgeois families. I always had sympathy for young women of working-class families later when I attended university: they were more authentic and spontaneous; as a child, Antonioni was fond of music. A precocious violinist, he gave his first concert at the age of nine. Although he abandoned the violin with the discovery of cinema in his teens, drawing would remain a lifelong passion. "I have never drawn as a child, either puppets or silhouettes but rather facades of houses and gates.
One of my favorite games consisted of organizing towns. Ignorant in architecture, I constructed streets crammed with little figures. I invented stories for them; these childhood happenings - I was eleven years old - were like little films."Upon graduation from the University of Bologna with a degree in economics, he started writing for the local Ferrara newspaper Il Corriere Padano in 1935 as a film journalist. In 1940, Antonioni moved to Rome, where he worked for Cinema, the official Fascist film magazine edited by Vittorio Mussolini. However, Antonioni was fired a few months afterward; that year he enrolled at the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia to study film technique, but left after three months. He was subsequently drafted into the army. During the war Antonioni survived being condemned to death as a member of the Italian resistance. In 1942, Antonioni co-wrote A Pilot Returns with Roberto Rossellini and worked as assistant director on Enrico Fulchignoni's I due Foscari. In 1943, he travelled to France to assist Marcel Carné on Les visiteurs du soir and began a series of short films with Gente del Po, a story of poor fishermen of the Po valley.
When Rome was liberated by the Allies, the film stock was transferred to the Fascist "Republic of Salò" and could not be recovered and edited until 1947. These films were neorealist in style, being semi-documentary studies of the lives of ordinary people. However, Antonioni's first full-length feature film Cronaca di un amore broke away from neorealism by depicting the middle classes, he continued to do so in a series of other films: I vinti, a trio of stories, each set in a different country, about juvenile delinquency. Il grido was a return to working class stories, depicting his daughter; each of these stories is about social alienation. In Le Amiche, Antonioni experimented with a radical new style: instead of a conventional narrative, he presented a series of disconnected events, he used long takes as part of his film making style. Antonioni returned to their use in L'avventura. At the Cannes Film Festival it received a mixture of cheers and boos, but the film was popular in art house cinemas around the world.
La notte, starring Jeanne Moreau and Marcello Mastroianni, L'Eclisse, starring Alain Delon, followed L'avventura. These three films are referred to as a trilogy because they are stylistically similar and all concerned with the alienation of man in the modern world. La notte won the Golden Bear award at the 11th Berlin International Film Festival, His first color film, Il deserto rosso, deals with similar themes, is sometimes considered the fourth film of the "trilogy". All of these films star his lover during that period. Antonioni signed a deal with producer Carlo Ponti that would allow artistic freedom on three films in English to be released by MGM
Sony Pictures Classics
Sony Pictures Classics is an American film production and distribution company, a division of Sony Pictures. It was founded in 1992 by former Orion Classics heads Michael Barker, Tom Bernard, Marcie Bloom, it distributes and acquires specialty films such as documentaries and art films in the United States and internationally. As of 2015, Barker and Bernard are co-presidents of the division. Sony Pictures Classics was founded in 1992, by Michael Barker, Tom Bernard, Marcie Bloom, set up as an autonomous division of Sony Pictures; the model of the company is to produce, acquire and/or distribute independent films from the United States and internationally. Sony Pictures Classics has a history of making reasonable investments for small films, getting a decent return, it has a history of not overspending. Its largest commercial success of the 2010s is Woody Allen's Midnight in Paris, which grossed over $56 million in the U. S. becoming Allen's highest-grossing film in the United States. Sony Pictures Classics agrees to release films for all other film studio divisions of Sony.
The following films have been announced by Sony Pictures Classics, but have "to be determined" release dates. Where's My Roy Cohn? John Prine: Hello in There Mongrel Media, the exclusive theatrical Canadian distributor for Sony Pictures Classics films Official website Sony Pictures Classics on IMDb
The Sahara is a desert located on the African continent. It is the largest hot desert in the world, the third largest desert overall after Antarctica and the Arctic, its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres is comparable to the area of the United States. The name'Sahara' is derived from a dialectal Arabic word for ṣaḥra; the desert comprises much of North Africa, excluding the fertile region on the Mediterranean Sea coast, the Atlas Mountains of the Maghreb, the Nile Valley in Egypt and Sudan. It stretches from the Red Sea in the east and the Mediterranean in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, where the landscape changes from desert to coastal plains. To the south, it is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of semi-arid tropical savanna around the Niger River valley and the Sudan Region of Sub-Saharan Africa; the Sahara can be divided into several regions including: the western Sahara, the central Ahaggar Mountains, the Tibesti Mountains, the Aïr Mountains, the Ténéré desert, the Libyan Desert.
For several hundred thousand years, the Sahara has alternated between desert and savanna grassland in a 41,000 year cycle caused by the precession of the Earth's axis as it rotates around the Sun, which changes the location of the North African Monsoon. The area is next expected to become green in about 15,000 years. There is a suggestion that the last time that the Sahara was converted from savanna to desert it was due to overgrazing by the cattle of the local population; the Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Niger, Western Sahara and Tunisia. It covers 9 million square kilometres, amounting to 31% of Africa. If all areas with a mean annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the Sahara would be 11 million square kilometres, it is one of three distinct physiographic provinces of the African massive physiographic division. The Sahara is rocky hamada. Wind or rare rainfall shape the desert features: sand dunes, dune fields, sand seas, stone plateaus, gravel plains, dry valleys, dry lakes, salt flats.
Unusual landforms include the Richat Structure in Mauritania. Several dissected mountains, many volcanic, rise from the desert, including the Aïr Mountains, Ahaggar Mountains, Saharan Atlas, Tibesti Mountains, Adrar des Iforas, the Red Sea Hills; the highest peak in the Sahara is Emi Koussi, a shield volcano in the Tibesti range of northern Chad. The central Sahara is hyperarid, with sparse vegetation; the northern and southern reaches of the desert, along with the highlands, have areas of sparse grassland and desert shrub, with trees and taller shrubs in wadis, where moisture collects. In the central, hyperarid region, there are many subdivisions of the great desert: Tanezrouft, the Ténéré, the Libyan Desert, the Eastern Desert, the Nubian Desert and others; these arid areas receive no rain for years. To the north, the Sahara skirts the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt and portions of Libya, but in Cyrenaica and the Maghreb, the Sahara borders the Mediterranean forest and scrub eco-regions of northern Africa, all of which have a Mediterranean climate characterized by hot summers and cool and rainy winters.
According to the botanical criteria of Frank White and geographer Robert Capot-Rey, the northern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the northern limit of date palm cultivation and the southern limit of the range of esparto, a grass typical of the Mediterranean climate portion of the Maghreb and Iberia. The northern limit corresponds to the 100 mm isohyet of annual precipitation. To the south, the Sahara is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of dry tropical savanna with a summer rainy season that extends across Africa from east to west; the southern limit of the Sahara is indicated botanically by the southern limit of Cornulaca monacantha, or northern limit of Cenchrus biflorus, a grass typical of the Sahel. According to climatic criteria, the southern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the 150 mm isohyet of annual precipitation. Important cities located in the Sahara include the capital of Mauritania; the Sahara is the world's largest low-latitude hot desert. It is located in the horse latitudes under the subtropical ridge, a significant belt of semi-permanent subtropical warm-core high pressure where the air from upper levels of the troposphere tends to sink towards the ground.
This steady descending airflow causes a drying effect in the upper troposphere. The sinking air prevents evaporating water from rising, therefore prevents adiabatic cooling, which makes cloud formation difficult to nearly impossible; the permanent dissolution of clouds allows thermal radiation. The stability of the atmosphere above the desert prevents any convective overturning, thus making rainfall non-existent; as a consequence, the weather tends to be sunny and stable with a minimal chance of rainfall. Subsiding, dry air masses associated with subtropical high-pressure systems are unfavorable for the development of convectional showers; the subtropical ridge is the predominant factor that explains the hot desert climate (Köppen climate classifica
Carlo Fortunato Pietro Ponti Sr. was an Italian film producer with more than 140 productions to his credit. He was the husband of international film star Sophia Loren. Ponti was born in Magenta, where his grandfather had been mayor of the city. Ponti studied law at the University of Milan, he joined his father's law firm in Milan and became involved in the film business through negotiating contracts. Ponti attempted to establish a film industry in Milan in 1940 and produced Mario Soldati's Piccolo Mondo Antico there, starring Alida Valli, in her first notable role; the film dealt with the Italian struggle against the Austrians for the inclusion of northeastern Italy into the Kingdom of Italy during the Risorgimento. The film was successful, because it was easy to see "the Austrians as Germans" during World War II; as a result, he was jailed for undermining relations with Nazi Germany. Ponti accepted an offer from Riccardo Gualino's Lux Film in Rome in 1941, where he produced a series of commercially successful films featuring the comedian Totò.
In 1954 he had his greatest artistic success with the production of Federico Fellini's La strada. However, Fellini denied Ponti's role in its success and said that "La Strada was made in spite of Ponti and De Laurentiis". Ponti produced Boccaccio'70 in 1962, Marriage Italian Style in 1964, Yesterday and Tomorrow in 1965, he produced his most popular and financially successful film, David Lean's Doctor Zhivago, in 1965. He subsequently produced three notable films with Michelangelo Antonioni, Blowup in 1966, Zabriskie Point in 1970 and The Passenger in 1974. In 1946, he married Giuliana Fiastri with whom he had a daughter, Guendalina, in 1951 and a son in 1953. While serving as a judge in a beauty contest in 1951, Ponti met a minor actress named Sofia Lazzaro, he subsequently cast her in films such as Anna. In 1952, his friend Goffredo Lombardo, head of production at Titanus, changed Lazzaro's name to Sophia Loren. Five years Ponti obtained a Mexican divorce from his first wife and married Sophia Loren by proxy.
Divorce was still forbidden in Italy, he was informed that were he to return there, he would be charged with bigamy, Loren would be charged with "concubinage". Ponti co-produced several films in Hollywood starring Loren, establishing her fame, although most were box-office failures. In 1960, he and Loren returned to Italy and when summoned to court, denied being married. In 1962, they had the marriage annulled, after which Ponti arranged with his first wife, that the three of them move to France and become French citizens. In 1965, Giuliana Ponti divorced her husband, allowing Ponti to marry Loren in 1966 in a civil wedding in Sèvres, they became French citizens after their application was approved by then-French President Georges Pompidou. Ponti and Loren had two children: Carlo Ponti Jr. Edoardo Ponti Their daughters-in-law are Sasha Alexander and Andrea Meszaros, they have four grandchildren. Loren remained married to Ponti until his death on 10 January 2007 of pulmonary complications; when asked in a November 2009 interview if she were likely to marry again, Loren replied "No, never again.
It would be impossible to love anyone else." Two unsuccessful attempts were made to kidnap Ponti in 1975, including one involving an attack on his car with gunfire. He was tried in absentia in 1979 for smuggling money and works of art abroad, fined 22 billion lire, sentenced to four years in prison. Ponti did not attend the hearing, he was cleared of the charges in 1990. Ponti owned works by, among others, Georges Braque, René Magritte, Salvador Dalí, Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth, Giorgio de Chirico and Canaletto, his collection was renowned for containing ten works by Francis Bacon. These included examples from his early Van Gogh series, self-portraits and pope paintings, which were publicised or lent to public exhibitions. In 1977 the Bacon paintings valued at an estimated $6.7 million, were seized and turned over by the Italian government to the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan. When Ponti reached a deal with the Italian government and was cleared of the charges brought against him in 1990, he regained possession of 230 confiscated paintings.
At some point, the collection is said to have been split between Loren. Over the years, several works have been sold privately. In 2006 two Bacon paintings, in the Ponti collection were exhibited in an exhibition at the Gagosian Gallery in London. One, a vertical composition of four self-portraits, had been sold to the American collector Steven A. Cohen. In 2007 another pope painting by Bacon, sold by Ponti in 1991, was sold in a private deal brokered by Acquavella Galleries in New York for more than £15 million; that same year, Study for Portrait II was consigned by Loren at Christie's. Ponti died in Geneva, from pulmonary complications on 10 January 2007, he was survived by Sophia Loren. His body rests in the family tomb in Lombardy. Carlo Ponti on IMDb
Vera is a municipality of Almería province, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Today Vera is one of the most important commercial centres in the region, with a thriving traditional core and a number of supermarkets and commercial organisations spread along the ring road. Vera itself lies 10 kilometres inland from the coast, but the municipality extends to the sea shore. There, a tourist settlement, named Vera Playa, has been developed; this now forms the main economic activity of Vera. Since 1990, Vera Playa has developed into an important centre for naturism; the earliest Carthaginian and Moorish settlement was at Baria, by the sea near Villaricos. But in the unsettled times of the early Middle Ages, the settlement was moved inland to the hill of Espiritu Santo, but an earthquake destroyed it in 1518. Following the earthquake it was rebuilt on the site it occupies, as a rectangular layout with eight towers and two gates. At the centre was the Parish Church of the Encarnación, built as a fortress to protect the village against pirates.
In the late 19th century the town expanded due to mining activity in the region, but it subsequently declined until its recent development as a tourist centre. Vera has a long and wide beach with a large number of ´´chiringuitos´´. There are many new neighborhoods in construction and the population is growing; the weather is good all year long, the area receives many holiday-makers. The north of Vera Playa is known for its naturist area, one of the largest in Europe, with accommodation and nightlife. Since 1990, Vera Playa has developed into an important centre for naturism. There are several apartment complexes, including Natsun, La Manera, Bahia de Vera and Vera Natura, where naturism is permitted; the naturist complex is open and there are good parking facilities. About 2 kilometres of beach have been reserved for naturists; the area of Vera Playa includes one of Spain's naturist hotels. On 21 July 2013 a local group called Vera Playa Friends organised a Guinness World Record attempt at the largest skinny dip.
729 naturists entered the sea at El Playazo beach at 12:00 noon beating the previous record of 506 set in New Zealand the previous year. Vera Mayor José Carmelo Jorge called the mass nude swim a "tremendous success"; the event was organised by Vera Playa Friends in association with Vera Town hall and Tourist Office heavily involved were the Spanish Naturist Federation and the day chosen was the "day without swimsuits" with hundreds of Spanish naturists flocking to the beach. A local charity for children suffering from disabilities benefited from the Guinness World Record crowds. Vera - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía Vera - Diputación Provincial de Almería Vera - Vera town information. - naturist zone information website
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
1975 Cannes Film Festival
The 28th Cannes Film Festival was held from 9 to 23 May 1975. The Palme d'Or went to the Chronique des Années de Braise by Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina. In 1975, a new section, "Les Yeux fertiles", non-competitive, was introduced; this section, along with sections "L'Air du temps" and "Le Passé composé" of the next two years, were integrated into Un Certain Regard in 1978. The festival opened with A Happy Divorce, directed by Henning Carlsen and closed with Tommy, directed by Ken Russell; the following people were appointed as the Jury of the 1975 feature film competition:Feature films Jeanne Moreau Jury President André Delvaux Anthony Burgess Fernando Rey George Roy Hill Gérard Ducaux-Rupp Léa Massari Pierre Mazars Pierre Salinger Youlia Solntzeva The following feature films competed for the Palme d'Or: The following films were selected to be screened out of competition: The following short films competed for the Short Film Palme d'Or: The following feature films were screened for the 14th International Critics' Week: The following films were screened for the 1975 Directors' Fortnight: Allonsanfan by Paolo and Vittorio Taviani The Battle of Chile by Patricio Guzman Black Angel by Werner Schroeter Chac by Rolando Klein Conjugal Warfare by Joaquim Pedro de Andrade Di Assimanton Aformin by Tassos Psarras Fox and His Friends by Rainer Werner Fassbinder French Provincial by André Téchiné Hauptlehrer Hofer by Peter Lilienthal Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles by Chantal Akerman The Last Day of School Before Christmas by Gian Vittorio Baldi Milestones by Robert Kramer, John Douglas Njangaan by Mahama Johnson Traoré Les oeillets rouges d'avril by Véra Belmont Das Ruckendekollete by Jan Nemec Shazdeh Ehtedjab by Bahman Farmanara Strah by Matjaz Klopcic Strike! by Oddvar Bull Tuhus Sunday Too Far Away by Ken Hannam The Texas Chain Saw Massacre by Tobe Hooper The Travelling Players by Theo Angelopoulos Les vautours by Jean-Claude Labrecque Zone Interdite by Ahmed Lallem Short films The following films and people received the 1975 Official selection awards: Palme d'Or: Chronicle of the Years of Fire by Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, Algeria Grand Prix: The Enigma of Kaspar Hauser by Werner Herzog Award for Best Director: Costa Gavras for Section spéciale and Michel Brault for Les Ordres Award for Best Actress: Valerie Perrine for Lenny Award for Best Actor: Vittorio Gassman for Scent of a Woman Short films Short Film Palme d'Or: Lautrec by Geoff Dunbar Special Jury Prize: Daryu tebe zvezdu by Fyodor Khitruk FIPRESCI FIPRESCI Prize: The Enigma of Kaspar Hauser by Werner Herzog The Travelling Players by Theo AngelopoulosCommission Supérieure Technique Technical Grand Prize: A Touch of Zen by King HuEcumenical Jury Prize of the Ecumenical Jury: The Enigma of Kaspar Hauser by Werner Herzog INA: Jeanne Moreau, president of the 1975 jury Jean Moreau states in the interview that more important than the Main Selection have become the events of the Parallel Section which make possible the existence of the Festival.
1975 Cannes Film Festival Official website Retrospective 1975 Cannes Film Festival Awards for 1975 at Internet Movie Database