SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pale lager

Pale lager is a pale-to-golden-colored lager beer with a well-attenuated body and a varying degree of noble hop bitterness. The brewing process for this beer developed in the mid-19th century, when Gabriel Sedlmayr took pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery in Germany and applied them to existing lagering methods; this approach was picked up by other brewers, most notably Josef Groll of Bavaria, who produced Pilsner Urquell in the city of Pilsen, Austria-Hungary. The resulting Pilsner beers — pale-colored and stable — spread around the globe to become the most common form of beer consumed in the world today. Bavarian brewers in the sixteenth century were required by law to brew beer only during the cooler months of the year. In order to have beer available during the hot summer months, beers would be stored in caves and stone cellars under blocks of ice. In the period 1820–1830, a brewer named Gabriel Sedlmayr II the Younger, whose family was running the Spaten Brewery in Bavaria, went around Europe to improve his brewing skills.

When he returned, he used what he had learned to get a more consistent lager beer. The Bavarian lager was still different from the known modern lager; the new recipe of the improved lager beer spread over Europe. In particular Sedlmayr's friend Anton Dreher adopted new kilning techniques that enabled the use of lighter malts to improve the Viennese beer in 1840–1841, creating a rich amber-red colored Vienna-style lager. Pale lagers tend to be dry, clean-tasting and crisp. Flavors may be subtle, with no traditional beer ingredient dominating the others. Hop character ranges from negligible to a dry bitterness from noble hops; the main ingredients are water, Pilsner malt and noble hops, though some brewers use adjuncts such as rice or corn to lighten the body of the beer. There tends to be no butterscotch flavor from diacetyl, due to the cold fermentation process. Alcohol content is c.4% or more. Pale lager was developed in the mid 19th century, when Gabriel Sedlmayr took some British pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery in Germany, started to modernize continental brewing methods.

In 1842 Josef Groll of Pilsen, a city in western Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic, used some of these methods to produce Pilsner Urquell, the first known example of a golden lager. This beer proved so successful. Breweries now use the terms "lager" and "Pilsner" interchangeably, though pale lagers from Germany and the Czech Republic with the name Pilsner tend to have more evident noble hop aroma and dry finish than other pale lagers. With the success of Pilsen's golden beer, the town of Dortmund in Germany started brewing pale lager in 1873; as Dortmund was a major brewing center, the town breweries grouped together to export the beer beyond the town, the brand name Dortmunder Export became known. Today, breweries in Denmark, the Netherlands, North America brew pale lagers labelled as Dortmunder Export. In 1894, the Spaten Brewery in Munich noticed the commercial success of the pale lagers Pilsner and Dortmunder Export. Other Munich breweries were reluctant to brew pale-colored beer, though as the popularity of pale beers grew, so other breweries in Munich and Bavaria began brewing pale lager either using the name hell or pils.

Today, in Munich and Bavaria pale lagers termed helles, pils or gold remain popular, with a local inclination to use low levels of hops, an abv in the range 4.7% to 5.4% abv. The earliest known brewing of pale lager in America was in the Old City section of Philadelphia by John Wagner in 1840 using yeast from his native Bavaria. Modern American lagers are made by large breweries such as Anheuser-Busch. Lightness of body is a cardinal virtue, both by design and since it allows the use of a high percentage of rice or corn. Though all lagers are well attenuated, a more fermented pale lager in Germany goes by the name Diät-Pils or Diätbier. "Diet" in the instance not referring to being "light" in calories or body, rather its sugars are fermented into alcohol, allowing the beer to be targeted to diabetics due to its lower carbohydrate content. Because the available sugars are fermented, dry beers have a higher alcohol content, which may be reduced in the same manner as low-alcohol beers; the first dry beer, Gablinger's Diet Beer, was released in 1967, developed by Joseph Owades at Rheingold Breweries in Brooklyn.

Owades developed an enzyme that could further break down starches, so that the finished product contained fewer residual carbohydrates and was lower in food energy. Since the 2012 revisions to the Diätverordnung, it is no longer permitted to label beer as "Diät" in Germany, but it may be advertised as "suitable for diabetics". Prior to this change, a Diätbier could contain no more than 7.5 g of unfermented carbohydrates per liter, the alcohol content could not exceed normal levels. A marketing term for a

Blue grosbeak

The blue grosbeak, is a medium-sized seed-eating bird in the same family as the northern cardinal, "tropical" or New World buntings, "cardinal-grosbeaks" or New World grosbeaks. The male blue grosbeak is entirely deep blue; the female is brown. Both sexes are distinguished by their deep bill and double wing bars; these features, as well as the grosbeak's larger size, distinguish this species from the indigo bunting. Length can range from 14 to 19 cm and wingspan is from 26 to 29 cm. Body mass is from 26 to 31.5 g. This is a migratory bird, with nesting grounds across most of the southern half of the United States and much of northern Mexico, migrating south to Central America and in small numbers to northern South America, it eats insects, but it will eat snails, seeds and wild fruits. The blue grosbeak forages in shrubs and trees; this species is found in open habitat with scattered trees, riparian woodland, thickets, cultivated lands, woodland edges, overgrown fields, or hedgerows. It nests in a low tree or bush or a tangle of vegetation about 1–3 m above ground at the edge of an open area.

Gallery Ingold, J. L. 1993. Blue Grosbeak. In The Birds of North America, No. 79. Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences. C.: The American Ornithologists’ Union. Klicka JT. Ph. D.. A molecular perspective on the evolution of North American songbirds. University of Minnesota, United States—Minnesota. Moorman CE. Ph. D.. Relationships between artificially created gaps and breeding birds in a southeastern bottomland forest. Clemson University, United States—South Carolina. Adolphson DG.. Blue Grosbeak at Lost Creek Tripp County. South Dakota Bird Notes. Vol 21, no 4. Alsop FJ, III.. Mantids Tenodera-Aridisolia Selected as Prey by Blue Grosbeaks Guiraca-Caerulea. Wilson Bulletin. Vol 91, no 1. Pp. 131–132. Ballentine B, Badyaev A & Hill GE.. Changes in song complexity correspond to periods of female fertility in blue grosbeaks. Ethology. Vol 109, no 1. Pp. 55–66. Ballentine B & Hill GE.. Female mate choice in relation to structural plumage coloration in Blue Grosbeaks. Condor. Vol 105, no 3. Pp. 593–598. Brauning DW, Brittingham MC, Gross DA, Leberman RC, Master TL & Mulvihill RS..

Pennsylvania breeding birds of special concern: A listing rational and status update. Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science. Vol 68, no 1. Pp. 3–28. Brennan SP & Schnell GD.. Relationship between bird abundances and landscape characteristics: The influence of scale. Environ Monit Assess. Vol 105, no 1–3. Pp. 209–228. Brown BT.. Rates of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds on Riparian Passerines in Arizona. Journal of Field Ornithology. Vol 65, no 2. Pp. 160–168. Carter JH, III & Wintyen MK.. Blue Grosbeak and Painted Bunting at Southern-Pines North-Carolina in Winter. Chat. vol 36, no 2. Conner RN & Dickson JG.. Relationships between bird communities and forest age, species composition and fragmentation in the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Texas Journal of Science. Vol 49, no 3 SUPPL. Pp. 123–138. Conner RN, Dickson JG, Williamson JH & Ortego B.. Width of forest streamside zones and breeding bird abundance in eastern Texas. Southeastern Naturalist. Vol 3, no 4. Pp. 669–682. Cook AG.. Birds of the Desert Region of Uintah County Utah USA.

Great Basin Naturalist. Vol 44, no 4. Pp. 584–620. Eckert K.. Possible Blue Grosbeak Nesting at Blue Mounds State Park. Loon. vol 47, no 1. Pp. 47–48. Elliott PF.. Cowbird Parasitism in the Kansas USA Tall Grass Prairie. Auk. vol 95, no 1. Pp. 161–167. Eltzroth MS & Jarvis RL.. Sight Record of a Blue Grosbeak in Oregon. Murrelet. Vol 57, no 2. Pp. 44–46. Estep LK, Mays H, Jr. Keyser AJ, Ballentine B & Hill GE.. Effects of breeding density and plumage cuckoldry in blue grosbeaks. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol 83, no 9. Pp. 1143–1148. Genung WG.. Blue Grosbeak Breeds in the Florida Everglades. Florida Field Naturalist. Vol 4, no 1. Pp. 5–7. Gochfeld M, Gochfeld R, Kleinbaum M & Tudor G.. Sight Record of a Blue Grosbeak Guiraca-Caerulea New-Record in Colombia. American Birds. Vol 28, no 5. Haas KH & Haas CA.. Third breeding record of blue grosbeak in North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. Vol 33, no 1. Pp. 41–43. Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Ohio. Igl LD.. A noteworthy record and the breeding distribution of the blue grosbeak in North Dakota.

Prairie Naturalist. Vol 27, no 4. Pp. 205–210. Jensen J.. Blue Grosbeak Nest in Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon. Vol 33, no 2. Johnson JW & Johnson L.. Blue Grosbeak at Huron. South Dakota Bird Notes. Vol 22, no 3. Kaufman K.. Blue Grosbeak and Indigo Bunting. American Birds. Vol 43, no 3. Pp. 385–388. Keyser AJ & Hill GE.. Condition-dependent variation in the blue-ultraviolet coloration of a structurally based plumage ornament. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B. vol 266, no 1421. Pp. 771–777. Keyser AJ & Hill GE.. Structurally based plumage coloration is an honest signal of quality in male blue grosbeaks. Behavioral Ecology. Vol 11, no 2. Pp. 202–209. Klicka J, Fry AJ, Zink RM & Thompson CW.. A cytochrome-b perspective on Passerina bunting relationships. Auk. vol 118, no 3. Pp. 611–623. Luwe WR.. Blue Grosbeak in Blue Earth County. Loon. vol 46, no 3. Pp. 120–121. Maly B.. The Blue Grosbeak in Bucks County. Cassinia. Vol 56, pp. 25–26. McNai

Where Time Began

Viaje al centro de la Tierra is a 1978 Spanish adventure film based on Journey to the Center of the Earth by Jules Verne. It has been released in English-speaking areas under the titles Where Time Began and The Fabulous Journey to the Center of the Earth. Whilst visiting a book shop, Professor Otto Lidenbrock buys an old book containing undisclosed knowledge of the center of the Earth from a mysterious gentleman. Eager to know more, he enlists her lover Axel. Upon arriving in Iceland, they hire Hans. Together, the four of them set off for the adventure of a lifetime... Kenneth More as Professor Otto Lidenbrock Pep Munné as Axel Ivonne Sentis as Glauben Frank Braña as Hans Jack Taylor as Olsen Emiliano Redondo as Prof. Kristoff Lone Fleming as Molly Ricardo Palacios as a train ticket collector José María Caffarel as a professor George Rigaud as a professor Barta Barri as a professor Ángel Álvarez as a professor Journey to the Center of the Earth Journey to the Center of the Earth Journey to the Center of the Earth Viaje al centro de la Tierra on IMDb Journey to the Center of the Earth at the TCM Movie Database