The Iberomaurusian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found near the coasts of Morocco and Tunisia. It is known from a single major site in Libya, the Haua Fteah, where the industry is locally known as the Eastern Oranian; the Iberomaurusian seems to have appeared around the time of the Last Glacial Maximum, somewhere between c. 25,000 and 22,500 cal BP. It would have lasted until the early Holocene c. 11,000 cal BP. The name of the Iberomaurusian means "of Iberia and Mauritania". Pallary coined this term to describe assemblages from the site of La Mouillah in the belief that the industry extended over the strait of Gibraltar into the Iberian peninsula; this theory is now discounted, but the name has stuck. Pallary described the industry based on material found at the site of l'Abri Mouillah. In Algeria and Libya, but not in Morocco, the industry is succeeded by the Capsian industry, whose origins are unclear; the Capsian is believed either to have spread into North-Africa from the Near East, or have evolved from the Iberomaurusian.
In Morocco and Western Algeria, the Iberomaurusian is succeeded by the Cardial culture after a long hiatus. Because the name of the Iberomaurusian implies Afro-European cultural contact now discounted, researchers have proposed other names: Mouillian or Mouillan, based on the site of La Mouillah; the Oranian, based on the Algerian region of Oran. The Epipalaeolithic; the Late Upper Palaeolithic. What follows is a timeline of all published radiocarbon dates from reliably Iberomaurusian contexts, excluding a number of dates produced in the 1960s and 1970s considered "highly doubtful". All dates and Before Present, are according to Hogue and Barton; the Tamar Hat date beyond 25,000 cal BP is tentative. In 2013, Iberomaurusian skeletons from the prehistoric sites of Taforalt and Afalou were analyzed for ancient DNA. All of the specimens belonged to maternal clades associated with either North Africa or the northern and southern Mediterranean littoral, indicating gene flow between these areas since the Epipaleolithic.
The ancient Taforalt individuals carried the mtDNA Haplogroup N subclades like U6, H, JT and V, which points to population continuity in the region dating from the Iberomaurusian period. In 2016 it has been identified mtDNA haplogroups H or U, T2b, JT or H14b1, J, J1c3f, H1, R0a1a, R0a2c, H2a1e1a, H2a2a1, H6a1a8, H14b1, U4a2b, U4c1, U6d3. Loosdrecht et al. analysed genome-wide data from seven ancient individuals from the Iberomaurusian Grotte des Pigeons site near Taforalt in eastern Morocco. The fossils were directly dated to between 13,900 calibrated years before present; the scientists found. The male specimens with sufficient nuclear DNA preservation belonged to the paternal haplogroup E1b1b1a1, with one skeleton bearing the E1b1b1a1b1 parent lineage to E-V13, one male specimen belonged to E1b1b; these Y-DNA clades are related to the E1b1b1b subhaplogroup, observed in skeletal remains belonging to the Epipaleolithic Natufian and Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures of the Levant. Maternally, the Taforalt remains bore the U6a and M1b mtDNA haplogroups, which are common among modern Afroasiatic-speaking populations in Africa.
A two-way admixture scenario using Natufian and modern West African samples as reference populations inferred that the seven Taforalt individuals are best modeled genetically as 63.5% Natufian-related and 36.5% Hadza-like ancestries, with no apparent gene flow from the Epigravettian culture of Paleolithic southern Europe. The scientists indicated that further ancient DNA testing at other Iberomaurusian archaeological sites would be necessary to determine whether the Taforalt samples were representative of the broader Iberomaurusian gene pool. Afroasiatic Urheimat Aterian Mushabian Taforalt Ifri N'Ammar Haua Fteah
The Aterian is a Middle Stone Age stone tool industry centered in North Africa, but possibly found in Oman and the Thar Desert. The earliest Aterian dates to c. 145,000 years ago, at the site of Ifri n'Ammar in Morocco. However, most of the early dates cluster around the beginning of the Last Interglacial, around 130,000 years ago, when the environment of North Africa began to ameliorate; the Aterian disappeared around 20,000 years ago. The Aterian is distinguished through the presence of tanged or pedunculated tools, is named after the type site of Bir el Ater, south of Tébessa. Bifacially-worked, leaf-shaped tools are a common artefact type in Aterian assemblages, so are racloirs and Levallois flakes and cores. Items of personal adornment are known with an age of 82,000 years; the Aterian is one of the oldest examples of regional technological diversification, evidencing significant differentiation to older stone tool industries in the area described as Mousterian. The appropriateness of the term Mousterian is contested in a North African context, however.
The technological character of the Aterian has been debated for a century, but has until eluded definition. The problems defining the industry have related to its research history and the fact that a number of similarities have been observed between the Aterian and other North African stone tool industries of the same date. Levallois reduction is widespread across the whole of North Africa throughout the Middle Stone Age, scrapers and denticulates are ubiquitous. Bifacial foliates moreover represent a huge taxonomic category and the form and dimension of such foliates associated with tanged tools is varied. There is a significant variation of tanged tools themselves, with various forms representing both different tool types and the degree tool resharpening. More a large-scale study of North African stone tool assemblages, including Aterian assemblages, indicated that the traditional concept of stone tool industries is problematic in the North African Middle Stone Age. Although the term Aterian defines Middle Stone Age assemblages from North Africa with tanged tools, the concept of an Aterian industry obfuscates other similarities between tanged tool assemblages and other non-Aterian North African assemblages of the same date.
For example, bifacial leaf points are found across North Africa in assemblages that lack tanged tools and Levallois flakes and cores are near ubiquitous. Instead of elaborating discrete industries, the findings of the comparative study suggest that North Africa during the Last Interglacial comprised a network of related technologies whose similarities and differences correlated with geographical distance and the palaeohydrology of a Green Sahara. Assemblages with tanged tools may therefore reflect particular activities involving the use of such tool types, may not reflect a substantively different archaeological culture to others from the same period in North Africa; the findings are significant because they suggest that current archaeological nomenclatures do not reflect the true variability of the archaeological record of North Africa during the Middle Stone Age from the Last Interglacial, hints at how early modern humans dispersed into uninhabitable environments. This notwithstanding, the term still usefully denotes the presence of tanged tools in North African Middle Stone Age assemblages.
Tanged tools persisted in North Africa until around 20,000 years ago, with the youngest sites located in Northwest Africa. By this time, the Aterian lithic industry had long ceased to exist in the rest of North Africa due to the onset of the Ice Age, which in North Africa, resulted in hyperarid conditions. Assemblages with tanged tools,'the Aterian', therefore have a significant temporal and spatial range. However, the exact geographical distribution of this lithic industry is uncertain; the Aterian's spatial range is thought to have existed in North Africa up to the Nile Valley Possible Aterian lithic tools have been discovered in Middle Paleolithic deposits in Oman and the Thar Desert. The Aterian is associated with early Homo sapiens at a number of sites in Morocco; some studies of comparative skeletal morphology have suggested that these people exist on the same morphological continuum as the Jebel Irhoud specimens thought to date to 160,000 years ago. The'Aterian' fossils display similarities with the Iberomaurusians and the earliest modern humans found out of Africa at Skhul and Qafzeh in the Levant, they are broadly contemporary to them.
Apart from producing a distinctive and sophisticated stone tool technology, these early North African populations seem to have engaged with symbolically constituted material culture, creating what are amongst the earliest African examples of personal ornamentation. Such examples of shell'beads' have been found far inland, suggesting the presence of long distance social networks. Studies of the variation and distribution of the Aterian have now suggested that associated populations lived in subdivided populations living most of their lives in relative isolation and aggregating at particular times to reinforce social ties; such a subdivided population structure has been inferred from the pattern of variation observed in early African fossils of Homo sapiens. Associated faunal studies suggest that the people making the Aterian exploited coastal resources as well as engaging in hunting; as the points are small and lightweight, it is that they were not hand-delivered but instead thrown. There is no evidence that a spear thrower was used, but the points have characteri
The Châtelperronian is a claimed industry of the Upper Palaeolithic, the existence of, debated. It represents both the only Upper Palaeolithic industry made by Neanderthals and the earliest Upper Palaeolithic industry in Central and Southwestern France, as well as in Northern Spain, it derives its name from the site of la Grotte des Fées, in Châtelperron, France. It is preceded by the Mousterian industry, lasted from c. 45,000 to c. 40,000 BP. The industry produced denticulate stone tools and a distinctive flint knife with a single cutting edge and a blunt, curved back; the use of ivory at Châtelperronian sites appears to be more frequent than that of the Aurignacian, while antler tools have not been found. It is followed by the Aurignacian industry. Scholars who question its existence claim that it is an archaeological mix of Mousterian and Aurignacian layers; the Châtelperronian industry may relate to the origins of the similar Gravettian culture. French archaeologists have traditionally classified both cultures together under the name Périgordian, Early Perigordian being equivalent to the Châtelperronian and all the other phases corresponding to the Gravettian, though this scheme is not used by Anglophone authors.
Large thick flakes/small blocks were used for cores, were prepared with a crest over a long smooth surface. Using one or two striking points, long thin blades were detached. Direct percussion with a soft hammer was used for accuracy. Thicker blades made in this process were converted into side scrapers, burins were created in the same manner from debitage as well; the manner of production is a solid continuation of the Mousterian but the ivory adornments found in association are similar to those made by the Aurignacian. The technological refinement of the Châtelperronian and neighbouring Uluzzian in Central-Southern Italy is argued to be the product of cultural influence from H. sapiens that lived nearby. João Zilhão and colleagues argue that the findings are complicated by disturbance of the site in the 19th century, conclude that the apparent pattern of Aurignacian/Châtelperronian inter-stratification is an artifact of disturbance. While others think the Châtelperronian itself is an artifact of disturbance.
Paul Mellars and colleagues have criticized Zilhão et al.'s analysis, argue that the original excavation by Delporte was not affected by disturbance. Paul Mellars, now has concluded on the basis of new radiocarbon dating by Thomas Higham of the decorative artifacts of Grotte du Renne "that there was strong possibility—if not probability— that were stratigraphically intrusive into the Châtelperronian deposits from.. Overlying Proto-Aurignacian levels" and that "The central and inescapable implication of the new dating results from the Grotte du Renne is that the single most impressive and hitherto cited pillar of evidence for the presence of complex “symbolic” behavior among the late Neanderthal populations in Europe has now collapsed." Subsequent research led by Jean-Jacques Hublin argues using new dates that the Châtelperronian tools were produced by Neanderthals. Unlike Higham's dates, which were taken directly from the decorative material, Hublin's were taken from associated bones. To Higham, dates taken directly from the decorative material are more convincing and should be given priority over those from associated material.
To Hublin, Higham's dates were contaminated with varnish applied to the decorative material in the 1960s. Hublin's team subsequently used proteomic evidence to support their conclusion. Author Jared Diamond argues in his 1991 non-fiction book, The Third Chimpanzee, that Châtelperron may represent a community of Neanderthals who had to some extent adopted the culture of the modern Homo sapiens that had established themselves in the surrounding area, which would account for the signs of a hybrid culture found at the site. Diamond compares these hypothetical Neanderthal hold-outs to more recent Native Americans in North and South America who adopted European technologies such as firearms or domestication of horses in order to survive in an environment dominated by technologically more-advanced competitors; the fifth book of Jean Auel's Earth's Children series, The Shelters of Stone, 2002, the sixth book The Land of the Painted Caves 2010 are set in this region of modern-day France, during this period.
Franco-Cantabrian region Picture Gallery of the Paleolithic, Libor Balák at the Czech Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Archaeology in Brno, The Center for Paleolithic and Paleoethnological Research
Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species within zoological taxonomy. The systematic genus, Homo, is designed to include both anatomically modern humans and extinct varieties of archaic humans. Current humans have been designated as subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, differentiated from the direct ancestor, Homo sapiens idaltu. Since the introduction of systematic names in the 18th century, knowledge of human evolution has increased drastically, a number of intermediate taxa have been proposed in the 20th to early 21st century; the most accepted taxonomy groups takes the genus Homo as originating between two and three million years ago, divided into at least two species, archaic Homo erectus and modern Homo sapiens, with about a dozen further suggestions for species without universal recognition. The genus Homo is placed in the tribe Hominini alongside Pan; the two genera are estimated to have diverged over an extended time of hybridization spanning 10 to 6 million years ago, with possible admixture as late as 4 million years ago.
A subtribe of uncertain validity, grouping archaic "pre-human" or "para-human" species younger than the Homo-Pan split is Australopithecina. A proposal by Wood and Richmond would introduce Hominina as a subtribe alongside Australopithecina, with Homo the only known genus within Hominina. Alternatively, following Cela-Conde and Ayala, the "pre-human" or "proto-human" genera of Australopithecus, Ardipithecus and Sahelanthropus may be placed on equal footing alongside the genus Homo. An more radical view rejects the division of Pan and Homo as separate genera, which based on the Principle of Priority would imply the re-classification of chimpanzees as Homo paniscus. Prior to the current scientific classification of humans and scientists have made various attempts to classify humans, they offered definitions of schemes for classifying types of humans. Biologists once classified races as subspecies, but today anthropologists reject the concept of race and view humanity as an interrelated genetic continuum.
Taxonomy of the hominins continues to evolve. Human taxonomy on one hand involves the placement of humans within the Taxonomy of the hominids, on the other the division of archaic and modern humans into species and, if applicable, subspecies. Modern zoological taxonomy was developed by Carl Linnaeus during the 1730s to 1750s, he named the human species as Homo sapiens in 1758, as the only member species of the genus Homo, divided into several subspecies corresponding to the great races. The Latin noun homō means "human being"; the systematic name Hominidae for the family of the great apes was introduced by John Edward Gray. Gray supplied Hominini as the name of the tribe including both chimpanzees and humans; the discovery of the first extinct archaic human species from the fossil record dates to the mid 19th century, Homo neanderthalensis, classified in 1864. Since a number of other archaic species have been named, but there is no universal consensus as to their exact number. After the discovery of H. neanderthalensis, which if "archaic" is recognizable as human, late 19th to early 20th century anthropology for a time was occupied with finding the "missing link" between Homo and Pan.
The "Piltdown Man" hoax of 1912 was the presentation of such a transitional species. Since the mid-20th century, knowledge of the development of Hominini has become much more detailed, taxonomical terminology has been altered a number of times to reflect this; the introduction of Australopithecus as a third genus, alongside Homo and Pan, in the Hominini tribe is due to Raymond Dart. Australopithecina as a subtribe containing Australopithecus as well as Paranthropus is a proposal by Gregory & Hellman. More proposed additions to the Australopithecina subtribe include Ardipithecus and Kenyanthropus; the position of Sahelanthropus relative to Australopithecina within Hominini is unclear. Cela-Conde and Ayala propose the recognition of Australopithecus, Ardipithecus and Sahelanthropus as separate genera. Other proposed genera, now considered part of Homo, include: Pithecanthropus, Sinanthropus, Cyphanthropus Africanthropus,Telanthropus, Tchadanthropus; the genus Homo has been taken to originate some two million years ago since the discovery of stone tools in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in the 1960s.
Homo habilis would be the first "human" species by definition, its type specimen being the OH 7 fossils. However, the discovery of more fossils of this type has opened up the debate on the delineation of H. habilis from Australopithecus. The LD 350-1 jawbone fossil discovered in 2013, dated to 2.8 Mya, has been argued as being transitional between the two. It is disputed whether H. habilis was the first hominin to use stone tools, as Australopithecus garhi, dated to c. 2.5 Mya, has been found along with stone tool implements. Fossil KNM-ER 1470 is now seen as either a third early species of Homo at about 2 million years ago, or alternatively as transitional between Australopithecus and Homo. Wood and Richmond proposed that Gray's tribe Hominini be designated as comprising all species after the chimpan
The Azilian is a name given by archaeologists to an industry in the Franco-Cantabrian region of northern Spain and southern France. It dates to the period of the Allerød Oscillation around 14,000 years ago and followed the Magdalenian culture, it can be classified of both. Archaeologists think the Azilian represents the tail end of the Magdalenian as the warming climate brought about changes in human behaviour in the area; the effects of melting ice sheets would have diminished the food supply and impoverished the well-fed Magdalenian manufacturers, or at least those who had not followed the herds of horse and reindeer out of the glacial refugium to new territory. As a result, Azilian tools and art were cruder and less expansive than their Ice Age predecessors - or different. Diagnostic artifacts from the culture include Azilian points, crude flat bone harpoons and pebbles with abstract decoration; the latter were first found in the River Arize at the type-site for the culture, the Grotte du Mas d'Azil at Le Mas-d'Azil in the French Pyrenees.
These are the main type of Azilian art, showing a great reduction in scale and complexity from the Magdalenian Art of the Upper Palaeolithic. The Azilian was named by Édouard Piette, who excavated the Mas d'Azil type-site in 1887. Unlike other coinages by Piette, the name was accepted, indeed in the early 20th century used for much greater areas than it is today. Henry Fairfield Osborn, president of the American Museum of Natural History and a palaeontologist rather than an archaeologist, was taken around the sites by leading excavators such as Hugo Obermaier; the popularizing book he published in 1916, Men of the Old Stone Age talks of Azilian sites as far north as Oban in Scotland, wherever flattened barbed "harpoon" points of deer horn are found. Subsequently, Azilian types of artefact have been defined more and similar examples from beyond the Franco-Cantabrian region excluded and reassigned, although references to "Azilian" finds much further north than the Franco-Cantabrian region still appear in non-specialized sources.
Terms like "Azilian-like" and "epi-Azilian" may be used to describe such finds. The Azilian in Vasco-Cantabria occupied a similar region to the Magdalenian, in many cases the same sites; as the glaciers retreated, sites reach into the slopes of the Cantabrian Mountains as high as 1,000 metres above sea level, though the higher ones were only occupied in the summers. The grand cavern at Mas d'Azil is not typical of Azilian sites, many of which are shallow shelters at the bottom of a rock face. Painted, sometimes engraved pebbles are a feature of core Azilian sites; the decoration is simple patterns of dots, zig-zags, stripes, with some crosses or hatching just on one side of the pebble, thin and flattish, some 4 to 10 cm across. Large numbers may be found at a site; the colours are red from iron oxide, or sometimes black. Attempts to find a meaning for their iconography have not got far, although "the repeated combinations of motifs does seem to some extent to be ordered, which may suggest a simple syntax".
Such attempts began with Piette. The Azilian coexisted with similar early Mesolithic European cultures such as the Tjongerian and the Ahrensburg culture of Northern Europe, the Swiderian of North-Eastern Europe, the Creswellian in Britain. In its late phase, it experienced strong influences from the neighbouring Tardenoisian, reflected in the presence of many geometrical microliths persisted until the arrival of the Neolithic, that in some western areas was only adopted late in the Chalcolithic era; the Asturian culture in the area to the west along the coast was similar, but added a distinctive form of pick-axe to its toolkit. A culture similar to the Azilian spread as well into Mediterranean Spain and southern Portugal; because it lacked bone industry it is named distinctively as Iberian microlaminar microlithism. It was replaced by the so-called geometrical microlithism related to Tardenoisian culture. Sauveterrian Prehistoric France Prehistoric Iberia Federmesser Bailey and Spikins, Mesolithic Europe, 2008, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521855039, 9780521855037 Henry Fairfield Osborn, Men of the Old Stone Age, from www.gutenberg.org, 1916 Ian Shaw, Robert Jameson, eds.
"Azilian" and "Azilian pebbles" in A Dictionary of Archaeology, 2002, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers ISBN 0-631-17423-0, google books
The Magdalenian cultures are cultures of the Upper Paleolithic in western Europe, dating from around 17,000 to 12,000 years ago. It is named after the type site of La Madeleine, a rock shelter located in the Vézère valley, commune of Tursac, in the Dordogne department of France. Termed L'âge du renne by Édouard Lartet and Henry Christy, the first systematic excavators of the type site, in their publication of 1875, the Magdalenian is synonymous in many people's minds with reindeer hunters, although Magdalenian sites contain extensive evidence for the hunting of red deer and other large mammals present in Europe toward the end of the last ice age; the culture was geographically widespread, Magdalenian sites have been found from Portugal in the west to Poland in the east. It is the third epoch of Gabriel de Mortillet's cave chronology system, corresponding to the Late Pleistocene; the Magdalenian epoch was a long one, represented by numerous stations, whose contents show progress in the arts and general culture.
It was characterized by a cold and dry climate, the existence of humans in association with the reindeer, the extinction of the mammoth. The use of bone and ivory for various implements begun in the preceding Solutrian epoch, was much increased, the period is a bone period; the bone instruments are quite varied: spear-points, harpoon-heads, borers and needles. Most remarkable is the evidence La Madeleine affords of prehistoric art. Numbers of bones, reindeer antlers, animal teeth were found, with crude pictures carved or etched on them of seals, reindeer and other creatures; the best of these are a mammoth engraved on a fragment of its own ivory. The man is naked, together with the snake, suggests a warm climate in spite of the presence of the reindeer; the fauna of the Magdelenian epoch seems, indeed, to have included tigers and other tropical species side by side with reindeer, blue foxes, Arctic hares, other polar creatures. Magdelenian humans appear to have been of low stature, with a low retreating forehead and prominent brow ridges.
The culture spans from 17,000 to 12,000 BP, toward the end of the last ice age. The Magdalenian tool culture is characterised by regular blade industries struck from carinated cores. Typologically, the Magdalenian is divided into six phases which are agreed to have chronological significance; the earliest phases are recognised by the varying proportion of blades and specific varieties of scrapers, the middle phases marked by the emergence of a microlithic component, the phases by the presence of uniserial and biserial'harpoons' made of bone and ivory. There is extensive debate about the precise nature of the earliest Magdalenian assemblages, it remains questionable whether the Badegoulian culture is, in fact, the earliest phase of the Magdalenian. Finds from the forest of Beauregard near Paris have been suggested as belonging to the earliest Magdalenian; the earliest Magdalenian sites are all found in France. The Epigravettian is a similar culture appearing at the same time, its known range extends from southeast France to the western shores of the Volga River, with a large number of sites in Italy.
The phases of the Magdalenian are synonymous with the human re-settlement of north-western Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum during the Late Glacial Maximum. Research in Switzerland, southern Germany, Belgium has provided AMS radiocarbon dating to support this. Being hunter gatherers, Magdalenians did not re-settle permanently in north-west Europe, however, as they followed herds and moved depending on seasons. By the end of the Magdalenian, the lithic technology shows a pronounced trend toward increased microlithisation; the bone harpoons and points have the most distinctive chronological markers within the typological sequence. As well as flint tools, the Magdalenians are best known for their elaborate worked bone and ivory that served both functional and aesthetic purposes, including perforated batons. Examples of Magdalenian portable art include batons and intricately engraved projectile points, as well as items of personal adornment including sea shells, perforated carnivore teeth, fossils.
The sea shells and fossils found in Magdalenian sites may be sourced to precise areas of origin, so have been used to support hypothesis of Magdalenian hunter-gatherer seasonal ranges, trade routes. Cave sites such as the world-famous Lascaux contain the best known examples of Magdalenian cave art; the site of Altamira in Spain, with its extensive and varied forms of Magdalenian mobiliary art has been suggested to be an agglomeration site where many small groups of Magdalenian hunter-gatherers congregated. In northern Spain and south-west France this tool culture was superseded by the Azilian culture. In northern Europe it was followed by different variants of the Tjongerian techno-complex, it has been suggested that key Late-glacial sites in south-western Britain may be attributed to the Magdalenian, including the famous site of Kent's Cavern, although this remains open to debate. Besides La Madeleine, the chief stations of the epoch are Les Eyzies, Laugerie-Basse, Gorges d'Enfer in the Dordogne.