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Palisade

A palisade, sometimes called a stakewall or a paling, is a fence or defensive wall made from iron or wooden stakes, or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Palisades can form a stockade. Palisade derives from pale, from the Latin word pālus, meaning stake a "stake" used to support a fence. A palisade gangs these side by side to create a fence made of pales. Typical construction consisted of small or mid-sized tree trunks aligned vertically, with no free space in between; the trunks were sharpened or pointed at the top, were driven into the ground and sometimes reinforced with additional construction. The height of a palisade ranged from around a metre to as high as 3-4 m; as a defensive structure, palisades were used in conjunction with earthworks. Palisades were an excellent option for small forts or other hastily constructed fortifications. Since they were made of wood, they could be and built from available materials, they proved to be effective protection for short-term conflicts and were an effective deterrent against small forces.

However, because they were wooden constructions they were vulnerable to fire and siege weapons. A palisade would be constructed around a castle as a temporary wall until a permanent stone wall could be erected. Both the Greeks and Romans created palisades to protect their military camps; the Roman historian Livy describes the Greek method as being inferior to that of the Romans during the Second Macedonian War. The Greek stakes were too large to be carried and were spaced too far apart; this made it easy for enemies to create a large enough gap in which to enter. In contrast, the Romans used smaller and easier to carry stakes which were placed closer together, making them more difficult to uproot. Many settlements of the native Mississippian culture of the Midwestern United States made use of palisades. A prominent example is the Cahokia Mounds site in Illinois. A wooden stockade with a series of watchtowers or bastions at regular intervals formed a 2-mile-long enclosure around Monk's Mound and the Grand Plaza.

Archaeologists found evidence of the stockade during excavation of the area and indications that it was rebuilt several times, in different locations. The stockade seems to have separated Cahokia's main ceremonial precinct from other parts of the city, as well as being a defensive structure. Other examples include the Angel Mounds Site in southern Indiana, Aztalan State Park in Wisconsin, the Kincaid Site in Illinois, the Parkin Site and the Nodena Sites in southeastern Arkansas and the Etowah Site in Georgia. Palisaded settlements were common in Colonial America, for protection against indigenous peoples and wild animals; the English settlements in Jamestown and Plymouth, were fortified towns surrounded by palisades. They were frequently used in New France. In the late nineteenth century, when milled lumber was not available or practical, many Adirondack buildings were built using a palisade architecture; the walls were made of vertical half timbers. The cracks between the vertical logs were filled with moss and sometimes covered with small sticks.

Inside, the cracks were covered with narrow wooden battens. This palisade style was much more efficient to build than the traditional horizontal log cabin since two half logs provided more surface area than one whole log and the vertical alignment meant a stronger structure for supporting loads like upper stories and roofs, it presented a more finished look inside. Examples of this architectural style can still be found in the Adirondacks, such as around Big Moose Lake. In South Africa as well as other countries, a common means to prevent crime is for residential houses to have perimeter defences such as brick walls, steel palisade fences, wooden palisade fences and electrified palisade fences; the City of Johannesburg promotes the use of palisade fencing over opaque brick, walls as criminals cannot hide as behind the fence. Its manual on safety includes guidance such as not growing vegetation alongside as this allows criminals to make an unseen breach. Palisado crown Media related to Palisade at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of palisade at Wiktionary

Nick Jones (ice hockey)

Nick Jones is an American professional ice hockey defenseman playing for Grizzlys Wolfsburg of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. Jones played collegiate hockey for the Mercyhurst Lakers in the a NCAA Men's Division I Atlantic Hockey conference. In his junior year, Jones was named to the 2012-13 All-AHA First Team. On August 27, 2014, Jones signed his first professional contract, a one-year deal, with the Worcester Sharks of the AHL. Prior to the 2014 -- 15 season, he was assigned to the Indy Fuel. On September 3, 2015, Jones signed a one-year contract with ECHL's reigning champions, the South Carolina Stingrays. In the 2015–16 season, Jones registered 19 points in 52 games from the blueline. On June 26, 2016, Jones agreed to a one-year deal with Norwegian club, Stjernen Hockey, of the GET-ligaen. On May 1, 2017, Jones signed an initial one-year contract with the HC Plzeň of the Czech Extraliga. Following his second season with Plzeň in 2018–19, Jones left the Czech Republic to sign a one-year contract as a free agent with German club, Grizzlys Wolfsburg of the DEL on June 4, 2019.

Biographical information and career statistics from Eliteprospects.com, or The Internet Hockey Database

Matthew Hockley

Matthew Hockley is an English former professional footballer, who plays for Bideford. He can play in midfield. Hockley was born in Paignton and joined Torquay United as a trainee, he turned professional in July 2000 and made his first team debut in the 1-1 draw at home to Southend United in the FA Cup 1st Round on 18 November 2000. His league debut came, he made sporadic appearance over the next two seasons before becoming a regular under Leroy Rosenior, missing only one game in the 2003-04 promotion season. He is nicknamed'Pitbull' due to his tenacious tackling. In May 2005, he accepted a new contract with Torquay and in the 2006-07 season made his 200th first team appearance for the Gulls, his 200th league appearance came on 2 March 2007 in a 1-1 draw away to Chester City, Hockley replacing Lloyd Kerry as a late substitute. Torquay were relegated to the Conference National at the end of the 2006-07 season, but Hockley chose to remain with the club, agreeing a new contract with new Torquay manager Paul Buckle.

He was an unused substitute in Torquay's FA Trophy Final defeat at Wembley in May 2008, was released by Torquay three days later. Hockley joined Truro City in June 2008. After 1 season at Truro City he moved onto Bideford on a free transfer, his brother Wayne was a professional with Torquay United. Matt Hockley's at Soccerbase