The Grantha script is an Indian script, used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools. It is a Brahmic script; the Malayalam script is a direct descendant of Grantha, as are the Sinhala scripts. The rising popularity of Devanagari for Sanskrit and the political pressure created by the Tanittamil Iyakkam for its complete replacement by the modern Tamil script led to its gradual disuse and abandonment in Tamil Nadu in the early 20th century, except for specialised Hindu religious literature. Grantha script still lives in Tamil Nadu, albeit in reduced state. In Sanskrit, grantha is literally'a knot', it is a word, used for books, the script used to write them. This stems from the practice of binding inscribed palm leaves using a length of thread held by knots. Although Sanskrit is now written with Devanagari, Grantha was used to write Sanskrit in the Tamil-speaking parts of South Asia until the 19th century.
Scholars believe that the Grantha script was used when the Vedas were first put into writing around the 5th century CE. In the early 20th century, it began to be replaced by Devanagari in religious and scholarly texts and the Tamil script in popular texts; the Grantha script was historically used for writing Manipravalam, a blend of Tamil and Sanskrit, used in the exegesis of Manipravalam texts. This evolved into a complex writing system which required that Tamil words be written in the Tamil script and Sanskrit words be written in the Grantha script. By the 15th century, this had evolved to the point that both scripts would be used within the same word – if the root was derived from Sanskrit it would be written in the Grantha script, but any Tamil suffixes which were added to it would be written using the Tamil script; this system of writing went out of use when Manipravalam declined in popularity, but it was customary to use the same convention in printed editions of texts written in Manipravalam until the middle of the 20th century.
In modern times, the Grantha script is used in certain religious contexts by orthodox Tamil-speaking Hindus. Most notably, they use the script to write a child's name for the first time during the naming ceremony, to write the Sanskrit portion of traditional wedding cards and announcements of a person's last rites, it is used in many religious almanacs to print traditional formulaic summaries of the coming year. Grantha script may be classified as follows: An archaic and ornamental variety of Grantha is sometimes referred to as Pallava Grantha, they were used by the Pallava in some inscriptions. Mamallapuram Tiruchirapalli Rock Cut Cave Inscriptions, Kailasantha Inscription come under this type; the Pallavas produced a distinctive script separate from the Grantha family. The Tigalari-Malayalam script is called Western Grantha. Two varieties are used: Brahmanic, or square, Jain, or round; the Tigalari-Malayalam script was a variety of Grantha dating from the 8th or 9th century CE. It split into two distinct scripts – Tigalari and Malayalam.
This type of Grantha was used by Cholas from 650 CE to 950 CE. Inscription of Pallavas and Pandiyan Nedunchezhiyan are examples for this variety of Grantha Script. Inscriptions of the Imperial Thanjavur Cholas are an example for Medieval Grantha; this variety was in vogue from 950 CE to 1250 CE. Grantha in the present form descended from Pandyas and the Vijayanagara rulers; the Modern form of Grantha is similar to Malayalam script and the Modern Tamil Script. The font used in the following tables is e-Grantamil taken from INDOLIPI; the glyphs below denote the late form of Grantha Script, which can be noticed by its similarity with the Modern Tamil Script. As with other Abugida scripts Grantha consonant signs have the inherent vowel /a/, its absence is marked with Virāma: For other vowels diacritics are used: Sometimes ligatures of consonants with vowel diacritics may be found, e.g.: There are a few special consonant forms with Virāma: Grantha has two ways of representing consonant clusters. Sometimes, consonants in a cluster may form ligatures.
Ligatures are preferred whenever they exist. If no ligatures exist, "stacked" forms of consonants are written, just as in Kannada and Telugu, with the lowest member of the stack being the only "live" consonant and the other members all being vowel-less. Note that ligatures may be used as members of stacks also. Special forms: ⟨ya⟩ when final in a cluster, ⟨ra⟩ when non-initial become and respectively; these are called "ya-phalaa" and "ra-vattu" in other Indic scripts. ⟨ra⟩ as initial component of a cluster becomes and is shifted to the end of the cluster but placed before any "ya-phalaa". The Grantha text of each sample is followed by a transliteration into Devanāgarī scripts. Example 1: Taken from Kālidāsa's Kumārasambhavam astyuttarasyāṁ diśi devatātmā himālayo nāma nagādhirājaḥ. Pūrvāparau toyanidhī vagāhya sthitaḥ pr̥thivyā iva mānadaṇḍaḥ.अस्त्युत्तरस्यां दिशि देवतात्मा हिमालयो नाम नगाधिराजः। पूर्वापरौ तोयनिधी वगाह्य स्थितः पृथिव्या इव मानदण्डः॥Example 2: St. John 3:16 By comparing the old print from 1886 with the modern version given below one may see the difficulties the typesetter had with Grantha.yata īśvaro jagatītthaṁ prema cakāra yannij
Kanchipuram, a known as Kānchi or Kancheepuram, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, 72 km from Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu. The city covers an area of 11.605 km2 and had a population of 164,265 in 2011. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanchipuram District. Kanchipuram is well-connected by rail. Chennai International Airport is the nearest domestic and international airport to the city, located at Tirusulam in Kanchipuram district. Located on the banks of the Vegavathy river, Kanchipuram has been ruled by the Pallavas, the Medieval Cholas, the Later Cholas, the Later Pandyas, the Vijayanagara Empire, the Carnatic kingdom, the British, who called the city "Conjeeveram"; the city's historical monuments include the Vaikunta Perumal Temple. Kanchipuram was a centre of education and was known as the ghatikasthanam, or "place of learning"; the city was a religious centre of advanced education for Jainism and Buddhism between the 1st and 5th centuries.
In Vaishnavism Hindu theology, Kanchipuram is one of the seven Tirtha sites, for spiritual release. The city houses Varadharaja Perumal Temple, Ekambareswarar Temple, Kamakshi Amman Temple, Kumarakottam Temple which are some of major Hindu temples in the state. Of the 108 holy temples of the Hindu god Vishnu, 15 are located in Kanchipuram; the city is important to Sri Vaishnavism, but is a holy pilgrimage site in Shaivism. The city is well known for its hand woven silk sarees and most of the city's workforce is involved in the weaving industry. Kanchipuram is administered by a Special grade municipality constituted in 1947, it is the headquarters of the Kanchi matha, a Hindu monastic institution believed to have been founded by the Hindu saint and commentator Adi Sankaracharya, was the capital city of the Pallava Kingdom between the 4th and 9th centuries. Kanchipuram has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.
Kanchipuram was known in early Tamil literature as Kachi or Kachipedu but was Sanskritized to Kanchi or Kanchipuram. In Tamil the word split into anchi. Ka means Brahma and anchi means worship, showing that Kanchi stands for the place where Lord Shiva was worshipped by Lord Brahma. In Sanskrit the term Kanci means girdle and explanation is given that the city is like a girdle to the earth; the earliest inscription from the Gupta period denote the city as Kanchipuram, where King Visnugopa was defeated by Samudragupta. Patanjali refers to the city in his Mahabhasya as Kanchipuraka; the city was referred to by various Tamil names like Kanchi and Sanskrit names like Kanchipuram. The Pallava inscriptions from and the inscriptions of the Chalukya dynasty refers the city as Kanchipura. Jaina Kanchi refers to the area around Tiruparutti Kundram. During the British rule, the city was known as Conjeevaram and as Kanchipuram; the municipal administration was renamed Kancheepuram, while the district and city retains the name Kanchipuram.
While it is accepted that Kanchipuram had served as an Early Chola capital, the claim has been contested by Indian historian P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar who wrote that the Tamil culture of the Sangam period did not spread through the Kanchipuram district, cites the Sanskritic origins of its name in support of his claim; the earliest references to Kanchipuram are found in the books of the Sanskrit grammarian Patanjali, who lived between the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. The city is believed to have been part of the mythical Dravida Kingdom of the Mahabharatha, was described as "the best among cities" by the 4th-century Sanskrit poet, Kalidasa; the city was regarded as the "Banaras of the South". The city finds mention in the classical Tamil Sangam literature dated 300 BCe like Manimegalai and Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai. Kanchipuram grew in importance when the Pallavas of southern Andhra Pradesh, wary of constant invasions from the north, moved their capital south to the city in the 6th century; the Pallavas fortified the city with ramparts, wide moats, well-laid-out roads, artistic temples.
During the reign of the Pallava King Mahendravarman I, the Chalukya King Pulakesin II invaded the Pallava kingdom as far as the Kaveri River. The Pallavas defended Kanchipuram and foiled repeated attempts to capture the city. A second invasion ended disastrously for Pulakesin II, forced to retreat to his capital Vatapi, besieged and Pulakesin II was killed by Narasimhavarman I, son of Mahendravarman I, at the Battle of Vatapi. Under the Pallavas, Kanchipuram flourished as a centre of Buddhist learning. King Narasimhavarman II built the city's important Hindu temples, the Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple, the Varadharaja Perumal Temple and the Iravatanesvara Temple. Xuanzang, a Chinese traveller who visited Kanchipuram in 640, recorded that the city was 6 miles in circumference and that its people were renowned for their bravery, love of justice, veneration for learning; the Medieval Chola king Aditya I conquered the Pallava kingdom, including Kanchipuram, after defeating the Pallava ruler Aparajitavarman in about 890.
Under the Cholas, the city was the headquarters of the northern viceroyalty. The province was renamed "Jayamkonda Cholamandalam" during the reign of King Raja Raja Chola I, who constructed the Karchapeswarar Temple and renovated the Kamakshi Amman Temple, his son, Rajendra Chola I constructed the Yathothkari Perumal Temple. According to the Siddhantasaravali of Trilocana Sivacharya
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, the liturgical language Sanskrit. With some modifications, the script is used to write the Sasak language, used in the neighboring island of Lombok; the script is a descendant of the Brahmi script, so has many similarities with the modern scripts of South and Southeast Asia. The Balinese script, along with the Javanese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia. Though everyday use of the script has been supplanted by the Latin alphabet, the Balinese script has significant prevalence in many of the island's traditional ceremonies and is associated with the Hindu religion; the script is used today for copying lontar or palm leaf manuscripts containing religious texts. There are 47 letters in the Balinese script, each representing a syllable with inherent vowel /a/ or /ə/ at the end of a sentence, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter.
Pure Balinese can be written with 18 consonant letters and 9 vowel letters, while Sanskrit transliteration or loan words from Sanskrit and Old Javanese utilizes the full set. A set of modified letters are used for writing the Sasak language; each consonant has a conjunct form called gantungan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable. Punctuation includes a comma, colon, as well as marks to introduce and end section of a text. Musical notation uses letter-like symbols and diacritical marks in order to indicate pitch information. Text are written left to right without word boundaries. There is a set of "holy letters" called aksara modre which appears in religious texts and protective talismans. Most of them are constructed using diacritic ulu candra with corresponding characters. A number of additional characters, known to be used inline in text, remains under study and those characters are expected to be proposed as Balinese extensions in due course. A basic letter in Balinese is called aksara, each letter stands for a syllable with inherent vowel /a/.
Consonants are called aksara wianjana. Balinese script has 33 consonants, of which only 18 called wreṣāstra are used for writing basic vocabulary in Balinese language; the other 15, known as sualalita, are used for writing Sanskrit and Kawi loanwords in Balinese language. The consonants can be arranged into Sanskrit hanacaraka traditional order; the consonants can be arranged in hanacaraka traditional order. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka. However, the hanacaraka sequence only has the 18 consonants of aksara wreṣāstra and exclude aksara sualalita. However, this table below include aksara sualalita as the current romanization have no diacritics for the consonants; as other Brahmic scripts, consonants in Balinese script can be arranged into Tamil / Sanskrit order. Thus, Balinese script had been influenced by Kalvi / Shiksha; the table below uses the order. ^1 Aksara wreṣāstra. They are, in traditional order: ha na ca ra ka / da ta sa wa la / ma ga ba nga / pa ja ya nya. ^2 The consonant ha is sometimes not pronounced.
For example, ᬳᬸᬚᬦ᭄ hujan is pronounced ujan.^3 The exact form of ca laca is unknown because only the appended form is left. However, the independent form is included in Unicode.^4 alpaprana ^5 mahaprana^6 Actually an alveolar consonant, but classified as dental by tradition^7 The former of the two letter forms is more used. Vowels, called suara or aksara suara, can be written as independent letters when vowels appear in initial position, they are described in the following list: Gantungan and gempelan has to be used to represent consonant cluster as zero vowel sign may not used in middle of sentence in general. Thus, as some Brahmic family, consonant cluster is written in stack; each consonant letter has a corresponding either gantungan or gempelan form, the presence of gantungan and gempelan eliminate the inherent vowel of the letter it is appended to. For example, if the letter na is appended with gantungan da, the pronunciation becomes nda. Gantungan or gempelan can be applied with pangangge to a letter.
However, attaching two or more gantungan to one letter is forbidden. Adeg-adeg may be used in the middle of a sentence to avoid such situation. For example, tamblang with consonant cluster mbl is written as ᬢᬫ᭄ᬩ᭄ᬮᬂ; the forms of gantungan and gempelan are as follows: Diacritics are symbols that cannot stand by themselves. When they are attached to the independent letters, they affect the pronunciation; the three types of diacritics are pangangge tengenan and pangangge aksara. Pangangge suara change the inherited vowel of a consonant letter. For example, the letter ᬦ with ulu becomes ni; the diacritics in this category are summarized in the following list: ^1 As first romanization of Balinese Language was developed during Dutch Colonial Era, letter e represents sound and letter é represents sound and as in Van Ophuijsen Indonesian and Dutch orthography. After 1957, are represented with e as in current Indonesian orthography with exception for ne
The Pallava dynasty was an Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories. Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I and Narasimhavarman I and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century. Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south and Pallava were defeated by the Chola Aditya I in the 9th century CE. Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of architecture, the finest example being the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Mahabalipuram; the Pallavas, who left behind magnificent sculptures and temples, established the foundations of medieval South Indian architecture. They developed the Pallava script from which Grantha descended; the Pallava script gave rise to several other southeast Asian scripts.
Chinese traveller Xuanzang extolled their benign rule. There were numerous theories about the origin of Pallavas. According to many notable scholars like Gabriel Jouveau, N. S Ramaswamy early pallavas originated in Andhradesa, which forms present day Andhra region and extended till kanchipuram of present day Tamilnadu; the early literary works of pallavas were traced in Prakrit and sanskrit from third century to sixth centuary and tamil literary records of pallavas were only available from seventh century. Velurpalaiyam plates dated to 852 AD, mentioned Virakurcha to be the first king of the Pallava dynasty as grant tells that Virakurcha grasped the complete insignia of royalty after marrying a Naga princess of Cutu-Nagas of Vanavasi who were feudatories of Andhras. Early relations between Nagas and Pallavas became well-established before the myth of Pallava's birth to Ashvatthama took root. A prashasti, composed in 753 on the dynastic eulogy in the Kasakadi plates, by the Pallava Trivikrama, traces the Pallava lineage from creation through a series of mythic progenitors, praises the dynasty in terms of two similes hinged together by triple use of the word avatara, as below:The Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of South Indian History Congress notes: The word Tondai means a creeper and the term Pallava conveys a similar meaning.
Since the Pallavas ruled in the territory extending from Bellary to Bezwada, it led to the theory that they were a northern dynasty who contracted marriages with princesses of the Andhra Dynasty and so inherited a portion of southern Andhra Pradesh. Historian K. R. Subramanian says the Pallavas were a Telugu power rather than a Tamil one. Telugu sources know of a Trilochana Pallava as the earliest Telugu king and they are confirmed by inscriptions; the first Chalukya king is said to have been met and killed by the same Trilochana near Mudivemu. A Buddhist story describes Kala the Nagaraja, resembling the Pallava Kalabhartar as a king of the region near Krishna district; the Pallava Bogga may be identified with the kingdom of Kala in Andhra which had close and early maritime and cultural relations with Ceylon. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri postulated that Pallavas were descendants of a North Indian dynasty who moved southwards, adopted local traditions to their own use, named themselves as Tondaiyar after the land called Tondai.
K. P. Jayaswal proposed a North Indian origin, putting forward the theory that the Pallavas were a branch of the Vakatakas; the earliest inscriptions of the Pallavas were found in the districts of Bellary and Nellore and all the inscriptions of the dynasty till the rise of Simhavishnu were found in the latter two of those. The mention of the Pallava king Vishnugopa of Kanchi, in the Allahabad record of Samudragupta in the fourth century, is noted as an important milestone in early Pallava history; the Pallavas captured Kanchi from the Cholas as recorded in the Velurpalaiyam Plates, around the reign of the fifth king of the Pallava line Kumaravishnu I. Thereafter Kanchi figures in inscriptions as the capital of the Pallavas; the Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchi in the mid-4th century, in the reign of Vishugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line. The Pallavas re-captured Kanchi in the mid-6th century in the reign of Simhavishnu, the fourteenth king of the Pallava line, whom the Kasakudi plates state as "the lion of the earth".
Thereafter the Pallavas held on to Kanchi until the 9th century, until the reign of their last king, Vijaya-Nripatungavarman. The Pallavas were in conflict with major kingdoms at various periods of time. A contest for political supremacy existed between the Kadambas. Numerous Kadamba inscriptions provide details of Pallava-Kadamba hostilities. Kadamba dynasty's founder Mayurasharma first succeeded in establishing himself in the forests of Shriparvata by defeating the Antharapalas of the Pallavas and subduing the Banas of Kolar in 345 CE; the Pallavas under Skandavarman were unable to contain Mayurasharma and recognised him as a sovereign in the regions from the Amara Ocean to Prehara. Some historians feel that Mayurasharma was appointed as a commander in the army of the Pallavas, as the inscription uses such terms as Senani and calls Mayurasharma Shadanana. After a period of time, due to the confusion caused by the defeat of Pallava Vishnugopa by Samudragupta, Mayurasharma formed his kingdom with Banavasi as his capital.
The Khmer script is an abugida script used to write the Khmer language. It is used to write Pali in the Buddhist liturgy of Cambodia and Thailand; the Khmer script was adapted from the Pallava script, which descended from the Brahmi script, used in southern India and South East Asia during the 5th and 6th centuries AD. The oldest dated inscription in Khmer was found at Angkor Borei District in Takéo Province south of Phnom Penh and dates from 611; the modern Khmer script differs somewhat from precedent forms seen on the inscriptions of the ruins of Angkor. The Thai and Lao scripts are descendants of an older form of the Khmer script. Khmer is written from left to right. Words within the same sentence or phrase are run together with no spaces between them. Consonant clusters within a word are "stacked", with the second consonant being written in reduced form under the main consonant. There were 35 consonant characters, but modern Khmer uses only 33; each character represents a consonant sound together with an inherent vowel, either â or ô.
There are some independent vowel characters, but vowel sounds are more represented as dependent vowels, additional marks accompanying a consonant character, indicating what vowel sound is to be pronounced after that consonant. Most dependent vowels have two different pronunciations, depending in most cases on the inherent vowel of the consonant to which they are added. There are a number of diacritics used to indicate further modifications in pronunciation; the script includes its own numerals and punctuation marks. There are 35 Khmer consonant symbols, although modern Khmer only uses 33, two having become obsolete; each consonant has an inherent vowel: â /ɑː/ or ô /ɔː/. A consonant's series determines the pronunciation of the dependent vowel symbols which may be attached to it, in some positions the sound of the inherent vowel is itself pronounced; the two series represented voiceless and voiced consonants respectively. Each consonant, with one exception has a subscript form; these may be called "sub-consonants".
Most subscript consonants resemble the corresponding consonant symbol, but in a smaller and simplified form, although in a few cases there is no obvious resemblance. Most subscript consonants are written directly below other consonants, although subscript r appears to the left, while a few others have ascending elements which appear to the right. Subscripts are used in writing consonant clusters. Clusters in Khmer consist of two consonants, although in the middle of a word there will be three; the first consonant in a cluster is written using the main consonant symbol, with the second attached to it in subscript form. Subscripts were also used to write final consonants; the consonants and their subscript forms are listed in the following table. Usual phonetic values are given using the International Phonetic Alphabet; the sound system is described in detail at Khmer phonology. The spoken name of each consonant letter is its value together with its inherent vowel. Transliterations are given using the UNGEGN system.
The letter bâ appears in somewhat modified form. The letter ញ nhô is written without the lower curve; when it is subscripted to itself, the subscript is a smaller form of the entire letter: ញ្ញ -nhnh-. Note that ដ dâ and ត tâ have the same subscript form. In initial clusters this subscript is always pronounced, but in medial positions it is in some words and in others; the series ដ dâ, ឋ thâ, ឌ dô, ឍ thô, ណ nâ represented retroflex consonants in the Indic parent scripts. The second and fourth of these are rare, occur only for etymological reasons in a few Pali and Sanskrit loanwords; because the sound /n/ is common, grammatically productive, in Mon-Khmer languages, the fifth of this group, ណ, was adapted as an a-series counterpart of ន nô for convenience. The aspirated consonant letters are pronounced with aspiration only before a vowel. There is slight aspiration with k, ch, t and p sounds before certain consonants, but this is regardless of whether they are spelt with a letter that indicates aspiration.
A Khmer word cannot end with more than one consonant sound, so subscript consonants at the end of words are not pronounced, although they may come to be pronounced when the same word begins a compound. In some words, a single medial consonant symbol represents both the final consonant of one syllable and the initial consonant of the next; the letter ប bâ represents only before a vowel. When final or followed by a subscript consonant, it is pronounced (and in the case where it is followed by a subscript consonant, i
The Thai script is the abugida used to write Thai, Southern Thai and many other languages spoken in Thailand. The Thai alphabet itself has 44 consonant symbols, 15 vowel symbols that combine into at least 28 vowel forms and four tone diacritics to create characters representing syllables. Although referred to as the "Thai alphabet", the script is in fact not a true alphabet but an abugida, a writing system in which the full characters represent consonants with diacritical marks for vowels. Consonants are written horizontally from left to right, with vowels arranged above, below, to the left, or to the right of the corresponding consonant, or in a combination of positions. Thai has its own set of Thai numerals that are based on the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, but the standard western Hindu-Arabic numerals are used except for government documents and the license plates of military vehicles; the Thai alphabet is derived from the Old Khmer script, a southern Brahmic style of writing derived from the south Indian Pallava alphabet.
Thai is considered to be the first script in the world that invented tone markers to indicate distinctive tones, which are lacking in the Mon-Khmer and Indo-Aryan languages from which its script is derived. Although Chinese and other Sino-Tibetan languages have distinctive tones in their phonological system, no tone marker is found in their orthographies. Thus, tone markers are an innovation in the Thai language that influenced other related Tai languages and some Tibeto-Burman languages on the Southeast Asian mainland. In most Brahmic scripts such as Devanagari, Khmer or Mon script; however Thai is unique in. Thai tradition attributes the creation of the script to King Ramkhamhaeng the Great in 1283, though this has been challenged. There is a complex relationship between spelling and sound. There are various issues: For many consonant sounds, there are two different letters that both represent the same sound, but which cause a different tone to be associated; this stems from a major change that occurred in the phonology of the Thai language.
At the time the Thai script was created, the language had three tones and a full set of contrasts between voiced and unvoiced consonants at the beginning of a syllable. At a time, the voicing distinction disappeared, but in the process, each of the three original tones split in two, with an voiced consonant producing a lower-variant tone, an unvoiced consonant producing a higher-variant tone. Thai borrowed a large number of words from Sanskrit and Pali, the Thai alphabet was created so that the original spelling of these words could be preserved as much as possible; this means that the Thai alphabet has a number of "duplicate" letters that represent separate sounds in Sanskrit and Pali but which never represented distinct sounds in the Thai language. These are or used in Sanskrit and Pali borrowings; the desire to preserve original Sanskrit and Pali spellings produces a large number of duplicate ways of spelling sounds at the end of a syllable, as well as a number of silent letters. Moreover, many consonants from Sanskrit and Pali loanwords are silent.
The spelling of the words resembles Sanskrit or Pali orthography: Thai สามารถ "to be able" Thai จันทร์ "moon" Thai letters do not have small and capital forms like the Roman alphabet. Spaces between words are not used, except in certain linguistically motivated cases. Minor pauses in sentences may be marked by a comma, major pauses by a period, but most are marked by a blank space. A bird's eye ๏ indicated paragraphs, but is now obsolete. A kho mut can be used to mark the end of a document. Thai writing uses quotation marks and parentheses, but not square brackets or braces. There are 44 consonant letters representing 21 distinct consonant sounds. Duplicate consonants either correspond to sounds that existed in Old Thai at the time the alphabet was created but no longer exist, or different Sanskrit and Pali consonants pronounced identically in Thai. There are in addition four consonant-vowel combination characters not included in the tally of 44. Consonants are divided into three classes — in alphabetic order these are middle (กลาง, kla