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Palmer Raids

The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted in November 1919 and January 1920 during the First Red Scare by the United States Department of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected leftists Italian and Eastern European immigrants and anarchists and communists, deport them from the United States. The raids targeted Italian immigrants and Eastern European Jewish immigrants with alleged leftist ties, with particular focus on Italian anarchists and immigrant leftist labor activists; the raids and arrests occurred under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, with 3,000 arrested. Though 556 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders, Palmer's efforts were frustrated by officials at the U. S. Department of Labor, which had authority for deportations and objected to Palmer's methods; the Palmer Raids occurred in the larger context of the Red Scare, the fear of and reaction against communists in the U.

S. in the years following World War I and the Russian Revolution. There were strikes that garnered national attention, race riots in more than 30 cities, two sets of bombings in April and June 1919, including one bomb mailed to Palmer's home. During the First World War, there was a nationwide campaign in the United States against the real and imagined divided political loyalties of immigrants and ethnic groups, who were feared to have too much loyalty for their nations of origin. Particular targets were Germans, with sympathies for their homeland, Irish, whose countrymen were in revolt against America's ally, the United Kingdom. In 1915, President Wilson warned against hyphenated Americans who, he charged, had "poured the poison of disloyalty into the arteries of our national life." "Such creatures of passion and anarchy", Wilson continued "must be crushed out". The Russian Revolutions of 1917 added special force to fear of labor agitators and partisans of ideologies like anarchism and communism.

The general strike in Seattle in February 1919 represented a new development in labor unrest. The fears of Wilson and other government officials were confirmed when Galleanists—Italian followers of the anarchist Luigi Galleani—carried out a series of bombings in April and June 1919. At the end of April, some 30 Galleanist letter bombs had been mailed to a host of individuals prominent government officials and businessmen, but law enforcement officials. Only a few reached their targets, not all exploded when opened; some people suffered injuries, including a housekeeper in Senator Thomas W. Hardwick's residence, who had her hands blown off. On June 2, 1919, the second wave of bombings occurred, when several much larger package bombs were detonated by Galleanists in eight American cities, including one that damaged the home of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer in Washington, D. C. At least one person was killed in this second attack, night watchman William Boehner, fears were raised because it occurred in the capital.

Flyers declaring war on capitalists in the name of anarchist principles accompanied each bomb. In June 1919, Attorney General Palmer told the House Appropriations Committee that all evidence promised that radicals would "on a certain day...rise up and destroy the government at one fell swoop." He requested an increase in his budget to $2,000,000 from $1,500,000 to support his investigations of radicals, but Congress limited the increase to $100,000. An initial raid in July 1919 against an anarchist group in Buffalo, New York, achieved little when a federal judge tossed out Palmer's case, he found in the case that the three arrested radicals, charged under a law dating from the Civil War, had proposed transforming the government by using their free speech rights and not by violence. That taught Palmer that he needed to exploit the more powerful immigration statutes that authorized the deportation of alien anarchists, violent or not. To do that, he needed to enlist the cooperation of officials at the Department of Labor.

Only the Secretary of Labor could issue warrants for the arrest of alien violators of the Immigration Acts, only he could sign deportation orders following a hearing by an immigration inspector. On August 1, 1919, Palmer named 24-year-old J. Edgar Hoover to head a new division of the Justice Department's Bureau of Investigation, the General Intelligence Division, with responsibility for investigating the programs of radical groups and identifying their members; the Boston Police Strike in early September raised concerns about possible threats to political and social stability. On October 17, the Senate passed a unanimous resolution demanding Palmer explain what actions he had or had not taken against radical aliens and why. At 9 pm on November 7, 1919, a date chosen because it was the second anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution, agents of the Bureau of Investigation, together with local police, executed a series of well-publicized and violent raids against the Union of Russian Workers in 12 cities.

Newspaper accounts reported. Many swore they were threatened and beaten during questioning. Government agents cast a wide net, bringing in some American citizens, passers-by who admitted being Russian, some not members of the Russian Workers. Others were teachers conducting night school classes in space shared with the targeted radical group. Arrests far exceeded the number of warrants. Of 650 arrested in New York City, the government managed to deport just 43; when Palmer replied to the Senate's questions of October 17, he reported that his department had amassed 60,000 names with great effort. Required by the statutes to work through the Department of Labor, they had arrested 250 dangerous radicals in the November 7 ra

2007 in Deep

The year 2007 is the seventh year in the history of Deep, a mixed martial arts promotion based in Japan. In 2007 Deep held 22 events beginning with, Deep: 28 Impact. Deep: 28 Impact was an event held on February 16, 2007 at Korakuen Hall in Tokyo. Deep: 29 Impact was an event held on April 13, 2007 at Korakuen Hall in Tokyo. Deep: clubDeep Toyama: Barbarian Festival 6 was an event held on May 13, 2007 at Toyama Event Plaza in Toyama. Deep: 1st Amateur Impact was an event held on May 27, 2007 at Mach Dojo in Ryugasaki. Deep: clubDeep Nagoya: MB3z Impact, Power of a Dream was an event held on June 10, 2007 at Zepp Nagoya in Nagoya. Deep: clubDeep Tokyo was an event held on June 16, 2007 at Shinjuku Face in Tokyo. Deep: Oyaji Deep was an event held on June 16, 2007 at Shinjuku Face in Tokyo. Deep: Deep in Yamagata was an event held on June 24, 2007 at Mikawa Town Gymnasium in Mikawa. Deep: 30 Impact was an event held on July 8, 2007 at Zepp Osaka in Osaka. Deep: CMA Festival 2 was an event held on July 23, 2007 at Korakuen Hall in Tokyo.

Deep: Glove was an event held on February 5, 2007 at Korakuen Hall in Tokyo. Deep: 31 Impact was an event held on August 5, 2007 at Korakuen Hall in Tokyo. Deep: clubDeep Tokyo was an event held on September 15, 2007 at Shinjuku Face in Tokyo. Deep: clubDeep Yamaguchi was an event held on September 23, 2007 at Shinnanyo Gymnasium in Shinnan'yo. Deep: 32 Impact was an event held on October 9, 2007 at Korakuen Hall in Tokyo. Deep: clubDeep Osaka was an event held on October 13, 2007 at Azalea Taisho Hall in Osaka. Deep: clubDeep Hamamatsu was an event held on October 21, 2007 at Act City in Hamamatsu. Deep: clubDeep Sendai was an event held on October 28, 2007 at Zepp Sendai in Sendai. Deep: Kobudo Fight 1 was an event held on November 3, 2007 at Kobudo Martial Arts Communication Space Tiger Hall in Nagoya. Deep: clubDeep Kanazawa was an event held on December 9, 2007 at Ishikawa Industrial Pavilion Second Hall in Kanazawa. Deep: 33 Impact was an event held on December 12, 2007 at Korakuen Hall in Tokyo.

Deep: Protect Impact 2007 was an event held on December 22, 2007 at Umeda Stella Hall in Osaka. List of Deep champions List of Deep events

Carpathian German Party

The Carpathian German Party was a political party in Czechoslovakia, active amongst the Carpathian German minority of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus'. It began as a bourgeois centrist party, but after teaming up with the Sudeten German Party in 1933 it developed in a National Socialist orientation; the KdP originated in 1927 as the Karpathendeutsche Volksgemeinschaft, founded by men like Dr. Roland Steinacker, the Sudeten German industrialist Karl Manouschek, Dr. Samuel Früwirt, Carl Eugen Schmidt and the engineer Franz Karmasin; the KDV was based in Bratislava and surroundings, gathered its members from the German bourgeouise and sympathizers of various political parties. It organized Sudeten Germans living in Slovakia; the KdP was constituted as a political party in July 1928 in Nálepkovo/Wagendrüssel, with their eyes on the upcoming parliamentary election. The KdP was chaired by Dr. Roland Steinacker until 1933; the party had a Christian and anti-Marxist outlook, positioned itself as a party loyal to the Czechoslovak state.

A key concern of the founders of the KdP was to steer Germans in Slovakia away from Magyar-dominated parties. The new party hoped to break the political hegemony of the Zipser German Party. In terms of identity, the KdP put forward the notion of a'Carpathian German' identity as opposed to the'Zipser German' identity traditionally linked to the Hungarian monarchy. KdP contested the 1929 parliamentary election as part of the German Electoral Coalition, in alliance with the Farmers' League and the German Labour and Economic Community. Whilst the alliance won 16 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and nine seats in the Senate, no KdP candidates were elected; the alliance obtained 16,922 votes in the areas of the Carpathian Germans. Desider Alexy became the KdP chairman in 1933. With the National Socialist seizure of power in Germany, KdP moved closer to the Sudeten German Heimatsfront; the party founded the weekly newspaper Deutsche Stimmen as its organ in 1934. In the 1935 parliamentary election KdP contested together with the Sudeten German Party.

The agreement between the two parties was reached on March 28, 1935. One KdP candidate was elected, Siegmund Keil who contested a Senate seat in the Nové Zámky 11th electoral district. Moreover, Karmasin was elected to the Chamber of Deputies as a SdP candidate from the Jihlava 10th electoral district. In the Czechoslovak National Assembly SdP and KdP formed joint factions in the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. All in all, KdP had polled around 30,000 votes. KdP did not become as dominant a force in the Carpathian German community that the SdP had done in the Sudetenland. In November 1935 KdP entered into an organic union in line with the Führer principle; the official name of SdP became the'Sudeten German and Carpathian German Party'. KdP organization was remodelled after that of SdP. Karmasin was named by SdP leader Konrad Henlein as his deputy for the Carpathian region; the symbol of KdP was modelled after that of the SdP, an elongated red shield which carried the letters "KdP". As the alliance with the Sudeten German Party being cemented, KdP began to expand its reach among a younger generation of Germans in Slovakia.

Many of the new adherents of KdP had returned from German-language technical schools in Bohemia and Moravia-Silesia or the German University in Prague. KdP was able to build a strong presence in central Slovakia and managed to gain a role amongst younger generation in Zips as well; however the older generation of Zipser Germans and communists sympathizers remained sceptical of Karmasin and his party. Henlein visited Bratislava on April 27, 1936. During his visit he appealed to the leaders of the Magyar parties to form an alliance; such an alliance, which became a reality in the 1937 local elections, meant that the United Magyar Party broke its links to the Zipser German Party. The Zipser German Party was routed in the 1937 polls; the KdP and SdP were banned by the Czechoslovak government in the midst of the Sudeten Crisis in September 1938. On 8 October 1938 the German Party was set up as a successor organization for the KdP. Karmasin would become the Slovak Secretary of State for German Affairs and a Waffen-SS Sturmbannführer

Geoff Keith

Geoffrey Leyden "Chief" Keith, played first-class cricket for Somerset and Western Province. Born at Winchester, Hampshire on 19 November 1937, Keith made his first-class debut for Somerset against Cambridge University in May 1959, scoring 40 in his first innings, he played only one further first-team match that year, but in 1960 was given a run of 10 matches in the first half of the season. But his highest score was only 48 in the match against Gloucestershire at Bath, his bowling was not used at all. After three unsuccessful games in the early part of the 1961 season, he left Somerset at the end of the season and joined Hampshire for the 1962 season. In his first match for his new county, Keith scored 82 and 12 not out against Oxford University, but though it was a new highest score for him it was his only first-class match of the 1962 season, he played only three matches in 1963, but the long-standing opening batsman Jimmy Gray was available for only the second half of the 1964 season, Keith stood in for him for the first two months, opening with Roy Marshall, though he failed to retain his place for long once Gray was available again.

In the most prolific season of his career, he scored 653 runs with a highest of 75 and an average of 21.76. There were more matches but a different batting position in 1965: Barry Reed and Mike Barnard became Marshall's more regular opening partners, while Keith resumed batting in the middle order, his aggregate for the season at 561 runs was lower than in 1964, but his average had improved to 26.75 and the season included the only century of his career, an unbeaten 101 in the match against the South African touring side. His little used off-spin got its best reward in the 1965 season, with four wickets for 49 runs in Gloucestershire's first innings in the match at Bristol. In 1966, Keith went back to being a bit-part player in the Hampshire side, playing only seven matches and making only 86 runs in them, he had a further good run in the first team in the first months of the 1967 season, made 53 against Sussex before losing his place. Regaining it with an innings of 85 against Oxford University, he lost it again only two games and, with younger players such as David Turner and Keith Wheatley seizing their chances, he was not picked again.

He left Hampshire at the end of the season to move to South Africa. Keith made little impact, he returned to Hampshire to become the county's cricket coach in 1971, played and captained the second eleven from 1971 to 1975. The levels of fitness and the high standard of fielding were cited as among the reasons why an unfancied Hampshire won its second County Championship title in 1973. Keith died at Southampton on 26 December 1975 from a heart attack aged 38, his obituary in Wisden states: "His early death was tragic as he was a man who took great pains to keep himself physically fit." Geoff Keith at


The Patteriol is a mountain in the Verwall Alps in the Austrian state of Tyrol. It has an elevation of 3,056 m. Patteriol is sometimes called "Matterhorn of Verwall" because of its shape. Aside from the main summit, the Patteriol has some more summits: South summit Horn Kleiner Patteriol The ascent on normal route from the alpine club hut Konstanzer Hütte at 1688 m to the summit takes 4½ to 5 hours and difficulty grade is II on UIAA climbing scale; the first ascensionists of the summit were around the year 1860 two geodesists, three hunters and a soldier. Additionally there are rock climbing routes; some of them are: North-east ridge, UIAA grade III, two spots IV− and V East pillar, grade IV+ South pillar, grade IV+

1968 BBC2 Floodlit Trophy

1968 was the fourth occasion on which the BBC2 Floodlit Trophy competition had been held. This year was a new name on the trophy. Wigan won the trophy by beating St. Helens by the score of 7-4 The match was played at Central Park, Wigan; the attendance was 13,479 and receipts were £3,291 This was to be Wigan's only success in the competition. This season saw no changes in the entrants, no new members and no withdrawals, the number remaining at eighteen; however the format was changed with the games in the preliminary round being on a two-legged home and away basis. This preliminary round now involved four clubs, to reduce the numbers to sixteen, followed by a straightforward knock out competition. Involved 2 matches and 4 Clubs Involved 2 matches with the same 4 Clubs with reverse fixtures Involved 8 matches and 16 Clubs Involved 4 matches with 8 clubs Involved 2 matches and 4 Clubs Scoring - Try = three points - Goal = two points - Drop goal = two points This tree excludes any preliminary round fixtures 1 * Rothmans Rugby League Yearbook 1990-91 and 1991-1992 and "100 Years of Rugby.

The History of Wakefield Trinity 1873-1973" give the score as 18–0 but as obvious error in the wonderfully detailed independent WEB "Wakefield'till I die" gives the score as 13-0 2 * This match was televised 3 * Hull F. C. play their first game at home in the competition 4 * Rochdale Hornets, who joined the competition in season 1966-67, win their first game in the competition 5 * Keighley play their first game at home in the competition 6 * The attendance was a record at that time 7 * Central Park was the home ground of Wigan with a final capacity of 18,000, although the record attendance was 47,747 for Wigan v St Helens 27 March 1959 The Rugby League BBC2 Floodlit Trophy was a knock-out competition sponsored by the BBC and between rugby league clubs, entrance to, conditional upon the club having floodlights. Most matches were played on an evening, those of which the second half was televised, were played on a Tuesday evening. Despite the competition being named as'Floodlit', many matches took place during the afternoons and not under floodlights, several of the entrants, including Barrow and Bramley did not have adequate lighting.

And, when in 1973, due to the world oil crisis, the government restricted the use of floodlights in sport, all the matches, including the Trophy final, had to be played in the afternoon rather than at night. The Rugby League season always ran from around August-time through to around May-time and this competition always took place early in the season, in the Autumn, with the final taking place in December 1968–69 Northern Rugby Football League season 1968 Lancashire Cup 1968 Yorkshire Cup BBC2 Floodlit Trophy Rugby league county cups Saints Heritage Society 1896–97 Northern Rugby Football Union season at Hull&Proud Fixtures & Results 1896/1897 Widnes Vikings - One team, one passion Season In Review - 1896-97 The Northern Union at Huddersfield R L Heritage