Palmiro Togliatti

Palmiro Togliatti was an Italian politician and leader of the Italian Communist Party from 1927 until his death. He was nicknamed Il Migliore. by his supporters. In 1930 he became a citizen of the Soviet Union and he had a city in that country named after him: Tolyatti. Togliatti was a founding member of the Communist Party of Italy, from 1927 until his death, he was the Secretary and the undisputed leader of the Italian Communist Party, except for the period from 1934 to 1938, during which he served as representative to the Comintern, the international organization of communist parties. After the dissolution of the Comintern in 1943 and the formation of the Cominform in 1947, he refused the post of Secretary General, offered to him directly by Stalin in 1951, preferring to remain at the head of the PCI. From 1944 to 1945 Togliatti held the post of Deputy Prime Minister and from 1945 to 1946 he was appointed Minister of Justice in the governments that ruled Italy after the fall of Fascism, he was a member of the Constituent Assembly of Italy.

Togliatti survived an assassination attempt in 1948, died in 1964, during a holiday in Crimea on the Black Sea. Palmiro Togliatti was born in Genoa into a middle-class family, his father Antonio was an accountant in the Public Administration, while his mother Teresa Vitale was a teacher. Togliatti's father's job forced the Togliattis to move to different cities. Before his birth they moved from Turin to Genoa, he was named "Palmiro". Palmiro Togliatti had one sister, Maria Cristina, two brothers and Eugenio Giuseppe. Eugenio discovered Togliatti surfaces. In 1908 he studied at the "Azuni" classics high school in Sassari, where he was recognised as the best student in the school, his father Antonio died on 21 January 1911 of cancer and the family ended up in poverty. In 1914 Togliatti began his political life in the Italian Socialist Party prior to the First World War, he served as a volunteer army officer during the war, was wounded in action and sent home to recuperate. Returning at the end of the conflict, Togliatti was a part of the group around Antonio Gramsci's L'Ordine Nuovo paper in Turin, while working as a tutor.

Like the other founders of L'Ordine Nuovo, Togliatti was an admirer of the Russian Revolution and supported the immediate creation of soviets in Italy. He believed that existing factory councils of workers could be strengthened so that they could become the basis of a communist coup; the newspaper, founded with union backing, focused on cultural politics, but in June 1919, the month following its founding and Togliatti pushed Tasca out and re-focused as a revolutionary voice. The newspaper reached a circulation of 6,000 by the end of the year and its reputation was heightened by its support of the April 1920 general strike, which the Socialist Party and the affiliated General Confederation of Labour did not support it. On 1 January 1921 the paper began to be published daily. Togliatti was a member of the Communist Faction of the PSI, part of the Communist International known as the Comintern. On 21 January 1921, following a split in the Socialist Party on their 17th Congress in Livorno, he was one of the founders of the Communist Party of Italy.

The PCdI was formed by L'Ordine Nuovo group led by Gramsci and the "culturalist" faction led by Angelo Tasca. In 1923, some members of the party were arrested and put on trial for "conspiracy against the State"; this allowed the intense activity of the Communist International to deprive the party's left wing of authority and give control to the minority centre which had aligned with Moscow. In 1924 and 1925, the Comintern began a campaign of "Bolshevisation" which forced each party to conform to the discipline and orders of Moscow. In October 1922, Benito Mussolini, leader of the National Fascist Party, took advantage of a general strike by workers and announced his demands to the government to give the Fascist Party political power or face a coup. With no immediate response, a small number of Fascists began a long trek across Italy to Rome, called the March on Rome, claiming to Italians that Fascists were intending to restore law and order. Mussolini himself did not participate until the end of the march, with Gabriele d'Annunzio being hailed as leader of the march, until it was revealed that he had been pushed out of a window and wounded in a failed assassination attempt.

This deprived him of the possibility of leading the actual coup d'état orchestrated by an organization he himself had founded. The Fascists, under the leadership of Mussolini, demanded Prime Minister Luigi Facta's resignation and that Mussolini be named Prime Minister. Although the Italian Army was far better armed than the Fascist paramilitaries, the Italian government under King Victor Emmanuel III faced a political crisis; the King was forced to choose which of the two rival movements in Italy would form the government: Mussolini's Fascists, or the anti-monarchist Italian Socialist Party. He appointed Mussolini new Prime Minister. In August 1923 Mussolini pushed through Parliament a new electoral law, the Acerbo Law, which assigned two-thirds of the seats to the list that had exceeded 25% of the votes. Togliatti wrote that "fascism will, gained power, dispersing the proletarians aggregates, prevent their unification on any terrain and cause a unification around it instead of the bourgeois political groups.

In the 1924 g

Diana Turbay

Diana Turbay Quintero was a Colombian journalist kidnapped by the Medellín Cartel and killed by the Colombia National Police during a botched rescue attempt. Her story has been portrayed in a non-fiction book by onscreen. Diana Turbay was born on March 9, 1950, in Bogotá, her father was the 25th president of the Republic of Colombia. The Turbay family are from Lebanon and her family still belong to, frequent, the Club Colombo Libanes, a private social club of prominent Lebanese-Colombians. Turbay was kidnapped on August 30, 1990, when she was tricked into going to a supposed interview with a guerrilla leader, the Spanish priest Manuel Pérez Martínez, alias El Cura Pérez. Turbay had been contacted by phone by an unidentified man. A police investigation determined that the man belonged to Los Priscos, a criminal band, had been hired by Pablo Escobar; the latter's aim was to kidnap as many politicians and journalists as possible, to prevent Colombian legislators from approving an extradition treaty with the United States.

Additional victims of this strategy were Francisco Santos Calderón, Maruja Pachón, Marina Montoya. Turbay was kept at Copacabana, with her cameraman Richard Becerra, she died on January 25, 1991, during a botched rescue operation launched by the police without authorization from the family. The cause of death was a bullet in her back, which destroyed her liver and left kidney. Turbay was survived by her two children, María Carolina Hoyos Turbay and Miguel Uribe Turbay, her husband, Miguel Uribe Londoño; the story of Turbay's abduction is recounted in Gabriel Garcia Márquez's non-fiction book, News of a Kidnapping. Turbay is portrayed by the actress Liesel Potdevin in the TV series Pablo Escobar: El Patrón del Mal. Turbay is portrayed by Gabriela de la Garza in the Netflix Original Series Narcos

Empress Xiaojingcheng

Empress Xiaojingcheng, of the Manchu Plain Yellow Banner Borjigit clan, was a consort of the Daoguang Emperor. She was 30 years his junior. Empress Xiaojingcheng's personal name was not recorded in history, she was a Khorchin Mongol of the Plain Blue Banner by birth. Father: Hualiang'a, served as a fifth rank literary official in the Ministry of Justice, held the title of a first class duke Paternal grandfather: Kunshan Mother: Lady Aisin Gioro Maternal grandfather: Yongxi, held the title Prince Su of the First Rank from 1778–1821, Hooge's great great grandson One brother One sister The future Empress Xiaojingcheng was born on the 11th day of the fifth lunar month in the 17th year of the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor, which translates to 19 June 1812 in the Gregorian calendar. In 1825, Lady Borjigit entered the Forbidden City and was granted the title "Noble Lady Jing" by the Daoguang Emperor. On 22 November 1826, she gave birth to the emperor's second son, who would die prematurely on 5 March 1827.

Lady Borjigit was elevated on 29 December 1826 to "Concubine Jing", on 15 May 1827 to "Consort Jing". She gave birth on 2 December 1829 to the emperor's third son, who would die prematurely on 22 January 1830, on 20 January 1831 to his sixth daughter, Princess Shou'en of the First Rank, on 11 January 1833 to his sixth son, Yixin. On 17 September 1834, she was elevated to "Noble Consort Jing"; the Daoguang Emperor's second empress consort, Empress Xiaoquancheng, died on 13 February 1840, Lady Borjigit was placed in charge of the emperor's harem. On 9 January 1841, she was elevated to "Imperial Noble Consort"; when the Daoguang Emperor died on 26 February 1850, his fourth son, enthroned as the Xianfeng Emperor, refused to make Lady Borjigit the Empress Dowager. Instead, the Xianfeng Emperor honoured Lady Borjigit with the title "Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Kangci". Lady Borjigit and her only surviving son, were not satisfied with this arrangement. According to imperial customs, Lady Borjigit had no right to claim the position of Empress Dowager because she was neither the birth mother of the Xianfeng Emperor, nor did she hold the rank of Empress while the Daoguang Emperor was still living.

Although the Xianfeng Emperor ignored her appeals to become Empress Dowager, he treated her respectfully like a stepmother. In 1852, Lady Borjigit, as the highest ranked living consort of the previous emperor, was allowed to exercise her privilege to select potential candidates to be the Xianfeng Emperor's consorts. Among those she chose were Empress Dowager Cixi. Lady Borjigit became critically ill in August 1855. Fearing that she had little time left, she conspired with her son, Yixin, to earn her the title of Empress Dowager before she died. Yixin issued an imperial edict to honor his mother without full consent of the Xianfeng Emperor. In order to save himself from public embarrassment, the Emperor, although being displeased, reluctantly acknowledged the title later. Lady Borjigit died eight days later; the Xianfeng Emperor appointed two princes, one of whom was Yixin, to take charge of the funeral arrangements, announced that he would spend the mourning period in the Hall of Mental Cultivation.

In 1857, Lady Borjigit was interred in the Mu Mausoleum of the Western Qing tombs. She was granted the posthumous title "Empress Xiaojing"; the Xianfeng Emperor did not add the character cheng – indicating her status as an empress consort of the Daoguang Emperor, as were Empresses Xiaomucheng and Xiaoquancheng – to her posthumous title because he wanted to highlight his belief that Lady Borjigit never qualified as an empress consort. He did not give her a place in the Imperial Ancestral Temple, which meant that she would not be included in ancestral worship rites; when the Xianfeng Emperor died on 22 August 1861, his first son and successor, the Tongzhi Emperor, was still too young to rule. In the Xinyou Coup that followed, the Empress Dowagers Ci'an and Cixi collaborated with Yixin to overthrow and seize power from a group of eight regents appointed by the Xianfeng Emperor on his deathbed; the two empress dowagers thus became the regents for the Tongzhi Emperor, with Yixin assisting as Prince-Regent.

On 6 May 1862, in order to secure Yixin's allegiance towards the Tongzhi Emperor, the two empress dowagers issued an imperial decree that added the character cheng to Lady Borjigit's posthumous title. Lady Borjigit was given a place in the Imperial Ancestral Temple and included in ancestral worship rites. During the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor: Lady Borjigit During the reign of the Daoguang Emperor: Noble Lady Jing, sixth rank consort Concubine Jing, fifth rank consort Consort Jing, fourth rank consort Noble Consort Jing, third rank consort Imperial Noble Consort, second rank consort During the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor: Imperial Noble Consort Kangci Empress Dowager Kangci Empress Xiaojing During the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor: Empress Xiaojingcheng As Noble Lady Jing: Yigang, the Daoguang Emperor's second son As Consort Jing: Miscarriage at four months Yiji, the Daoguang Emperor's third son Princess Shou'en of the First Rank, the Daoguang Emperor's sixth daughter Married Jingshou of the Manchu Fuca clan in May