Casablanca is a 1942 American romantic drama film directed by Michael Curtiz based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison's unproduced stage play Everybody Comes to Rick's. The film stars Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, Paul Henreid. Set during contemporary World War II, it focuses on an American expatriate who must choose between his love for a woman and helping her and her husband, a Czech Resistance leader, escape from the Vichy-controlled city of Casablanca to continue his fight against the Nazis. Warner Bros. story editor Irene Diamond convinced producer Hal B. Wallis to purchase the film rights to the play in January 1942. Brothers Julius and Philip G. Epstein were assigned to write the script. However, despite studio resistance, they left to work on Frank Capra's Why We Fight series early in 1942. Howard Koch was assigned to the screenplay. Principal photography began on May 25, 1942, ending on August 3. Studios in Burbank, California with the exception of one sequence at Van Nuys Airport in Van Nuys, Los Angeles.
Although Casablanca was an A-list film with established stars and first-rate writers, no one involved with its production expected it to be anything other than one of the hundreds of ordinary pictures produced by Hollywood that year. Casablanca was rushed into release to take advantage of the publicity from the Allied invasion of North Africa a few weeks earlier, it had its world premiere on November 26, 1942, in New York City and was released nationally in the United States on January 23, 1943. The film was a solid if unspectacular success in its initial run. Exceeding expectations, Casablanca went on to win the Academy Award for Best Picture, while Curtiz was selected as Best Director and the Epsteins and Koch were honored for writing the Best Adapted Screenplay, its reputation improved, to the point that its lead characters, memorable lines, pervasive theme song have all become famous and it ranks near the top of lists of the greatest films in history. In December 1941, American expatriate Rick Blaine owns an upscale nightclub and gambling den in Casablanca.
"Rick's Café Américain" attracts a varied clientele, including Vichy French and German officials, refugees desperate to reach the still-neutral United States, those who prey on them. Although Rick professes to be neutral in all matters, he ran guns to Ethiopia during its war with Italy and fought on the Loyalist side in the Spanish Civil War. Petty crook Ugarte boasts to Rick of "letters of transit" obtained by murdering two German couriers; the papers allow the bearers to travel around German-occupied Europe and to neutral Portugal, are priceless to the refugees stranded in Casablanca. Ugarte plans to sell them at the club, asks Rick to hold them. Before he can meet his contact, Ugarte is arrested by the local police under the command of Captain Louis Renault, the unabashedly corrupt Vichy prefect of police. Ugarte dies in custody without revealing; the reason for Rick's bitterness—former lover Ilsa Lund—enters his establishment. Spotting Rick's friend and house pianist, Ilsa asks him to play "As Time Goes By."
Rick storms over, furious that Sam disobeyed his order never to perform that song, is stunned to see Ilsa. She is accompanied by Victor Laszlo, a renowned fugitive Czech Resistance leader, they need the letters to escape to America to continue his work. German Major Strasser has come to Casablanca to see; when Laszlo makes inquiries, Ferrari, a major underworld figure and Rick's friendly business rival, divulges his suspicion that Rick has the letters. Rick refuses to sell at any price, telling Laszlo to ask his wife the reason, they are interrupted when Strasser leads a group of officers in singing "Die Wacht am Rhein". Laszlo orders the house band to play "La Marseillaise"; when the band looks to Rick, he nods his head. Laszlo starts singing, alone at first patriotic fervor grips the crowd and everyone joins in, drowning out the Germans. Strasser demands Renault close the club, which he does on the pretext of discovering there is gambling on the premises. Ilsa confronts Rick in the deserted café.
When he refuses to give her the letters, she threatens him with a gun, but confesses that she still loves him. She explains that when they met and fell in love in Paris in 1940, she believed her husband had been killed attempting to escape from a concentration camp. While preparing to flee with Rick from the imminent fall of the city to the German army, she learned Laszlo was alive and in hiding, she left Rick without explanation to nurse her sick husband. Rick's bitterness dissolves, he agrees letting her believe she will stay with him when Laszlo leaves. When Laszlo unexpectedly shows up, having narrowly escaped a police raid on a Resistance meeting, Rick has waiter Carl spirit Ilsa away. Laszlo, aware of Rick's love for Ilsa, tries to persuade him to use the letters to take her to safety; when the police arrest Laszlo on a minor, trumped-up charge, Rick persuades Renault to release him by promising to set him up for a much more serious crime: possession of the letters. To allay Renault's suspicions, Rick explains.
When Renault tries to arrest Laszlo as arranged, Rick forces him at gunpoint to assist in their escape. At the last moment, Rick makes Ilsa board the plane to Lisbon with Laszlo, telling her that she would regret it if she stayed—"Maybe not today, maybe not tomorrow, but soon and for the rest of your life." Strasser, tipped off by Renault, drives up alone. Rick shoots him wh
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition and ultra high-definition resolution; the main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox One. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs; the plastic disc is 120 millimetres in diameter and 1.2 millimetres thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs being the industry standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs and quadruple-layer discs are available for BD-XL re-writer drives. High-definition video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution and at up to 60 frames per second.
DVD-Video discs were limited to a maximum resolution of 576p. Besides these hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats; the BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, motion pictures. Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release on June 20, 2006, beginning the high-definition optical disc format war, where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company supporting HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, released its own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. Blu-ray faces competition from the continued sale of DVDs. Notably, as of January 2016, 44% of U. S. broadband. The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used.
Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became available on a production basis, allowing for development of a more-dense storage format that could hold higher-definition media. Sony started two projects in collaboration with Panasonic, TDK, applying the new diodes: UDO, DVR Blue, a format of rewritable discs that would become Blu-ray Disc; the core technologies of the formats are similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue Disc" logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project was announced as Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members; the first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a US$3,800 BD-RE recorder, made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, no movies were released for this player. Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release movies for the new format, they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System used on DVDs.
On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association, 20th Century Fox joined the BDA's Board of Directors. The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004. In January 2005, TDK announced that they had now developed an ultra-hard yet thin polymer coating for Blu-ray discs. Cartridges used for scratch protection, were no longer necessary and were scrapped; the BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006. AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such as managed copy; the first BD-ROM players were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them to market by a few months.
The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, House of Flying Daggers, Underworld: Evolution, xXx, MGM's The Terminator. The earliest releases used the same method used on standard DVDs; the first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006. The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs were introduced in October 2006; the first audio-only albums were released in May 2008. The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006, it recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699. As of June 2008, more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia
The Wizard of Oz (1939 film)
The Wizard of Oz is a 1939 American musical fantasy film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures. Considered to be one of the greatest films in cinema history, it is the best-known and most commercially successful adaptation of L. Frank Baum's 1900 children's book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Directed by Victor Fleming, the film stars Judy Garland as Dorothy Gale alongside Ray Bolger, Jack Haley, Bert Lahr, Frank Morgan, Billie Burke and Margaret Hamilton with Charley Grapewin, Pat Walshe, Clara Blandick and Singer's Midgets as the Munchkins. Characterized by its legendary use of Technicolor, fantasy storytelling, musical score and memorable characters, the film has become an icon of American popular culture, it was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, but lost to Gone with the Wind directed by Victor Fleming. It did win in two other categories: Best Original Song for "Over the Rainbow" and Best Original Score by Herbert Stothart. While the film was considered a critical success upon release in August 1939, it failed to make a profit for MGM until the 1949 re-release, earning only $3,017,000 on a $2,777,000 budget, not including promotional costs, which made it MGM's most expensive production at that time.
The 1956 television broadcast premiere of the film on the CBS network reintroduced the film to the public. It was among the first 25 films that inaugurated the National Film Registry list in 1989, it is one of the few films on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. The film is among the top ten in the BFI list of the 50 films you should see by the age of 14; the Wizard of Oz is the source of many quotes referenced in contemporary popular culture. Noel Langley, Florence Ryerson, Edgar Allan Woolf received credit for the screenplay, but uncredited contributions were made by others; the songs were written by Harold Arlen. The musical score and the incidental music were composed by Stothart. Dorothy Gale lives with her dog Toto on the Kansas farm of her Aunt Uncle Henry. Toto bites Miss Almira Gulch on the leg, she obtains an order from the sheriff for Toto to be euthanized, she takes Toto away on her bicycle, but he escapes and returns to Dorothy, she decides to run away. She meets Professor Marvel, a kindly fortune teller who uses his crystal ball to make Dorothy believe that Aunt Em may be dying of a broken heart.
Dorothy races home, arriving just as a tornado strikes. Locked out of the farm's storm cellar, she seeks shelter in her bedroom. Wind-blown debris knocks her unconscious and the house is sent spinning in the air, she awakens to see various figures fly by, including Miss Gulch on her bicycle, who transforms into a witch on a broomstick. The house lands in Munchkinland in the Land of Oz. Glinda the Good Witch of the North and the Munchkins welcome her as a heroine, as the falling house has killed the Wicked Witch of the East, her sister, the Wicked Witch of the West, arrives to claim the slippers, but Glinda transports them onto Dorothy's feet first. The Wicked Witch of the West swears revenge on Dorothy vanishes. Glinda tells Dorothy to keep the slippers on and follow the yellow brick road to the Emerald City, where she can ask the Wizard of Oz to help her get back home. On her journey, Dorothy meets the Scarecrow, who wants a brain, the Tin Woodman, who desires a heart, the Cowardly Lion, who needs courage.
Dorothy invites them to accompany her to the Emerald City, where they can ask the Wizard to help them too. Despite the Witch's attempts to foil their journey, they reach the Emerald City and are permitted to see the Wizard, who appears as a large ghostly head surrounded by fire and smoke, he agrees to grant their wishes. As the foursome and Toto make their way to the Witch's castle, the Witch captures Dorothy and plots her death in order to remove her slippers. Toto leads her three friends to the castle, they don the guards' uniforms, march inside and free Dorothy. The Witch and her guards surround them; the Witch sets fire to the Scarecrow, causing Dorothy to toss a bucket of water, inadvertently splashing the Witch, who melts away. The guards give Dorothy her broomstick; the Wizard stalls in fulfilling his promises, until Toto pulls back a curtain and exposes the "Wizard" as a middle-aged man operating machinery and speaking into a microphone. Admitting to being a humbug, he insists, he gives the Scarecrow a diploma, the Lion a medal and the Tin Man a ticking heart-shaped watch, helping them see that the attributes they sought were within them.
He offers to take Dorothy and Toto home in his hot air balloon. He reveals that he, too, is from Kansas, worked at a carnival when a tornado brought him to the Emerald City, he was accepted the job as Wizard due to hard times. As Dorothy and the Wizard prepare to depart, distracted by a cat, leaps from Dorothy's arms; as she pursues Toto, the balloon disembarks with the Wizard. Glinda appears and tells Dorothy the ruby slippers have the power to return her to Kansas if she taps her heels together three times repeating "There's no place like home." Dorothy wakes up in her bedroom surrounded by her family and friends, including Toto. Everyone dismisses her adventure as a dream, but Dorothy insists it was real and says she will never run away from home again, she declares: "There's no place like home!" Production on
Sydney Irwin Pollack was an American film director and actor. Pollack directed more than 20 films and 10 television shows, acted in over 30 movies or shows and produced over 44 films, his 1985 film Out of Africa won him Academy Awards for producing. He was nominated for Best Director Oscars for They Shoot Horses, Don't They? and Tootsie in which he appeared. Some of his other best known works include Jeremiah Johnson, The Way We Were, Three Days of the Condor and Absence of Malice, his subsequent films included Havana, The Firm, The Interpreter, he produced and acted in Michael Clayton. Pollack is best known to television viewers for his recurring role playing Will Truman's father on the NBC sitcom Will & Grace. Sydney Pollack was born in Lafayette, Indiana, to a family of Russian-Jewish immigrants, the son of Rebecca and David Pollack, a semi-professional boxer and pharmacist; the family relocated to South Bend and his parents divorced. His mother, who suffered from alcoholism and emotional problems, died at the age of 37 while Pollack was a student.
Despite earlier plans to attend college and medical school, Pollack left Indiana for New York City soon after finishing high school at age 17. Pollack studied acting with Sanford Meisner at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre from 1952–54, working on a lumber truck between terms. After two years army service, ending in 1958, he returned to the Playhouse at Meisner’s invitation to become his assistant. In 1960, John Frankenheimer, a friend of Pollack, asked him to come to Los Angeles in order to work as a dialogue coach for the child actors on Frankenheimer's first big picture, The Young Savages, it was during this time that Pollack met Burt Lancaster who encouraged the young actor to try directing. Pollack played a director in The Twilight Zone episode "The Trouble with Templeton" in 1961, but he found his real success in television in the 1960s by directing episodes of series, such as The Fugitive and The Alfred Hitchcock Hour. After doing TV he made the jump into film with a string of movies.
His film-directing debut was The Slender Thread. Over time, Pollack's films received a total of 48 Academy Award nominations, his first Oscar nomination was for his 1969 film They Shoot Horses, Don't They?, his second in 1982 for Tootsie. For his 1985 film Out of Africa starring Meryl Streep and Robert Redford, Pollack won Academy Awards for directing and producing. During his career, he directed 12 different actors in Oscar-nominated performances: Jane Fonda, Gig Young, Susannah York, Barbra Streisand, Paul Newman, Melinda Dillon, Jessica Lange, Dustin Hoffman, Teri Garr, Meryl Streep, Klaus Maria Brandauer and Holly Hunter. Young and Lange won Oscars for their performances in Pollack's films, his disputes with Hoffman during the filming of Tootsie became well known. Hoffman began pushing the idea that Pollack play the role of his agent and Pollack reluctantly agreed despite not having any film roles in 20 years, their off-screen relationship added authenticity to their scenes in the movie, most of which feature them arguing.
Pollack subsequently took on more acting roles in addition to directing. He appeared as himself in the documentary One Six Right, describing his joy in owning and piloting his Cessna Citation X jet aircraft. One of a select group of non- and/or former actors awarded membership in The Actors Studio, Pollack resumed acting in the 1990s with appearances in such films as The Player and Eyes Wide Shut playing corrupt or morally conflicted power figures; as a character actor, Pollack appeared in films such as A Civil Action, Changing Lanes, as well as his own, including Random Hearts and The Interpreter. He appeared in Woody Allen's Husbands and Wives as a New York lawyer undergoing a midlife crisis, in Robert Zemeckis's Death Becomes Her as an emergency room doctor, his last role was as Patrick Dempsey's father in the 2008 romantic comedy Made of Honor, playing in theaters at the time of his death. He was a recurring guest star on the NBC sitcom Will & Grace, playing Will Truman's unfaithful but loving father, George Truman.
In addition to earlier appearances on NBC's Just Shoot Me and Mad About You, in 2007, Pollack made guest appearances on the HBO TV series The Sopranos and Entourage. Pollack received the first annual Extraordinary Contribution to Filmmaking award from the Austin Film Festival on October 21, 2006; as a producer he helped to guide many films that were successful with both critics and movie audiences, such as The Fabulous Baker Boys, The Talented Mr. Ripley, Michael Clayton, a film in which he starred opposite George Clooney and for which he received his sixth Academy Award nomination, in the Best Picture category, he formed a production company called Mirage Enterprises' with the English director Anthony Minghella. The last film they produced together, The Reader, earned them both posthumous Oscar nominations for Best Picture. Besides his many feature film laurels, Pollack was nominated for five Primetime Emmys, earning two: one for directing in 1966 and another for producing, given four months after his death in 2008.
The moving image collection of Sydney Pollack is housed at the Academy Film Archive. In the 2002 Sight and Sound Directors' Poll, Pollack revealed his top ten films: Casablanca, Citizen Kane, The Conformist, The Godfather Part II, Grand Illusion, The Leopard, Once Upon a Time in America, Raging Bull, The Seventh Seal, Sunset Boulevard. Pollack's brother, Bernie, is a costume desig
BioShock is a first-person shooter video game developed by 2K Boston and 2K Australia, published by 2K Games. The first game in the Bioshock series, it was released for Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360 platforms in August 2007. A scaled down mobile version was developed by IG Fun, which contained the first few levels of the game; the game's concept was developed by Irrational's creative lead, Ken Levine, incorporates ideas by 20th century dystopian and utopian thinkers such as Ayn Rand, George Orwell, Aldous Huxley, as well as historical figures such as John D. Rockefeller and Walt Disney; the game is considered a spiritual successor to the System Shock series, on which many of Irrational's team including Levine had worked previously. BioShock is set in 1960; the player guides the protagonist, after his airplane crashes in the ocean near the bathysphere terminus that leads to the underwater city of Rapture. Built by the business magnate Andrew Ryan, the city was intended to be an isolated utopia, but the discovery of ADAM, a genetic material which can be used to grant superhuman powers, initiated the city's turbulent decline.
Jack tries to find a way to escape, fighting through hordes of ADAM-obsessed enemies, the iconic, deadly Big Daddies, while engaging with the few sane humans that remain and learning of Rapture's past. The player, as Jack, is able to defeat foes in a number of ways by using weapons, utilizing plasmids that give unique powers, by turning Rapture's own defenses against them. BioShock includes elements of role-playing games, giving the player different approaches in engaging enemies such as by stealth, as well as moral choices of saving or killing characters. BioShock received critical acclaim and was praised by critics for its morality-based storyline, immersive environments, its unique setting, is considered to be one of the greatest video games of all time and a demonstration of video game as an art form, it received several Game of the Year awards from different media outlets, including from BAFTA, Game Informer, Spike TV, X-Play. Since its release a direct sequel has been released, BioShock 2 by 2K Marin, as well as a third game titled BioShock Infinite by Irrational Games.
A remastered version of the original game was released on Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One on September 13, 2016, as part of BioShock: The Collection, along with BioShock 2 and Infinite. A standalone version of BioShock Remastered was released for macOS by Feral Interactive on August 22, 2017. BioShock is set in 1960 in the underwater city of Rapture. Rapture was planned and constructed in the 1940s by Objectivist business magnate Andrew Ryan who wanted to create a utopia for society's elite to flourish outside of government control and "petty morality". Scientific progress expanded, including the discovery of the genetic material "ADAM" created by sea slugs on the ocean floor. ADAM allows its users to alter their DNA to grant them super-human powers like telekinesis and pyrokinesis. To protect Rapture, Ryan imposed a law. Despite the apparent utopia, class distinctions grew, former gangster and businessman Frank Fontaine used his influence over the lower class to plan a coup over Rapture.
Fontaine profited by creating black market routes with the surface world, together with Dr. Brigid Tenenbaum, created a cheap plasmid industry by mass-producing ADAM through the implantation of the slugs in the stomachs of orphaned girls, nicknamed "Little Sisters". Fontaine used his plasmid-enhanced army to attack Ryan, but was killed in the battle. Ryan took the opportunity to seize his assets including the plasmid factories. In the months that followed, a second figure named Atlas rose to speak for the lower class, creating further strife. Atlas led attacks on the factories housing the Little Sisters, Ryan countered by creating "Big Daddies", plasmid-enhanced humans surgically grafted into giant lumbering diving suits who were psychologically compelled to protect the Little Sisters at all costs. Ryan created his own army of plasmid-enhanced soldiers, named "Splicers", which he controlled using pheromones distributed through Rapture's air system. Tension came to a head on New Year's Eve of 1958.
The battle left many dead, the few sane survivors barricaded themselves away. What once was a beautiful utopia had fallen into a crumbling dystopia; some of the events described above are revisited and expanded upon in the downloadable expansion BioShock Infinite: Burial at Sea, which takes place in Rapture during the latter months of 1958 and leads up to Atlas' assault on Ryan's forces. In 1960, at the start of the game, the protagonist, Jack, is a passenger on a plane that goes down in the Atlantic Ocean; as the only survivor, Jack makes his way to a nearby lighthouse that houses a bathysphere terminal that takes him to Rapture. Jack is contacted by Atlas via radio, is guided to safety from the Splicers and the perils of the run down city. Atlas requests Jack's help in stopping Ryan, directing him to a docked bathysphere where he claims Ryan has trapped his family; when Jack encounters a wandering Little Sister and its fallen Big Daddy, Atlas urges Jack to kill the Little Sister to harvest her ADAM for himself.
Lawrence of Arabia (film)
Lawrence of Arabia is a 1962 British epic historical drama film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence, it was directed by David Lean and produced by Sam Spiegel through his British company Horizon Pictures, with the screenplay by Robert Bolt and Michael Wilson and starring Peter O'Toole in the title role. The film depicts Lawrence's experiences in the Arabian Peninsula during World War I, in particular his attacks on Aqaba and Damascus and his involvement in the Arab National Council, its themes include Lawrence's emotional struggles with the personal violence inherent in war, his own identity, his divided allegiance between his native Britain and its army, his new-found comrades within the Arabian desert tribes. The film stars Alec Guinness, Jack Hawkins, Anthony Quinn, Omar Sharif, Anthony Quayle, Claude Rains, Arthur Kennedy. Lawrence of Arabia was nominated for ten Oscars at the 35th Academy Awards in 1963, it won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama and the BAFTA Awards for Best Film and Outstanding British Film.
In the years since, it has been recognised as one of the greatest and most influential films in the history of cinema. The dramatic score by Maurice Jarre and the Super Panavision 70 cinematography by Freddie Young are highly acclaimed. In 1991, Lawrence of Arabia was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" and selected for preservation in the US Library of Congress National Film Registry. In 1998, the American Film Institute placed it 5th on their 100 Years...100 Movies list, 7th on their 2007 updated list. In 1999, the British Film Institute named the film the third-greatest British film of all time; the film is presented in two parts, divided by an intermission. The film opens in 1935. At his memorial service at St Paul's Cathedral, a reporter tries to gain insights into this remarkable, enigmatic man from those who knew him; the story moves backward to the First World War, where Lawrence is a misfit British Army lieutenant, notable for his insolence and education. Over the objections of General Murray, Mr. Dryden of the Arab Bureau sends him to assess the prospects of Prince Faisal in his revolt against the Turks.
On the journey, his Bedouin guide, Tafas, is killed by Sherif Ali for drinking from his well without permission. Lawrence meets Colonel Brighton, who orders him to keep quiet, make his assessment, leave. Lawrence ignores Brighton's orders, his outspokenness piques the prince's interest. Brighton advises Faisal to retreat after a major defeat, but Lawrence proposes a daring surprise attack on Aqaba; the town is fortified against a naval assault but only defended on the landward side. He convinces Faisal to provide fifty men, led by a sceptical Sherif Ali. Teenage orphans Daud and Farraj attach themselves to Lawrence as servants, they cross the Nefud Desert, considered impassable by the Bedouins, travelling day and night on the last stage to reach water. One of Ali's men, succumbs to fatigue and falls off his camel unnoticed during the night; when Lawrence discovers him missing, he turns back and rescues Gasim—and Sherif Ali is won over. He gives Lawrence Arab robes to wear. Lawrence persuades Auda abu Tayi, the leader of the powerful local Howeitat tribe, to turn against the Turks.
Lawrence's scheme is derailed when one of Ali's men kills one of Auda's because of a blood feud. Howeitat retaliation would shatter the fragile alliance, so Lawrence declares that he will execute the murderer himself, he is stunned to discover that the culprit is Gasim, the man whom he risked his own life to save in the desert, but he shoots him anyway. The next morning, the Arabs overrun the Turkish garrison. Lawrence heads to Cairo to inform the new commander, General Allenby, of his victory. While crossing the Sinai Desert, Daud dies. Lawrence is promoted to given arms and money for the Arabs, he is disturbed, confessing that he enjoyed executing Gasim, but Allenby brushes aside his qualms. He asks Allenby whether there is any basis for the Arabs' suspicions that the British have designs on Arabia; when pressed, the general states. Lawrence launches a guerrilla war, harassing the Turks at every turn. American war correspondent Jackson Bentley publicises Lawrence's exploits. On one raid, Farraj is badly injured.
Unwilling to leave him to be tortured by the enemy, Lawrence shoots him dead before fleeing. When Lawrence scouts the enemy-held city of Deraa with Ali, he is taken, along with several Arab residents, to the Turkish Bey. Lawrence is stripped and prodded. For striking out at the Bey, he is flogged before being thrown into the street; the experience leaves Lawrence shaken. He does not fit in. A short time in Jerusalem, General Allenby urges him to support the "big push" on Damascus. Lawrence hesitates to return but relents. Lawrence recruits an army, motivated more by money than by the Arab cause, they sight a column of retreating Turkish soldiers. One of Lawrence's men is from Tafas; when Lawrence hesitates, the man is killed. Lawrence takes up the dead man's battle cry. Afterwards, he regrets his actions. Lawrence's men take Damascus ahead of Allenby's forces; the Arabs set up a council to administer the city, but the dese
Open matte is a filming technique that involves matting out the top and bottom of the film frame in the movie projector for the widescreen theatrical release and scanning the film without a matte for a full screen home video release. Non-anamorphic 4-perf films are filmed directly on the entire full frame silent aperture gate; when a married print is created, this frame is re-cropped by the frame line and optical soundtrack down to Academy ratio. The movie projector uses an aperture mask to soft matte the Academy frame to the intended aspect ratio; when the 4:3 full-screen video master is created, many filmmakers may prefer to use the full Academy frame instead of creating a pan and scan version from within the 1.85 framing. Because the framing is increased vertically in the open matte process, the decision to use it needs to be made prior to shooting, so that the camera operator can frame for 1.85:1 and "protect" for 4:3. Additionally, the un-matted 4:3 version will throw off an otherwise tightly-framed shot and add an inordinate amount of headroom above actors.
Open-matte doesn't happen as with most films that are presented in 2.20:1 or 2.39:1. Instead those employ reframing using the well-protected areas. Many films over the years have used this technique, the most prominent of which include Back to the Future, Schindler's List and Top Gun as well as many films that have been specially formatted for the IMAX expanded aspect ratio of 1.90:1. Stanley Kubrick used this technique for his last three films The Shining, Full Metal Jacket and Eyes Wide Shut.) James Cameron's Terminator 2: Judgment Day is an example of open-matte. The rise new film exhibition technologies in 1950s like Cinerama, anamorphic lenses, shooting wide aspect ratios for theatrical films; this coincided with the rise of television and home media with a much different, narrow aspect ratio of 4:3. To avoid letterboxing for broadcast releases, films were therefore reframed and cropped shot by shot to fit appropriately, full screen with the 4:3 aspect, with a process called Pan and Scan.
Hence, only a cropped small portion of the theatrical frame was broadcast. Pan and Scan deals with only the 2.39:1 master of a film. For HDTV, the sides are cropped to fit the 16:9 frame. If footage with taller ratios were shot, for example IMAX scenes for various films the screen real-estate is cropped in accordance to the deliverable ratio; this helps in preserving composition for the film beyond the theatrical release. Shoot and protect Aspect ratio