The Chagres River, in central Panama, is the largest river in the Panama Canals watershed. The river is dammed twice, and the resulting reservoirs—Gatun Lake and Lake Alajuela—form an integral part of the canal and its water system. The upper Chagres River, its watershed, and the watershed of several tributaries lie within the Chagres National Park, the terrain of the upper Chagres watershed is rugged, with its mountain slopes exceeding 45 degrees in 90 percent of its territory. Some 98 percent of the consists of old-growth tropical forest. The upper Chagres and its seven tributaries flow into Lake Alajuela, as these rivers contribute 45 percent of the total water for the canal, the lake is an essential part of the watershed of the canal zone. The lake has a level of 76 metres above sea level. Unlike Gatun Lake, Lake Alajuela is not part of the navigational route, water from the reservoir is used to generate hydroelectric power and to supply Panama Citys fresh water. At 3.2 kilometres from the mouth lies the Gatun Dam.
The lake is essential to the water supply, as it provides the millions of gallons of water at the high level needed for the locks to function correctly. The lake is part of the navigational canal and provides drinking water for Panama City. At the time it was formed, Gatun Lake was the largest man-made lake in the world, the impassable rainforest around Gatun Lake has been the best defense of the Panama Canal. World famous Barro Colorado Island, which was reserved for scientific study when the lake was formed and is operated by the Smithsonian Institution, is the largest island on Gatun Lake. Many of the most important groundbreaking scientific and biological discoveries of the tropical animal, angling is one of the primary recreational pursuits on Gatun Lake. It is suspected that the Cichla pleiozona species of bass was introduced by accident to Gatun Lake by a renowned Panamanian aquarist. Since 1958, the Cichla pleiozona species has flourished and become the dominant game fish in Gatun Lake, the aggressive fish is an anglers dream come true.
It hits topwater lures, subsurface lures imitating bait fish, when hooked, these peacock bass perform admirably, generating a respectable fight on appropriate tackle. Oddly, they have a preference for feeding during daylight hours, Gatun Lake remains to this day, as it has been for more than 50 years, one of the best peacock bass angling lakes in the world. The commander Diego Cueto and his helmsman, Pedro de Umbria, the Chagres River was explored in 1527 by Hernando de la Serna, who founded the town of Chagres at its mouth and built the fortress of San Lorenzo
Vice President of Panama
The Vice President of Panama is the second-highest political position in the Government of Panama. Since 2009, the position of Vice President has been held by one person. Previously, there were positions of First Vice President and Second Vice President, known as First Designate to Presidency, according to the current constitution, Vice Presidents are elected in the same ticket as the President. However, the position of Second Vice President has been abolished since 2009, an incomplete list of Vice Presidents of Panama follows
Panamax and New Panamax are terms for the size limits for ships travelling through the Panama Canal. Formally, these limits and requirements are published by the Panama Canal Authority and these requirements describe topics like exceptional dry seasonal limits, propulsion and detailed ship design. These dimensions give clear parameters for ships destined to traverse the Panama Canal and have influenced the design of ships, naval vessels. Panamax specifications have been in effect since the opening of the canal in 1914, in 2009 the ACP published the New Panamax specification which came into effect when the canals third set of locks, larger than the original two, opened on 26 June 2016. Ships that do not fall within the Panamax-sizes are called post-Panamax, because the largest ships traveling in opposite directions cannot pass safely within the Culebra Cut, the canal effectively operates an alternating one-way system for these ships. Panamax is determined principally by the dimensions of the original lock chambers, each of which is 110 ft wide,1,050 ft long.
The usable length of each chamber is 1,000 ft. The available water depth in the lock chambers varies, but the shallowest depth is at the sill of the Pedro Miguel Locks and is 41.2 ft at a Miraflores Lake level of 54 ft 6 in. The clearance under the Bridge of the Americas at Balboa is the factor on a vessels overall height for both Panamax and Neopanamax ships, the exact figure depends on the water level. New Panamax increases allowable width to 49 m.39.5 ft in Tropical Fresh Water, the name and definition of TFW is created by ACP using the freshwater Lake Gatún as a reference, since this is the determination of the maximum draft. The salinity and temperature of water affect its density, and hence how deep a ship will float in the water, Tropical Fresh Water is fresh water of Lake Gatún, with density 0.9954 g/cm3, at 29.1 °C. The physical limit is set by the entrance of the Pedro Miguel locks. When the water level in Lake Gatún is low during a dry season the maximum permitted draft may be reduced.
Such a restriction is published three weeks in advance, so ship loading plans can take appropriate measures, New Panamax increases allowable draft to 15. 190 ft measured from the waterline to the vessels highest point, limit pertains to New Panamax, exception,205 ft when passage at low water at Balboa is possible. All exceptions are allowed only after specific request and an investigation. A Panamax cargo ship would typically have a DWT of 65, 000–80,000 tonnes, New Panamax ships can carry 120,000 DWT. Panamax container ships can carry 5,000 twenty-foot equivalent units, the longest ship ever to transit the original locks was San Juan Prospector, now Marcona Prospector, an ore-bulk-oil carrier that is 973 ft long, with a beam of 106 ft
Panama Canal Railway
The Panama Canal Railway is a railway line that runs parallel to the Panama Canal, linking the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean in Central America. The route stretches 47.6 miles across the Isthmus of Panama from Colón to Balboa and it is operated by Panama Canal Railway Company, which is jointly owned by Kansas City Southern and Mi-Jack Products. The Panama Canal Railway currently provides freight and passenger service. The infrastructure of this railroad was of importance for the construction of the Panama Canal over a parallel route half a century after it opened. The principal incentive for the building of the line was the vast increase in traffic to California owing to the 1849 California Gold Rush. Construction on the Panama Railroad began in 1850 and the first revenue train ran over the length on January 28,1855. As railroad technology developed in the early 19th century and given the cost and difficulty of constructing a canal with the available technology, president Bolívar of La Gran Colombia commissioned a study into the possibility of building a railway from Chagres to the town of Panama City.
This study was carried out between 1827 and 1829, just as railroads were being invented, the report stated that such a railway might be possible. This resulted in the United States acquiring a franchise for a railroad, the scheme was a victim of the business panic of 1837. In 1838 a French company was given a concession for the construction of a road, rail, or canal route across the isthmus. In 1847, a year before gold was discovered in California, the Atlantic lines ran from New York City, Havana and New Orleans, Louisiana, to Panamas Chagres River on the Caribbean Sea at a $300,000 subsidy. The proposed Pacific line ran with three steamships from Panama City, Panama to California and Oregon in the Pacific at a $200,000 subsidy, none of the steamships in the Pacific was built before the mail contract was let. In 1847, the actual east–west transit across the isthmus was by native dugout boats up the often dangerous Chagres River, and by mules for the final 20 miles over the old Spanish trails.
The trails had fallen into disrepair after some 50 years of little or no maintenance. A transit from the Atlantic to the Pacific or vice versa would usually take four to eight days by dugout canoe, the transit was fraught with dangers and disease. William H. Aspinwall, the man who had won the bid for the building and operating of the Pacific mail steamships, conceived a plan to construct a railway across the isthmus. He and his partners created a company registered in New York, the Panama Railroad Company, raised $1,000,000 from the sale of stock, and hired companies to conduct engineering and route studies. Their venture happened to be well-timed, as the discovery of gold in California in January 1848 created a rush of emigrants wanting to cross the Isthmus of Panama and go on to California
Juan Carlos Varela
Juan Carlos Varela Rodríguez is a Panamanian politician, and the President of Panama since 2014. Varela was Vice-President of Panama from 2009 to 2014, and Minister of Foreign Relations from July 2009 to August 2011 and he has been President of the Panameñistas, the third-largest political party in Panama, since 2006. He was sworn in as President on 1 July 2014, born in Panama City, Juan Carlos Varela is a businessman and entrepreneur, whose family hails from Herrera Province. His paternal grandfather José Varela Blanco emigrated from Bergondo, Galicia in Spain and settled in the district of Pesé, Herrera in Panama. After graduating from Colegio Javier, he attended the Georgia Institute of Technology in the United States, in the private sector, Varela has been on the board of his family company since 1985, serving as Executive Vice-President of Varela Hermanos S. A. until 2008. Varela won about 39% of the vote against 32% for Arias, in Panama,17 business executives and former officials have been charged, and one former Odebrecht executive has said he paid bribes to the sons of former president Ricardo Martinelli.
Prosecutors investigating the Odebrecht case have raided the offices of Mossack Fonseca, according to Geovanny Vicente Romero, a political Analyst from Washington D. C. Panama’s Office of the Attorney General had identified 17 people connected with receiving bribes totaling $59 million and it remains to be seen the direction President Varela will take now that his own administration is under extreme scrutiny. ”He is the son of José Varela and Beixie née Rodríguez. Varela married Lorena Castillo, a journalist, in 1992 and they reside in Panama City and have three sons, Gian Carlo and Stefan
Isabel Saint Malo
Isabel Cecilia de Saint Malo García de Alvarado is a Panamanian politician and the current Vice President of Panama. She ran with elected President, Juan Carlos Varela, on the ticket made up of the Panameñista and she is the first woman in Panama’s history elected for this post. For 15 years she worked for the United Nations Development Programme in Panama, ending her career at the organization as Country Programme Manager and she led several national consensus-building initiatives, including the National Consensus Building Process for Development that drafted a national development agenda towards 2025. At UNDP she managed a project portfolio in initiatives related to poverty reduction, environmental protection, modernization of the state. In recent years Saint Malo has served as an independent consultant for international organizations as well as the public and she has been a member of the Board of Directors for several private and non profit institutions and was awarded in 2012 The Women of the Year Award.
Upon being elected as Vice President of Panama, President-elect Juan Carlos Varela named Saint Malo as his Minister of Foreign Affairs and she is married to Omar Alvarado and has three children, Carolina Isabel and Julio Raúl. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers Isabel Saint Malo de Alvarado, Vicepresidenta de Juan Carlos Varela Mujeres en la Vicepresidencia
Albrook "Marcos A. Gelabert" International Airport
Albrook Marcos A. Gelabert International Airport is a public airport located 1.5 km west of the center of Panama City, in the Panamá Province of Panama. It is located on the site of the former Albrook Air Force Station, the airport was located in the area of Paitilla, operating approximately 70 years until January 1999, year when the airport started operations in Albrook. The name was changed to honor the Panamanian aviator Marcos A. Gelabert, whose contributions to Panamanian aviation included founding Panamas first airline, Air Panama offers daily flights to many cities in Panama from Albrook Airport. Its corporate headquarters are located on the airport property, after World War I, it became apparent to military planners that air power, especially naval air power, constituted a serious threat to the safety of the Panama Canal. The one existing airfield was too small, had a poor landing surface, offered no room for expansion, construction for an air base at Albrook Field was authorized by Congress in 1928, and $1.9 million was appropriated.
Actual construction began in 1930 and most was completed in 1932, Albrook Army Airfield was commissioned in April 1932 as an active air field. The original construction program at Albrook left out several buildings necessary for efficient flight operations, as money could be secured throughout the 1930s, seven buildings were added to the base. In addition, the runways were unsuitable for flying and had to be improved. By the mid-1930s, advances in aviation and increasingly long-range bombers had again made plain the inadequacies of Canal air defense. Plans to significantly expand Air Corps strength had been around since 1934, essentially proposing a system of outlying bases supported by pursuit and it was 1939, before these plans began to be realized. Congressional authorization and $50 million in funding were forthcoming that year for improving Canal defenses, since a large part of the expansion program was a vast increase in manpower, much of the new construction involved housing at existing bases.
In addition, a new airfield was authorized for the west bank of the Pacific entrance to the Canal, the majority of the expansion program construction was completed by early 1942. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the number of troops in Panama was sharply increased, the newly established Caribbean Defense Command carried out its mission of Canal defense through a widespread net of naval and air reconnaissance, with the greatest threat coming from German U-boats. By April 1943, the threat to the Canal was diminishing, defense status was downgraded, Albrook Field became Albrook Air Force Base on March 26,1948, by the Department of the Air Force General Order Number 10. AAFES operated an Albrook Mall in various buildings that was one of the shopping areas available to US troops stationed there. In 1966, elements of the famed 4080th SRW, home of the Lockheed U2 aircraft performed atmospheric sampling as the French detonated a device in the South Pacific. In 1975 the facility was downgraded to Albrook Air Force Station when the tower was closed and Air Force aircraft.
The airstrip and adjacent hangars and buildings was transferred to the government of Panama on October 1,1979, the base saw action again during the 1989 United States invasion of Panama, including an extended firefight at its front gate
A Panamanian passport is the passport issued to citizens of Panama to facilitate international travel. Panamanian citizens enjoy visa-free access to 125 countries and territories. The passports are issued by the Passports Authority of Panama, the cover of the passport has a dark blue background. The front part of the cover has the words REPÚBLICA DE PANAMÁ on top, the coat of arms of Panama in the middle, all of this is outlined in a grey color. The back part of the cover only has the blue background, the biometric passport symbol appears at the bottom of the front cover under the word PASSEPORT. As of January 2016, Panamanian passports are issued with Panamas old coat of arms. This change took effect in January 2014, the passport contains 32 pages for visas. Each with a construction or project of the 2009-2014 government of the Panama, in 2015, Panamanian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 127 countries and territories, ranking the Panamanian passport 36th in the world according to the Visa Restrictions Index.
Panama unveiled an electronic passport, in late 2012, with an implementation in 2013, in either March. Because of this, it was necessary to present a travel reservation to request a passport for the first time, older, in January 2014 Panama finally started issuing electronic passports to its citizens. Its cost increased from $50 to $100, and the inside contains images of recent government projects, ordinary passport - Issued for ordinary travel, such as holidays and business trips. Diplomatic passport - Issued to Panamanian diplomats, top ranking government officials, emergency travel document - Issued when Panamanians lose the document outside of Panama and must return home. Must be ordered at a Panamanian embassy or consulate, in 1998 Pavlo Lazarenko, the former Prime minister of Ukraine was arrested as he tried to enter Switzerland. He was found to be carrying an apparently valid Panamanian passport, list of countries whose passport holders do not require visas to enter Ireland. Embassy of Panama in Washington D. C. http, //www. embassyofpanama.
org See http, See http, //www. mire. gob. pa Panamas foreign affairs ministry. For Passport applications and procedures http, //www. gobiernoyjusticia. gob. pa Panamas government and justice ministry Panama Passport Agency http, //www. pasaporteordinario. gob. pa/