"Panhellenic Games" is the collective term for four separate sports festivals held in ancient Greece. The four Games were: The Olympiad was one of the ways the Greeks measured time; the Olympic Games were used as year one of the cycle. The cycle repeated itself with the Olympic Games, they were structured this way. Participants could come from all over the Greek world, including the various Greek colonies from Asia Minor to Spain. However, participants had to be wealthy in order to pay for training, transportation and other expenses. Neither women nor non-Greeks were allowed to participate, except for occasional exceptions, such as the Roman emperor Nero; the main events at each of the games were chariot racing, boxing, pankration and various other foot races, the pentathlon. Except for the chariot race, all the events were performed nude; the Olympic Games were the oldest of the four, said to have begun in 776 BC. It is more though that they were founded sometime in the late 7th century BC, they lasted until the Roman Emperor Theodosius, a Christian, abolished them as heathen in AD 393.
The Pythian and Isthmian games most began sometime in the first or second quarter of the 6th century BC. The Isthmian games were held at the temple to Poseidon on the Isthmus of Corinth; the games are known as the stephanitic games, because winners received only a garland for victory. No financial or material prizes were awarded, unlike at other ancient Greek athletic or artistic contests, such as the Panathenaic Games, at which winners were awarded many amphorae of first-class Athenian olive-oil; the Olympic games awarded a garland of olives. Though victors received no material awards at the games, they were showered with gifts and honors on returning to their polis. Agonothetes Theorodokoi Theoroi
Derrick "Smoke" Gainer is a US born boxer who started out in the featherweight division and now fights in the lightweight division. In 2000, he defeated Freddie Norwood to win the World Boxing Association featherweight title and after four defenses lost to Juan Manuel Márquez, who became super champion, via technical decision in 2003. Since his defeat to Marquez, Gainer lost in a challenge to WBA titleholder Chris John via unanimous decision. Gainer is a colleague and good friend of Roy Jones Jr. and fought on his under-cards. His last was a split decision win over Carlos Navarro on the undercard of the Roy Jones-Anthony Hanshaw bout at the Mississippi Coast Coliseum, in Biloxi, Mississippi. Derrick started a charter high school for at risk kids in 1999 which he named after his late grandmother Dr. Ruby J Gainer; this year Gainer started Fit Nation, a childhood obesity program with goals to help kids make healthy life style changes. Fit Nation is a non-profit program located in Florida. Professional boxing record for Derrick Gainer from BoxRec Interview with Fightnews DiBella Entertainment article Boxing Guru Profile Scandinavian Site
Suzanne Dorothy Patrick is a retired Navy Commander and a former Deputy Undersecretary of Defense. Patrick, a member of the Democratic Party, ran for Congress in Virginia's 2nd congressional district during the 2014 United States House of Representatives elections. Patrick graduated from Randolph-Macon Women's College in 1977, earned a Master's Degree in national security studies from Georgetown University. Patrick is the fourth generation of her family to serve in the military. Patrick served in the United States Navy Reserve for 21 years. From 2001-2005, she served as Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for industrial policy, she has served as an Aerospace Analyst with Sanford Bernstein, held senior management positions with Creditanstalt Bank and Ventana Capital Management, LLC. She founded the hedge fund investment firm New Poland Eagle, she worked for Secretary of the Navy John Lehman. Patrick ran for Congress in Virginia's 2nd congressional district, challenging incumbent Republican Congressman Scott Rigell.
Patrick criticized Rigell for voting for defense cuts as part of the sequester. The Hill reported that she planned to frame herself as a "centrist Democrat."Patrick was added to the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee’s ‘Red to Blue’ program, which provides additional financial support to candidates. The Rothenberg Political Report ratings show the race leaning Republican. Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi's own campaign committee donated to Patrick’s campaign. Patrick has been endorsed by EMILY's List, a political action committee that supports pro-choice candidates. Political positionsPatrick opposes repeal of the Affordable Care Act. Patrick has owned a home in Virginia Beach, Virginia since 1991
Throughout the history of Eritrea, women have played an active role. Eritrean women represented 30 percent of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front during the 30-year war for independence; the war was fought against Ethiopian forces to reestablish Eritrean sovereignty from Ethiopian annexation. Eritrea was annexed on 15 November 1962, following pressure from Haile Selassie I on the Eritrean Assembly, the Federation was dissolved and Eritrea was annexed by Ethiopia directly after. With this annexation Eritrea's national language was changed to Amharic and they would now be considered apart of the Ethiopian state; the struggle for independence accelerated promptly after annexation and the war would continue for 30 years. By the end of the 30 year long struggle, women comprised about one third of the military force of 95,000. Up to 30,000 women fighters began new lives during the conflict; the women fighters would serve alongside men in every capacity. The war ended in 1991, independence was achieved in 1993.
The emancipation of women was central to the cultural revolution advocated by the EPLF and their Marxist–Leninist ideology, within its own ranks the Front attempted to put gender equality into practice during the 30-year war. Areas that were consolidated by the Eritrean People's Liberation Front from Ethiopian hegemony were the epicenter of this cultural revolution. In these areas they attempted to reform traditional Ethiopian marriage practices like forced marriage, arranged marriage, the payment of dowry, child marriage and the marginalization of non virgin brides; the EPLF conceptualized marriage as the partnership of a man and woman who are each free individuals exercising choice. In the EPLF's words this was described as "democratic marriage" and as "marriages based on comradely love"; the EPLF provided fighters with contraceptives, which were not provided in traditional Ethiopian society. Women in the EPLF exercised choice both in starting relationships and ending them, not the norm in rural and traditional Ethiopian society in the 1960s.
EPLF fighters reported that divorce was easy and initiated by the women during the War. What was regarded as scandalous promiscuity based on traditional ideas of purity and virginity, were tolerated in the Eritrean People's Liberation Front's liberated areas; the role of the female fighter during the 30 year War for Independence challenged normative gendered stereotypes and gender roles. Women in conflict are solely perceived as victims suffering from rape and being portrayed as defenseless and inactive during these periods; these gendered portrayal of defenseless women in war were deconstructed during the war, with the Eritrean women forces being at the forefront of this conflict. This opened up opportunities to reconstruct ‘given’ gendered stereotypes by directly challenging them; the assumption that women are inherently more peaceful than men neglects the other roles and behaviors that women can assume as people that have varying degrees of aggressiveness and assertiveness. The breaking down of gender roles and stereotypes was important for creating healthy social conditions for women.
Gendered images of women as inferior, less capable, emotional, less intelligent and docile and portrayals of men as superior, more competent, dominant and intelligent may breed the grounds for sexist assumptions that are reproduced in society and become detrimental to women who have to deal with these assumptions on a daily basis. Eritrea is an agricultural subsistence society, both men and women work in agriculture and gendered divisions of labour exists in these practices, they depend on a regional agrarian system. Pastoralist and semi-pastoralist areas in the lowlands are dependent on livestock breeding. Women's role is centered on preparing food as well as milking of goats and cows. In most areas farming is the mainstay and women work in the fields and share agricultural work in the communal land of Eritrea. In addition to this, women are involved in backyard gardening and beekeeping as well as weaving. In most regions, women are responsible for most aspects of child care in their household.
In the central highlands both men and women work in the fields. However ploughing remains a male practice, while hoeing and weeding is shared by both men and women. In some areas men and women produce the same crops but have separate fields, for subsistence and for sale. There are separate tasks within the cropping cycle, with men planting cereals and fodder crops together with vegetables, while women plant some varieties of vegetables. In livestock production men tend the livestock. In Africa, women are assumed to perform 65% of the work for food production, in Eritrea the rate is 70% - 80%. Women provide the labour for 80% of the food storage and transport from farm to the home, 90% of hoeing and weeding, 60% of harvesting and marketing. Women work in the fields of their husbands, hoeing and storing, while men plough women's field. Men do most of the fishing in the Red Sea. Women contribute to the harvesting of fisheries resources, such as catching small pelagic fish, collecting sea snails for the incense and perfume production in Yemen and other Arab countries.
Eritrean women work much longer hours than men, corroborated by numerous studies of gender roles and responsibilities, women in Eritrea reported that they work up to 9 hours a day during the cropping season. In the field of education women represent 50 percent of all elementary school teachers in the country. Which is a
The baojia system was an invention of Wang Anshi of the Song dynasty, who created this community-based system of law enforcement and civil control, included in his large reform of Chinese government from 1069–1076. The leaders of the baos were given authority to maintain local order, collect taxes, organize civil projects; the idea of the system was that it would diminish the government's reliance on mercenaries, that it would instead assign responsibility of law enforcement to these civil societies. Baojia regulations were issued centrally in 1548, during the Ming dynasty, but the system was not mandatory. Rather, the regulations were more like guidelines for officials who wished to deploy the system in their counties. During the Qing dynasty, the baojia system was expanded across all of China. However, Ju Dongzu has written that the system was "on the whole ineffective" during this time, "remained a formality" for several centuries after its introduction. Being the system of self-defense, in 1885, baojia was extended to cover tax collection.
This resulted in local unrest. The baojia system has continued to resonate with Chinese citizens during the 20th century. During the boycott of Japanese products that occurred during the May Fourth Movement in 1919, students modeled their resistance on the baojia system. Ten people swore a collective oath to boycott Japanese products, to make sure that the other nine members of their group upheld their oath; each member of the group was to attempt to convert nine outsiders to the cause, forming ten groups of ten, which could come together as a group of one hundred. Ten groups of one hundred could meet to form a one thousand person brigade; as with the traditional baojia system, one member of each group of ten became leader of the group. Although no functional group of one thousand existed, there is evidence that the ten person groups played an important role in carrying out the boycott. During the Republic of China era, Chiang Kai-shek pressed for the reintroduction of the baojia system, he Yingqin argued that the baojia system could be used as the basis for the switch from a mercenary to a compulsory military service.
The system had some success, but there was great difficulty in finding qualified and willing baozhang, as the position was unpaid. The Japanese revived the baojia system in Manchukuo on December 22, 1933. In this case, the system's primary purpose was to control the Chinese citizens; the government instituted a lianzuo punishment system, in which crimes committed by one family in a pai would result in punishment for all ten families in that pai. This gave the paizhang a large incentives to monitor the other families in his pai; the Tonarihumi system was a self-defense unit and an operational mutual responsibility and surveillance organization. This system lasted until 1937, when the all-out war being waged in East Asia forced the Japanese government to consider more direct and centralized control schemes. On December 1, 1937, a new district and village government system was announced. In Taiwan under Japanese rule, the baojia system inherited from the Qing government was adapted into the Hoko system.
The system was an effective mechanism in producing domestic stability and social order for the Japanese government. The structure of the baojia system changed over time. In Wang Anshi's original system, its basic unit was the bao. However, during the Ming dynasty, this ten family unit was instead labeled a jia, ten jia made a bao; each jia possessed a placard. The family holding it at a given time was the tithing captain; the captain of the bao was the baozhang. There was a great deal of regional variation in the system. In some areas, jia had as many as thirteen; some Jiangnan counties added. This unit had a corresponding dangzhang. During the Qing dynasty, the system's structure changed again. Ten households made up one pai, ten pai constituted one jia, every ten jia formed a bao. Studies by Philip Huang and Wang Fuming of Baodi County in northeastern Hebei province have shown that the lowest quasi-official was the xiangbao, who oversaw about twenty villages and was intended to act as a buffer between the people and the government.
When the system was reimplemented in the Republic of China, the structure remained the same, with the exception of the introduction of the lianbao, a group of several bao at the district level
Domingo Martínez de Irala was a Spanish Basque conquistador. He headed for America in 1535 enrolled in the expedition of Pedro de Mendoza and participated in the founding of Buenos Aires, he explored the Paraná and Paraguay Rivers along with Juan de Ayolas and was commanding the rear-guard when Ayolas' advance party was wiped out by the Payagua Indians. Unique in Spanish America, the colony had been granted by Charles V the right to elect its own commander under such circumstances. In 1539, he began to move the inhabitants of Buenos Aires to Asunción, the city was abandoned by 1541, he outlasted the Charles V's appointment, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, whom he had recalled to Spain for trial as a traitor. Although Juan de Sanabria and his son Diego were appointed governor in 1547 and 1549, they never fulfilled their commissions, de Irala was confirmed by the king as governor in 1552, he ruled forcefully until his death around 1556. During his rule, he had churches and public buildings erected, towns established, the native population subjugated and distributed among the colonists in encomiendas.
He was succeeded by Gonzalo de Mendoza. Maura, Juan Francisco Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca: El gran burlador de América Publicaciones de Parnaseo, Universidad de Valencia, Spain, in Spanish Infoplease Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Argentina". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. P. 468