Panoramic painting

Panoramic paintings are massive artworks that reveal a wide, all-encompassing view of a particular subject a landscape, military battle, or historical event. They became popular in the 19th century in Europe and the United States, inciting opposition from some writers of Romantic poetry. A few are on public display. In China, panoramic paintings are an important subset of handscroll paintings, with some famous examples being Along the River During the Qingming Festival and Ten Thousand Miles of the Yangtze River; the word "panorama", from Greek pan horama was coined by the Irish painter Robert Barker in 1792 to describe his paintings of Edinburgh, Scotland shown on a cylindrical surface, which he soon was exhibiting in London, as "The Panorama". In 1793 Barker moved his panoramas to the first purpose-built brick panorama rotunda building in the world, in Leicester Square, made a fortune. Viewers flocked to pay a stiff 3 shillings to stand on a central platform under a skylight, which offered an lighting, get an experience, "panoramic".

The extended meaning of a "comprehensive survey" of a subject followed sooner, in 1801. Visitors to Barker's Panorama of London, painted as if viewed from the roof of Albion Mills on the South Bank, could purchase a series of six prints that modestly recalled the experience. In contrast, the actual panorama spanned 250 square metres. Despite the success of Barker's first panorama in Leicester Square, it was neither his first attempt at the craft nor his first exhibition. In 1788 Barker showcased his first panorama, it was only a semi-circular view of Edinburgh and Barker's inability to bring the image to a full 360 degrees disappointed him. To realize his true vision and his son, Henry Aston Barker, took on the task of painting a scene of the Albion Mills; the first version of what was to be Barker's first successful panorama was displayed in a purpose-built wooden rotunda in the back garden of the Barker home and measured only 137 square metres. Barker's accomplishment involved sophisticated manipulations of perspective not encountered in the panorama's predecessors, the wide-angle "prospect" of a city familiar since the 16th century, or Wenceslas Hollar's Long View of London from Bankside, etched on several contiguous sheets.

When Barker first patented his technique in 1787, he had given it a French title: La Nature à Coup d' Oeil. A sensibility to the "picturesque" was developing among the educated class, as they toured picturesque districts, like the Lake District, they might have in the carriage with them a large lens set in a picture frame, a "landscape glass" that would contract a wide view into a "picture" when held at arm's length. Barker made many efforts to increase the realism of his scenes. To immerse the audience in the scene, all borders of the canvas were concealed. Props were strategically positioned on the platform where the audience stood and two windows were laid into the roof to allow natural light to flood the canvases. Two scenes could be exhibited in the rotunda however the rotunda at Leicester Square was the only one to do so. Houses with single scenes proved more popular to audiences as the fame of the panorama spread; because the Leicester Square rotunda housed two panoramas, Barker needed a mechanism to clear the minds of the audience as they moved from one panorama to the other.

To accomplish this, patrons walked down a dark corridor and up a long flight of stairs where their minds were supposed to be refreshed for viewing the new scene. Due to the immense size of the panorama, patrons were given orientation plans to help them navigate the scene; these glorified maps pinpointed key buildings, sites, or events exhibited on the canvas. To create a panorama, artists sketched the scenes multiple times. A team of artists worked on one project with each team specializing in a certain aspect of the painting such as landscapes, people or skies. After completing their sketches, the artists consulted other paintings, of average size, to add further detail. Martin Meisel described the panorama: "In its impact, the Panorama was a comprehensive form, the representation not of the segment of a world, but of a world entire seen from a focal height." Though the artists painstakingly documented every detail of a scene, by doing so they created a world complete in and of itself. The first panoramas depicted urban settings, such as cities, while panoramas depicted nature and famous military battles.

The necessity for military scenes increased in part. French battles found their way to rotundas thanks to the feisty leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte. Henry Aston Barker's travels to France during the Peace of Amiens led him to court, where Bonaparte accepted him. Henry Aston created panoramas of Bonaparte's battles including The Battle of Waterloo, which saw so much success that he retired after finishing it. Henry Aston's relationship with Bonaparte continued following Bonaparte's exile to Elba, where Henry Aston visited the former emperor. Pierre Prévost was the first important French panorama painter. Among his 17 panoramas, the most famous describe the cities of Rome, Amsterdam, Jerusalem and the battle of Wagram. Outside of England and France, the popularity of panoramas depended on the type of scene displayed. People wanted to see images from their own countries or from England; this principle rang true in Switzerland. In America, New York City panoramas found popularity, as well as imports from


Amphoraspis stellata is an amphiaspidid heterostracan in the family Amphiaspididae. Its fossils are restricted to early Devonian-aged marine strata of the Taimyr Siberia. A. stellata, as with all other amphiaspidids, is thought to have been a benthic filter feeder that lived on top of, or buried just below the surface of the substrate of hypersaline lagoon-bottoms. So far, A. stellata is known from at least one, 14 centimeter-long and dorsally rounded cephalothoracic armor, shaped vaguely like, as the generic name suggests, an amphora. The animal had small degenerate eyes that were flanked laterally by a small, crescent-shaped branchial opening; the small eyes, in turn, laterally flank a small, slit-shaped mouth at the center of the anterior-most end of the cephalothorax. The external surface of the armor has a unique micro-ornamentation of a pattern of star-like shapes

Kaya F.C.–Iloilo

Kaya Futbol Club–Iloilo is a Filipino professional football club based in Iloilo City. They play in the highest tier of Philippine football; the club has won one Copa Paulino Alcantara. The club has competed in the AFC Cup. Founded in 1996 as Kaya Futbol Club in Makati, the club's name comes from the Filipino word káya. While in Old Tagalog, the word is defined as susi ng kapatiran. Both of these definitions provide the basis for Kaya's team vision; the club was a founding member of the United Football League —the de facto top-level league of Philippine football back then. They played in the UFL throughout its existence from 2010 to 2016. In 2017, the club changed its name to Kaya F. C.–Makati upon joining the Philippines Football League, the official top flight of Philippine football. In 2018, they changed their name accordingly. Kaya Futbol Club traces its origins to the late 1980s and early 1990s, when men played football in a wooden basketball court at the old Makati campus of the International School Manila in present-day Century City, Makati.

In July 1996, Kaya was established by Chris Hagedorn, ISM football coach Bob Kovach, former national team players Rudy del Rosario, John-Rey "Lupoy" Bela-ong. Chris Hagedorn once pointed out that the name "Kaya" is derived from the Filipino word for "can do it" or "we can". Kaya co-founder Rudy del Rosario points to the lyrics of Bob Marley's song Kaya, when asked about the origin of the club's name; the club began to join outdoor 7-a-side football tournaments playing against other teams making podium-finishes in these competitions. In the late 1990s, Kaya participated in official and more challenging 11-a-side football tournaments organized by the National Capital Region Football Association. In the early 2000s, the club played in numerous competitions like the Globe Super Cup. In 2002, the club played in the first incarnation of the United Football League. Between 2000 and 2009, Kaya defeated the Philippine Armed Forces clubs in two separate championship matches and was the champion of the old incarnation of the United Football League on three occasions.

The club was recognized as one of the only club teams capable of defeating the "big three", composed of the Philippine Army, Philippine Air Force and Philippine Navy football clubs. Before the club participated in the inaugural UFL Cup in 2009, the CEO of LBC Express Santiago Araneta began investing on the club, helping Kaya to become one of the finest clubs in the Philippines. After placing in the top two of their group in the first UFL Cup in October 2009, Kaya was placed in the first division for the inaugural United Football League competition. In the inaugural season of the United Football League, Kaya finished second, behind league champions Philippine Air Force; the club had a final record of 28 points. The runner-up finish is Kaya's best finish in the league, replicated by the team in the 2012 season. Kaya withdrew from this season's UFL Cup for unspecified reasons; as a result, the club was fined ₱200,000The club signed Spanish coach Juan Cutillas as the club's head coach in 2011. The club went on to finish fourth in the league competition after collecting 17 points.

This season's UFL Cup saw the beginning of the fierce rivalry between Kaya and the Loyola Meralco Sparks. After placing top of their group with an unbeaten record, Kaya defeated Team Socceroo 2–0 in the round of sixteen. Kaya defeated the Manila Nomads 3–0 in the quarterfinals, setting up a showdown with the Loyola Meralco Sparks in the semi-finals. Kaya lead the game 3–0, but a resilient Loyola Meralco Sparks club managed to make an exciting comeback, finishing the game at 4–5 to the Sparks. With the loss, Kaya was placed in a third-place match with Global, losing 2–1. Before the beginning of the league competition, head coach Juan Cutillas left the club, he was replaced by Filipino coach Michael Alvarez as the interim head coach of the club. The 2012 league competition saw one of Kaya's best finishes to date, finishing runners-up to champions Global; the two clubs finished with the same record. The championship was decided on goal-difference, with Global having a +32 GD and Kaya with +13 GD. With the runners-up finish, Kaya missed out on qualifying for the 2013 AFC President's Cup.

Kaya joined. In the round of sixteen, they defeated M'lang 5–0 in Koronadal; the club beat rivals Loyola Meralco Sparks 1–0 in the quarterfinals, before falling to eventual champions Ceres 3–1 in the semi-finals. In the third-place match, Kaya defeated Green Archers United 2–0. In the UFL Cup, Kaya finished the group stages in second place, behind Green Archers United on goal difference, they were defeated by Global 2–1 at extra time in the quarterfinals. Head coach Michael Alvarez stepped down as head coach in December 2012, he was replaced by Uruguayan coach Maor Rozen. Kaya finished fourth in the league competition 15 points from champions Stallion. In the middle of the league, head coach Maor Rozen resigned; the club's goalkeeping coach Melo Sabacan took over the reins as interim head coach, was subsequently replaced by Australian coach David Perković. The club saw minimal success in this season's UFL Cup. Kaya finished second behind UFL Division 2 side Union Internacional Manila, they lost to relegated Philippine Air Force