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Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, asteroids, planetoids, by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms. Distribution may have occurred spanning galaxies, so may not be restricted to the limited scale of solar systems. Panspermia hypotheses propose that microscopic life-forms that can survive the effects of space can become trapped in debris ejected into space after collisions between planets and small Solar System bodies that harbor life; some organisms may travel dormant for an extended amount of time before colliding randomly with other planets or intermingling with protoplanetary disks. Under certain ideal impact circumstances, ideal conditions on a new planet's surfaces, it is possible that the surviving organisms could become active and begin to colonize their new environment. At least one report finds that endospores from a type of Bacillus bacteria found in Morocco can survive being heated to 420 °C, making the argument for Panspermia stronger.

Panspermia studies concentrate not on how life began, but on methods that may distribute it in the Universe. Pseudo-panspermia argues that the pre-biotic organic building-blocks of life originated in space, became incorporated in the solar nebula from which planets condensed, were further—and continuously—distributed to planetary surfaces where life emerged. From the early 1970s, it started to become evident that interstellar dust included a large component of organic molecules. Interstellar molecules are formed by chemical reactions within sparse interstellar or circumstellar clouds of dust and gas; the dust plays a critical role in shielding the molecules from the ionizing effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted by stars. The chemistry leading to life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the Universe was only 10 to 17 million years old. Though the presence of life is confirmed only on the Earth, some scientists think that extraterrestrial life is not only plausible, but probable or inevitable.

Probes and instruments have started examining other planets and moons in the Solar System and in other planetary systems for evidence of having once supported simple life, projects such as SETI attempt to detect radio transmissions from possible extraterrestrial civilizations. The first known mention of the term was in the writings of the 5th-century BC Greek philosopher Anaxagoras. Panspermia began to assume a more scientific form through the proposals of Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Hermann E. Richter, Hermann von Helmholtz and reaching the level of a detailed scientific hypothesis through the efforts of the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius. Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe were influential proponents of panspermia. In 1974 they proposed the hypothesis that some dust in interstellar space was organic, which Wickramasinghe proved to be correct. Hoyle and Wickramasinghe further contended that life forms continue to enter the Earth's atmosphere, may be responsible for epidemic outbreaks, new diseases, the genetic novelty necessary for macroevolution.

In an Origins Symposium presentation on April 7, 2009, physicist Stephen Hawking stated his opinion about what humans may find when venturing into space, such as the possibility of alien life through the theory of panspermia: "Life could spread from planet to planet or from stellar system to stellar system, carried on meteors."Three series of astrobiology experiments have been conducted outside the International Space Station between 2008 and 2015 where a wide variety of biomolecules and their spores were exposed to the solar flux and vacuum of space for about 1.5 years. Some organisms survived in an inactive state for considerable lengths of time, those samples sheltered by simulated meteorite material provide experimental evidence for the likelihood of the hypothetical scenario of lithopanspermia. Several simulations in laboratories and in low Earth orbit suggest that ejection and impact is survivable for some simple organisms. In 2015, remains of biotic material were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia, when the young Earth was about 400 million years old.

According to one researcher, "If life arose quickly on Earth … it could be common in the universe."In April 2018, a Russian team published a paper which disclosed that they found DNA on the exterior of the ISS from land and marine bacteria similar to those observed in superficial micro layers at the Barents and Kara seas' coastal zones. They conclude "The presence of the wild land and marine bacteria DNA on the ISS suggests their possible transfer from the stratosphere into the ionosphere with the ascending branch of the global atmospheric electrical circuit. Alternatively, the wild land and marine bacteria as well as the ISS bacteria may all have an ultimate space origin."In October 2018, Harvard astronomers presented an analytical model that suggests matter—and dormant spores—can be exchanged across the vast distances between galaxies, a process termed'galactic panspermia', not be restricted to the limited scale of solar systems. The detection of an extra-solar object named ʻOumuamua crossing the inner Solar System in a hyperbolic orbit confirms the existence of a continuing material link with exoplanetary systems.

In November 2019, scientists reported detecting, for the first time, sugar molecules

Casiano Communications

Latin Media House, LLC acquired the assets of Casiano Communications Inc. effective November 2, 2015 from Chapter 11 at the US Bankruptcy Court. The original company was founded in 1973, by Manuel A. Casiano, who died on May 19, 2017 at the age of 86. Casiano Communications started out publishing a business and financial newsletter on Puerto Rico which evolved over 45 years into the largest English speaking weekly paper Caribbean Business. Latin Media House continues to publish and expand the existing publications like Caribbean Business, Buena Vida or Book of Lists and is adding new publications to its portfolio. Under the umbrella Grupo LMH Latin Media House, LLC is affiliated with the bilingual, HIPPA and PCI certified call center DRSI Call Center, LLC, Puerto Rico's leading newsstand distribution company Distribution Integrated Services, LLC, acquired from GFR Media in 2016, the content studio and content marketing advisory 348 medialab, LLC, providing tailored contents in several languages and topics to clients around the world.

The group is lead since its inception by Chief Executive Officer and Editor in Chief Heiko Faass and employs 200 persons. Recognizing the unfilled niche that an area business publication would fill, Mr. Casiano launched the newsletter that would evolve into what is now Caribbean Business newspaper. For forty-three years, it had been the recognized Business Authority in the region, it was published weekly in English, its in-depth news and analysis was read by people in the White House, the U. S. Congress, Wall Street, by Puerto Rico bond investors, the parent companies and suppliers of companies in Puerto Rico and many others. Daily business news was provided on its website,, where it attracted more than 153,000 unique visitors a month. In the late 1980s, its annual Caribbean Business Book of Lists was launched, with rankings of leading companies in Puerto Rico, by industry; the list provides information on 129 local industries, more than 1500 companies, a guide on how to do business in Puerto Rico.

It has since been published every year. In 1988 Manuel A. Casiano's daughter Kimberly Casiano became an executive in the company rising to President in 1994. While various magazines had been launched in Puerto Rico, none were successful because they could not compete with the quality of the magazines in Spanish that were being imported from South America; those magazines did not include local coverage and Mr. Casiano wanted to publish a magazine that reflected Puerto Rico's people, the problems facing the island and so CCI began launching a new series of magazines; the various magazines cover women's and family lifestyles, health, a wedding guide, a mothers guide, a decoration guide, a baby boomers magazine for those 50 years old and over, a Quinceañera- teen girl's magazine, the ¡Qué Pasa! Tourism guide. In 2014, after losing several key Direct ResponSource contact center accounts amid Puerto Rico's ongoing depression, Casiano Communications and its sister operations, Direct ResponSource Inc. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.

After a year of court battle, in August 2015 the US Bankruptcy Court in San Juan, Puerto Rico, approved the proposed restructuring plan of a consortium of Puerto Rican business men around Miguel A. Ferrer, lead by German financier and entrepreneur Heiko Faass, who resides in Puerto Rico; the court approved the acquisition of the assets of both Casiano Communications, Inc. and DirectResponSource, Inc. which were assigned to Latin Media House, LLC and DRSI Call Center, LLC, together doing business as Grupo LMHLatin Media House, based in Puerto Rico, stated that the focus for its lead publication, Caribbean Business, would be on a digital edition featuring news about Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic and other islands in the Caribbean and that there would be an effort to add subscribers living in the mainland United States. The founder and editor-in-chief of the defunct Casiano Communication, Manuel Casiano, was contracted to serve as an adviser to the new ownership group through November, 2016.

An estimated 70% of Puerto Rico's adults read one or more Casiano Communications publications each month. In 2000, the company unveiled a new search engine and web portal dedicated for Puerto Rico; the website was called "Puerto Rico WOW!" and had a digital business directory. The website received an average of 19 million hits a month and 191,000 pages are viewed daily per WebTrends. In 2008, Puerto Rico WOW! was converted into, which went on to surpass WOW! in terms of traffic and ad revenue. Another website, www., was launched in 2008 as a complement to its namesake weekly celebrity gossip magazine, TVaquí, no longer published. Casiano Communications publications. Official website

CHARA array

The CHARA array is an optical interferometer, located on Mount Wilson, California. The array consists of six 1-metre telescopes operating as an astronomical interferometer. Construction was completed in 2003. CHARA is owned by Georgia State University. CHARA's six telescopes each have a one-meter diameter, they are spread across Mount Wilson to increase the angular resolution of the array. Each of the six telescopes provides a different image, to combine it into one image the light from each telescope is transported through vacuum tubes and fed into a single beam, where they are matched up to within one micron; this process is called interferometry, allows the array to have the same resolving power as a telescope with a 330-meter mirror, an angular resolution of 200 micro-arcseconds. In 1984 CHARA was founded, with financial support from the National Science Foundation, in 1985 planning for the array began. Construction for the array started on July 13, 1996, with $6.3 million awarded to GSU by the NSF, the same amount matched by GSU, going towards the effort.

In July 1998, GSU was awarded another $1.5 million by W. M. Keck Foundation, which allowed for a sixth telescope to be added to the planned five. With a final gift of $574,000 from David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the funding for the array was completed in October 1998. After another five years of construction, the CHARA array was completed in 2003. In April of the same year, CHARA was awarded a 3-year grant to support scientific programs at the center, renewed in 2006. In 2013 another grant from the NSF worth 3.6 million was given to the Center. Observatories throughout the world have come to CHARA to test beam combining technology. On January 15, 2007, the diameter of an exoplanet was measured directly, using CHARA; this was achieved by using the observed angular diameter of the star that the planet orbited, the known distance of the star from earth, to get the diameter of the star. With this they could calculate the diameter of the exoplanet when comparing its size to the star when it passed in front of it.

This was the first time the diameter of an exoplanet was directly measured, returned a value different than that obtained from indirect, more conventional methods. In 2013 CHARA was used to capture images showing the starspots on Zeta Andromedae, a star 181 light years away; this was the first time. CHARA directly observed binary stars, such as Beta Algol. CHARA directly imaged multiple stars, such as Regulus, Altair and Beta Cassiopeiae to measure the flattened shape of these rotating stars; because the equator is further from the center of the star, it will appear cooler than the poles, an effect called gravity darkening. The CHARA array can resolve the circumstellar disks around Be-stars and measure the disk precession variations. CHARA holds annual science meetings where recent advancements in science and technologies relevant to the array are discussed; the center gives access to the array to the astronomical community using the National Optical Astronomy Observatory peer review system for around 50 nights per year.

They have periodic community workshops. Interferometry Telescope Mount Wilson

Shandong University

Shandong University is a public comprehensive university in Shandong, China. It is one of the largest universities in China by student population and is supported directly by the national government. Present-day Shandong University is the result of multiple mergers as well as splits and restructurings that have involved more than a dozen academic institutions over time; the oldest of Shandong University's precursor institutions, Cheeloo University, was founded by American and English mission agencies in the late 19th century. Tengchow College was the first modern institution of higher learning in China. Shandong University derives its official founding date from the Imperial Shandong University established in Jinan in November 1901 as the second modern national university in the country. Shandong University has eight campuses, all but two of which are located in the provincial capital city of Jinan; the newest of these campuses is located to the northeast of the port city of Qingdao. It was inaugurated in September 2016 and its development is still ongoing.

The university has been classified as a National Key University by the Chinese Ministry of Education since 1960. It has been included in major national initiatives seeking to enhance the international competitiveness of the top-tier universities in China such as Project 985 and Project 211, it is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. Shandong University offers master and doctoral degree programs in all major academic disciplines covering the humanities and engineering, as well as medicine. Shandong University ranked 270th worldwide and 11th nationwide in CWUR World University Ranking 2018/2019. In the general university ranking performed by the Chinese University Alumni Association, Shandong University ranked number 14 among Top 100 Chinese universities in 2010, it reached the 11th highest score in the "teaching" category of this ranking. Shandong University's engineering programs have been ranked number 15 nationwide by the Research Center of Management and Science in China.

For the last 10 years, Shandong University has been continuously ranked among the top 10 universities nationwide in terms of the number of publications included in the Science Citation Index. Research at Shandong University is deemed particular strong in the areas of physics and medicine. A ranking by Mines ParisTech based on the number of alumni holding CEO position in Fortune Global 500 companies placed Shandong University first within China; the Luoyuan Academy was established in Jinan in 1733 by an imperial edict from the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. The governor of Shandong, Yue Jun, received 1,000 taels of silver to fund the establishment of the academy; the name "Luoyuan" refers to the original location of the academy near the Baotu Spring. The academy was dedicated to teaching the Chinese classics to the sons of the gentry. Scholars affiliated with the academy include: Bi Yuan, Sang Tiaoyuan, Shen Qiyuan, He Shaoji, Kuang Yuan, Wang Zhihan, Liu Yaochun, Zhu Xuedu, Miao Quansun.

In 1881, the American Presbyterian missionaries John Murray and Stephen A. Hunter attempted to purchase a property adjacent to the Luoyuan Academy for use as a chapel; this led to a violent reaction when on July 13, 1881, literati from the Academy incited an attack on the property. The incident, known as the "Jinan Jiaoan", had considerable diplomatic repercussions for the relationship between the Qing Dynasty and the United States; the Luoyuan Academy was rebuilt in 1896 to become the largest institution of its kind in Shandong. Five years it was replaced by the newly founded Imperial Shandong College which took over its campus; the earliest precursor institutions that would be fused into Shandong University were founded by American and English mission agencies: In early January 1864, Calvin W. Mateer, an American Presbyterian missionary, his wife Julia Brown Mateer, arrived in the opened treaty port of Dengzhou in the area of the present-day city of Penglai on the north-eastern coast of Shandong Peninsula.

Their journey had begun in New York on July 3, 1863, had taken them around the Cape of Good Hope to Shanghai, had ended with a shipwreck off the coast of Yantai. In the autumn of 1864, the Mateers opened an elementary school for boys in a Guanyin temple, sold to them since there were insufficient funds for its upkeep as a temple; the school's first class consisted of two day pupils. The school was enlarged to accommodate 30 boarders and divided into primary and high school sections in 1869; the high school became known as the Wenhui Guan. The Tengchow College of Liberal Arts was formally established in 1882, i.e. at a time when the school had been operated as a primary and high school for 18 years already. By 1889, enrollment in the college had grown to 100

Zahra Amir Ebrahimi

Zahra Amir Ebrahimi is an Iranian photographer, television actress and short movies director. She studied theater in Tehran, started her professional life with making short movies, she made her first movie. She became popular shortly after her first work in Iranian public TV, she was well known in Iran for her role in the popular Iranian soap opera Nargess, as a pious young woman. Ebrahimi is a professional photographer, whose work focuses on social topics and issues, she now lives outside of her country because of several problems she faced in Iran after a scandal she became the center of. In 2006, Ebrahimi became the centre of an Iranian sex tape scandal when a videotape of a woman, claimed to be Ebrahimi, having sex with a man was leaked to the internet and released on DVD, she subsequently became the subject of an official investigation handled by Tehran's chief prosecutor, Saeed Mortazavi. In an interview with the Guardian, Ebrahimi denied being the woman in the film and dismissed it as a fake made by a vengeful former fiancé who used studio techniques to form a montage of incriminating images designed to destroy her career.

The unnamed man on the tape, suspected of releasing it fled to Armenia but was subsequently returned to Iran and charged with breach of public morality laws. & Rumours of an attempted suicide were denied by Ebrahimi with a public message: "I just want to tell my country's people that I am alive. I am thinking about the strength of Iranian women and will defend the respect of the girls and women of my nation."In an interview in 2019, Zehra spoke about the incident. This time, she claimed that the video was leaked by Majid Bahrami, a co-star in Nargess; the theater star was sentenced to 6 months in prison. Bahrami died from cancer a few years ago. Ebrahimi now lives in France. & In 2019, In her interview with chandshnabeh ba sina, an Iranian talk show, she admitted that she was in the sex tape. Zahra Amir Ebrahimi on IMDb


OScar is the first attempt to design an entire automobile using open-source principles. The aim of the project is to produce blueprints, using open-source CAD; the project commenced in 1999, founded by Markus Merz with Tiago do Vale as design director, launched its 0.2 release in 2006, but no further progress has been made. In 2007, Merz admitted; the goal of the project is not to produce a sophisticated car, but rather a simple and functional basic one, which answer people's basic transportation needs. A long-term goal is to introduce standardization in parts manufacturing to use economies of scale; this is a radical change from the car industry's current practices and business model, where every manufacturer has their own standards. This monopoly on brand-specific parts constitutes an important part of the manufacturers' revenues. Among the challenges this car will have to overcome, before reaching the manufacturing phase, are to conduct crash tests and to abide by strict security legislation and pollution norms in the car industry.

This has led to proposals for low-carbon alternative propulsion OScars. Local Motors Riversimple Urban Car NanoSafe Open-source hardware Open design Official website Video on Vimeo