A pantograph is a mechanical linkage connected in a manner based on parallelograms so that the movement of one pen, in tracing an image, produces identical movements in a second pen. If a line drawing is traced by the first point, an identical, enlarged, or miniaturized copy will be drawn by a pen fixed to the other. Using the same principle, different kinds of pantographs are used for other forms of duplication in areas such as sculpture, minting and milling; because of the shape of the original device, a pantograph refers to a kind of structure that can compress or extend like an accordion, forming a characteristic rhomboidal pattern. This can be found in extension arms for wall-mounted mirrors, temporary fences, scissor lifts, other scissor mechanisms such as the pantograph used on electric locomotives and trams; the ancient Greek engineer Hero of Alexandria in his work Mechanics, described pantographs. In 1603, Christoph Scheiner used a pantograph to copy and scale diagrams, wrote about the invention over 27 years in "Pantographice".
One arm of the pantograph contained a small pointer, while the other held a drawing implement, by moving the pointer over a diagram, a copy of the diagram was drawn on another piece of paper. By changing the positions of the arms in the linkage between the pointer arm and drawing arm, the scale of the image produced can be changed. In 1821, Professor William Wallace invented the eidograph to improve upon the practical utility of the pantograph; the eidograph relocates the fixed point to the center of the parallelogram and uses a narrow parallelogram to provide improved mechanical advantages. The original use of the pantograph was for scaling line drawings. Modern versions are sold as toys. Sculptors use a three-dimensional version of the pantograph a large boom connected to a fixed point at one end, bearing two rotating pointing needles at arbitrary points along this boom. By adjusting the needles different enlargement or reduction ratios can be achieved; this device, now overtaken by computer guided router systems that scan a model and can produce it in a variety of materials and in any desired size, was invented by inventor and steam pioneer James Watt and perfected by Benjamin Cheverton in 1836.
Cheverton's machine was fitted with a rotating cutting bit to carve reduced versions of well-known sculptures. A three-dimensional pantograph can be used to enlarge sculpture by interchanging the position of the model and the copy. Another version is still much in use to reduce the size of large relief designs for coins down to the required size of the coin. One advantage of phonograph and gramophone discs over cylinders in the 1890s—before electronic amplification was available—was that large numbers of discs could be stamped and cheaply. In 1890, the only ways of manufacturing copies of a master cylinder were to mold the cylinders, to record cylinders by the "round", over and over again, or to acoustically copy the sound by placing the horns of two phonographs together or to hook the two together with a rubber tube. Edison, Leon Douglass and others solved this problem by mechanically linking a cutting stylus and a playback stylus together and copying the "hill-and-dale" grooves of the cylinder mechanically.
When molding improved somewhat, molded cylinders were used as pantograph masters. This was employed by Edison and Columbia in 1898, was used until about January 1902; some companies like the United States Phonograph Co. of Newark, New Jersey, supplied cylinder masters for smaller companies so that they could duplicate them, sometimes pantographically. Pantographs could produce up to about 150 records per master. In theory, pantograph masters could be used for 200 or 300 duplicates if the master and the duplicate were running in reverse and the record would be duplicated in reverse. This, in theory, could extend the usability of a pantograph master by using the unworn/lesser worn part of the recording for duplication. Pathé employed this system with mastering their vertically-cut records until 1923; this was done as the resulting cylinder was loud and of high fidelity. The cylinder would be placed on the mandrel of a duplicating pantograph that would be played with a stylus on the end of a lever, which would transfer the sound to a wax disc master, which would be electroplated and be used to stamp copies out.
This system resulted in some fidelity reduction and rumble, but high quality sound. Edison Diamond Disc Records were made by recording directly onto the wax master disc. Before the advent of control technologies such as numerical control and programmable logic control, duplicate parts being milled on a milling machine could not have their contours mapped out by moving the milling cutter in a "connect-the-dots" fashion; the only ways to control the movement of the cutting tool were to dial the positions by hand using dexterous skill or to trace a cam, template, or model in some way, have the cutter mimic the movement of the tracing stylus. If the milling head was mounted on a pantograph, a duplicate part could be cut by tracing a template. (The template itself was made by a tool
The 2010–11 UNC Asheville Bulldogs men's basketball team represented the University of North Carolina at Asheville during the 2010–11 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Bulldogs, led by 15th year head coach Ed Biedenbach, played their home games at the Justice Center and are members of the Big South Conference, they finished the season 20–14, 11–7 in Big South play and were champions of the 2011 Big South Conference Men's Basketball Tournament to earn an automatic bid in the 2011 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. They defeated Arkansas–Little Rock in the new First Four round before falling to Pittsburgh in the second round
Maria Sophia Ocampo Atayde known professionally as Ria Atayde, is a Filipina actress. She is the daughter of businessman Art Atayde, her professional career began with the drama series variety show It's Showtime. Atayde was raised in the Philippines, she is the daughter of Sylvia Sanchez, a veteran actress, Art Atayde, a businessman. She has three siblings: Arjo and Xavi, she is an alumna of Saint Pedro Poveda College and De La Salle University, where she took up Communication Arts for bachelors and graduated from in June 2014. Her career began in 2015; the series was aired on the Prime Tanghali noontime show slot. Atayde played a minor role in this series as Ningning's teacher, she starred opposite of Beauty Gonzalez and her mother, Sylvia Sanchez. The series aired its final episode on January 15, 2016, concluded with a total of 125 episodes. After her successful portrayal in Ningning, Atayde joined It's Showtime and became part of the cast during its Lenten Special week. Atayde was in the series during an episode entitled "The Wedding" and played the role of "Sheila".
Shortly after, she was cast in the long running drama anthology series Maalaala Mo Kaya for the episode entitled "Puno ng Mangga". She received the award for Best Female New TV Personality for this role. Atayde starred in an episode of Ipaglaban Mo, she went to Wansapanataym to star in the miniseries Holly and Mau, after playing several roles of heavy drama. After a short break, Atayde was cast in the popular fantasy television series My Dear Heart, opposite Nayomi "Heart" Ramos, Coney Reyes, Zanjoe Marudo and Bela Padilla; the series received a great response and garnered 31.0% on its 2nd episode nationwide according to Kantar Media ratings. Portraying the role of Gia Divinagracia, this is Atayde's most recent dramatic return to teleseryes; the series premiered on January 2017 on ABS-CBN's Primetime Bida evening block. 2016 PMPC Star Awards for TV's "Best Female New TV Personality" for MMK episode: Puno ng Mangga. 2016 PMPC Star Awards for TV's "Female Star of the Night" Mother is Sylvia Sanchez Younger Sister of Arjo Atayde Brief history Cousin of Coleen Garcia