International Building Exhibition Berlin
The International Building Exhibition Berlin was an urban renewal project in West Berlin, Germany. Initiated in 1979, it was completed in 1987, matching the 750th anniversary of the founding of Berlin; the IBA followed two distinct strategies: "careful urban renewal" and "critical reconstruction." In 1979 Josef Paul Kleihues was appointed director of the IBA Neubau section by the Berlin Senate. He organised the exhibition along two distinct themes: IBA Alt aimed to explore methods of "careful urban renewal" and IBA Neu for experimenting "critical reconstruction." He invited many international architects including Peter Eisenman, Vittorio Gregotti, Herman Hertzberger, Hans Hollein, Arata Isozaki, Rob Krier, Aldo Rossi and James Stirling. The IBA was called by Time magazine "the most ambitious showcase of world architecture in this generation". Interbau - an International Building Exhibition organised in Berlin in 1957 Kleihues, Josef Paul.
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
American University of Rome
The American University of Rome is a degree-granting American university in Rome, Italy. The school was founded in 1969. AUR is situated near the center of Rome on the Janiculum hill in the Trastevere neighborhood, has a total student enrollment of around 500; the language of instruction is English. AUR has its origins soon after World War II. David Colin, an American journalist in Italy prior to and during the war, settled in Rome. While American students and professors visited Rome, Colin helped foster cultural exchanges between Americans and their Italian counterparts. Over time, informal discussions at his home became more formalized, turning into structured lectures and classes, his wife, Joan Carpenter, assisted Colin with this undertaking. George Tesoro, an Italian who left Italy in 1940 in protest against Mussolini’s fascist regime, began to collaborate with Colin; as the program grew, The American University in Rome became reality when AUR was incorporated in 1969 in the District of Columbia with its academic headquarters located in Rome, Italy.
Upon incorporation, Tesoro served as chairman until 1983, when Joseph D. Ventura vice chair, succeeded him. During Ventura's time as chairman, the board of trustees became a degree-granting institution from the District of Columbia in 1986. In 1987, a member of the board, Dr. Margaret Giannini, a professional in the scientific and medical research field, became board chair and served until 2003. Under her 16 years of leadership, the university grew in its student and faculty numbers, curriculum offerings, financial and management systems. Dr. Giannini initiated AUR's first accreditation with the Accrediting Council of Independent Colleges and Schools in 1992 and planted the seeds for Middle States accreditation. After operating from different locations in central Rome for 25 years, AUR moved to its current campus in 1993; the campus is located on Rome's highest hill, offering views of the city. Most of its buildings are located on Via Pietro Roselli adjacent to a portion of the Aurelian Wall with the Communications Building known as the Carini building, being located on Via Carini, only a short walk.
The Carini building, completed in 1970, is after the style of the Italian architect Paolo Portoghesi and has been referred to as Casa Papanice. However, after some dispute, it has been acknowledged that the original Casa Papanice is another building in Rome and the Carini building of The American University of Rome cannot be designated as a Portoghesi building but a building'in the style of'; the campus was extended in early 2018 to include an Art Studio, exhibition space and classrooms on via Angelo Masina. This building is adjacent to, shares garden space with, the American Academy in Rome; the main campus includes two gardens centered around the main A and B buildings, the Evans Hall Library, the Auriana Auditorium. The main teaching block is part of a Barnabite monastery; the American University of Rome is governed a Board of Trustees, a Senate. The highest governing body, the Board of Trustees, is responsible for overseeing the University and maintaining its academic and financial health and welfare.
Among other duties the Board appoints the President and has final approval of changes to the curriculum proposed by the AUR Senate. The Board is led by Gabriel A. Battista, a board member since 2006; the current President of the University is Dr. Richard Hodges OBE, who assumed the position in July 2012, taking over from then-acting President Andrew Thompson; the President is supported by the Vice-President and Dean of Academic Affairs, Maria Stampino, who took up the role in Fall 2018 after serving for 22 years at the University of Miami. AUR is a member of the Association of American International Colleges and Universities and The American International Consortium of Academic Libraries; the American University of Rome is a liberal arts university with a student-faculty ratio of 16:1. AUR's undergraduate student body of 500 students is multicultural and representative of over 30 nationalities; the American University of Rome is regionally accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, an institutional accrediting agency recognized by the U.
S. Secretary of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation; the American University of Rome is licensed by the Department of Education of the State of Delaware to award associate, bachelor's and master's degrees. In Italy, AUR is registered as a legal entity with the Rome Tribunal and it is authorized to operate in Italy by the Ministry of Education and Research. AUR offers four master's degrees and ten bachelor's degree programs with 16 concentrations or tracks, two associate degree programs and 18 minors. Of the ten undergraduate programs nine are Bachelor of Arts degrees; the Program of Business Administration offers a Bachelor of Science Degree in Business Administration. Associate of Arts Degrees can be obtained in international business. Internships are available in all majors for course credit and provide a practical format to relate their studies to career interests; the university's programs and areas include: Archeology and Classics Art History Business Administration Communication and English English, Writing and Publishing Film and Digital Media Fine Arts Interdisciplinary Studies International Relations and Global Politics Travel and Tourism ManagementThe University runs a distinctiv
Emilio Ambasz is an architect and award-winning industrial designer. From 1969 to 1976 he was Curator of Design in New York. Ambasz was a precursor of'green' architecture. Ambasz's trademark style is a combination of buildings and gardens, which he describes as'green over grey', he bucked the trends of the 1970s, putting them on boats. The Emilio Ambasz Award for Green Architecture is awarded every year by the Architecture Israel Quarterly magazine. Born in Argentina, Ambasz is a citizen of Spain by Royal Grant, he studied at Princeton University where he completed the undergraduate program in one year and earned, the next year, a master's degree in Architecture from the same institution. He served as Curator of Design at the Museum of Modern Art, in New York, where he directed and installed numerous exhibits on architecture and industrial design, among them Italy: The New Domestic Landscape, in 1972. Ambasz was a two-term President of the Architectural League, he taught at Princeton University's School of Architecture, was visiting professor at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Ulm, Germany.
Among his architectural projects are the Grand Rapids Art Museum in Michigan, winner of the 1976 Progressive Architecture Award. He won the First Prize and Gold Medal in the competition to design the Master Plan for the Universal Exhibition of 1992, which took place in Seville, Spain, to celebrate the 500th anniversary of America's discovery; the headquarters designed for the Financial Guaranty Insurance Company of New York won the Grand Prize of the 1987 International Interior Design Award of the United Kingdom, as well as the 1986 IDEA Award from the Industrial Designers Society of America. He won the First Prize in the 1986 competition for the Urban Plan for the Eschenheimer Tower in Frankfurt, Germany, his Banque Bruxelles Lambert in Lausanne, received the 1983 Annual Interiors Award. Ambasz represented the United States at the 1976 Venice Biennale. Since 1980 Ambasz has been the Chief Design Consultant for the Cummins Engine Co, he holds a number of industrial and mechanical design patents, his Vertebrax chair is included in the Design Collections of the Museum of Modern Art and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
The MOMA has included in its Design Collection his 1967 3-D Poster Geigy Graphics and his Flashlight. Ambasz is the author of several books on architecture and design, among them Natural Architecture, Artificial Design, first published by Electa in 2001 and re-published four times since in expanded versions. "I detest writing theories. I prefer writing fables," he said in 2017. Domus magazine has published some of those fables, including this one:"Italy has remained a federation of city-states. There are factory-cities. There is a city whose streets are made of water, another where all streets are hollowed walls. There is one city where all its inhabitants work on the manufacture of equipment for amusement parks. There are many cities where they still make a living by baking bread and bottling wine, one where they continue to package faith and transact with guilt. There is one city inhabited by architects and designers; this city is laid out on a grid, its blocks are square, each is occupied by a cubic building.
Its wails are blind, without doors. The inhabitants of this city pride themselves on being radically different from each other. Visitors to the city claim, that all inhabitants have one common trait; the members of one of the groups live inside the building blocks. Conscious of the impossibility of communicating with others, each of them, in the isolation of his own block and demolishes every day, a new physical setting. To these constructions they sometimes give forms. Another group dwells in the streets. Both as individuals and as members of conflicting sub-groups, they have one common goal: to destroy the blocks that define the streets. For that purpose they march along chanting invocations, or write on the walls words and symbols which they believe are endowed with the power to bring about their will. There is one group. There they await the emergence of the first blade of grass from the roof that will announce the arrival of the Millennium; as of late, rumors have been circulating that some members of the group dwelling in the streets have climbed up to the buildings’ roof-tops, hoping that from this vantage point they could be able to see whether the legendary people of the countryside have begun their much predicted march against the city, or whether they have opted to build a new city beyond the boundaries of the old one."In the winter of 2011–12, Ambasz architectural and graphic design work was exhibited at the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, in a comprehensive major retrospective of his complete works.
In 2017, Lars Mueller Publishers issued a much improved
Sapienza University of Rome
The Sapienza University of Rome called Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy. Formally known as Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", it is one of the largest European universities by enrollments and one of the oldest in history, founded in 1303; the University is one of the most prestigious Italian universities ranking first in national rankings and in Southern Europe. Most of the Italian ruling class studied at Sapienza. Sapienza educated numerous notable alumni, including many Nobel laureates, Presidents of the European Parliament and European Commissioners, heads of several nations, notable religious figures and astronauts.. In September 2018, it was included in the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings Graduate Employability Ranking. Sapienza University of Rome was founded in 1303 with the Papal bull In Supremae praeminentia Dignitatis, issued on 20 April 1303 by Pope Boniface VIII, as a Studium for ecclesiastical studies more under his control than the universities of Bologna and Padua, making it the first pontifical university.
In 1431 Pope Eugene IV reorganized the studium with the bull In supremae, in which he granted masters and students alike the broadest possible privileges and decreed that the university should include the four schools of Law, Medicine and Theology. He introduced a new tax on wine. However, the University's days of splendour came to an end during the sack of Rome in 1527, when the studium was closed and the professors dispersed, some were killed. Pope Paul III restored the university shortly after his ascension to the pontificate in 1534. In the 1650s the university became meaning wisdom, a title it retains. In 1703, Pope Clement XI purchased some land with his private funds on the Janiculum, where he made a botanical garden, which soon became the most celebrated in Europe through the labours of the Trionfetti brothers; the first complete history of the Sapienza University was written in 1803-1806 by Filippo Maria Renazzi. University students were newly animated during the 19th-century Italian revival.
In 1870, La Sapienza stopped being the papal university and became the university of the capital of Italy. In 1935 the new university campus, planned by Marcello Piacentini, was completed. Sapienza University has many campuses in Rome but its main campus is the Città Universitaria, which covers 44 ha near the Roma Tiburtina Station; the university has satellite campuses outside Rome, the main of, in Latina. In 2011 a project was launched to build a campus with residence halls near Pietralata station, in collaboration with the Lazio region. In order to cope with the ever-increasing number of applicants, the Rector approved a new plan to expand the Città Universitaria, reallocate offices and enlarge faculties, as well as create new campuses for hosting local and foreign students; the Alessandrina University Library, built in 1667 by Pope Alexander VII, is the main library housing 1.5 million volumes. Orto Botanico dell'Università di Roma "La Sapienza", a botanical garden Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza San Pietro in Vincoli: the cloister is part of the Engineering School Villa Mirafiori: a Neo-Renaissance palace built during the 19th century, some rooms are decorated with fine frescoes.
The Department of Philosophy is located in this building. Since the 2011 reform, Sapienza University of Rome has 65 departments. Today Sapienza, with 140,000 students and 8,000 among academic and technical and administrative staff, is the largest university in Italy; the university has significant research programmes in the fields of engineering, natural sciences, biomedical sciences and humanities. It offers 10 Masters Programmes taught in English; as of the 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Sapienza is positioned within the 151-200 group of universities and among the top 3% of universities in the world. In 2018, the subject Classics and Ancient history of Sapienza is ranked the 1st in the world by QS World University Rankings by subject; as the same ranking, the subject Archaeology ranks the 9th. In 2016, the Center for World University Rankings ranked the Sapienza University of Rome as the 90th in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings. In order to cope with the large demand for admission to the university courses, some faculties hold a series of entrance examinations.
The entrance test decides which candidates will have access to the undergraduate course. For some faculties, the entrance test is only a mean through which the administration acknowledges the students' level of preparation. Students that do not pass the test can still enroll in their chosen degree courses but have to pass an additional exam during their first year. On 15 January 2008 the Vatican cancelled a planned visit to La Sapienza University by Pope Benedict XVI, to speak at the university ceremony launching the 2008 academic year due to protests by some students and professors; the title of the speech would have been'The Truth Makes Us Good and Goodness is Truth'. Some students and professors protested in reaction to a 1990 speech that Pope Benedict XVI gave in which he, in their opinion, endorsed the actions of the church against Galileo in 1633. Among the prominent scholars who have taught at the Sapienza University of Rome are architects Ernesto Basile and Bruno Zevi.
Polytechnic University of Milan
The Polytechnic University of Milan is the largest technical university in Italy, with about 42,000 students. It offers undergraduate and higher education courses in engineering and design. Founded in 1863, it is the oldest university in Milan; the Polytechnic University of Milan has two main campuses in the city of Milan, where the majority of the research and teaching activities are located, other satellite campuses in five other cities across Lombardy and Emilia Romagna. The central offices and headquarters are located in the historical campus of Città Studi in Milan, the largest, active since 1927; the university was ranked the best for Engineering and among the top big universities in Italy in the CENSIS-Repubblica Italian University rankings for 2014–15. According to the QS World University Rankings, as of 2018 it is the 17th best technical university in the world, ranking fifth for Design, ninth for Architecture, ninth for Civil and Structural Engineering, 17th for Engineering and Technology.
Its notable alumni include Giulio Natta, Nobel laureate in chemistry in 1963, the two-times nominated novelist Carlo Emilio Gadda. The Polytechnic University of Milan was founded on 29 November 1863 by Francesco Brioschi, secretary of the Ministry of Education and rector of the University of Pavia, it is the oldest university in Milan. Its original name was Istituto Tecnico Superiore and only Civil and Industrial Engineering were taught. Architecture, the second main line of study at the university, was introduced in 1865 in cooperation with the Brera Academy. There were only 30 students admitted in the first year. Over the decades, most of students were men: the first female graduate from the university was in 1913. In 1927 the university moved to piazza Leonardo da Vinci, in the district now known as Città studi, where the university's main facilities are still today. At the time, it was named Regio Politecnico; the word Regio was removed as Italy was proclaimed a republic at the end of World War II.
The historical building still in use today was designed and built by engineers and architects all graduated from the university itself. The present logo, based on a detail of the preparatory sketch of Raphael's School of Athens, was adopted in 1942; until there was no official logo for the institution. In 1954, the first European centre of electronic computation was opened at the university by Gino Cassinis and Ercole Bottani. In 1963 Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on crystalline polymers, polypropylene in particular. In 1977, the satellite Sirio, jointly developed by the university and other companies, was launched. Since the end of the 1980s, the university has begun a process of territorial expansion that would have resulted in the opening of its satellite campuses in Lombardy and Emilia Romagna. A university program in industrial design was started in 1993. In 2000, the university's faculty of design was created with new courses in undergraduate and postgraduate programs of graphic & visual and interior design along with the existent industrial design.
In April 2012, the university announced that, beginning in 2014, all graduate courses would be taught only in English. This decision was partially revised, after the decision of the Italian Supreme Court, that stated Italian language could not be abolished nor downgraded to a marginal role; the University is spread over seven campuses: two main campuses in Milan and another five satellite campuses across Lombardy and Emilia Romagna. Milan Leonardo is the oldest of the university's campuses still in use; the first buildings on Piazza Leonardo da Vinci were inaugurated in 1927. Over the years, the complex has been expanded and is now referred to as "Città Studi", City of Studies, which refers to some faculties of the University of Milan in the same area; the campus extends over several streets: Leonardo, Clericetti, Gran Sasso and Colombo. The Leonardo Campus is the main campus of the university, comprises the central administration offices, the rectorate, most of the research departments; the Milan Bovisa campus is located in the Bovisa district of Milan and became active in 1989.
The first is the seat of the School of Design, while the second is dedicated to Industrial, Mechanical and Energy Engineering faculties. Bovisa houses the related research facilities, including the wind tunnel; the first satellite campuses opened in 1987 in 1989 in Lecco. During the 1990s other three branches opened in Cremona and Piacenza; the Polytechnic University of Milan offers several three-year undergraduate courses, two-year graduate courses, one-year master courses and PhD programs in the fields of engineering and design. The university offers 32 first level degree programs; the academic year is divided into two terms, or semesters, the first from mid-September to late January and the second from March to late June. There are 3 exam sessions: those at the end of each semester and one more in September. Students need to achieve 60 "university credits" per year during their Bachelor and master's degrees. Therefore, the 3-years Bachelor requires 180 credits while the 2-years Master 120; the university, like most universities in Italy, is organized to comply with the framework of the Bologna Process.
The university maintains several relations with foreign universities and offers a wide range of international projects for student exchange, The university enc