The Ill is a river in Alsace, in north-eastern France. It is western, tributary of the Rhine, it starts down from its source near the village of Winkel, in the Jura mountains, with a resurgence near Ligsdorf, turns around Ferrette on its east side, runs northward through Alsace, flowing parallel to the Rhine. Taking apart the Largue coming from the Jura mountains near Illfurth, it receives several tributaries from the west bank Vosges mountains after passing through Altkirch: the Doller in Mulhouse, the Thur near Ensisheim, the Lauch in Colmar, the Fecht in Illhaeusern, the Giessen in Sélestat, the Andlau near Fegersheim, the Ehn near Geispolsheim, the Bruche next to Strasbourg and the Souffel upstream from La Wantzenau before meeting with the Rhine downstream from Gambsheim's lock; as the Ill nears the city of Mulhouse, most of its flow is diverted into a discharge channel leading to the Doller, protecting the historical center of the town from floods. Flowing through the city of Strasbourg, the river forms part of the 17th-century fortifications and passes through a series of locks and channels in the picturesque old town, including the Petite France quarter, where its waters were once used to power mills and tanneries.
One of these channels is the Canal du Faux-Rempart that, together with the main channel of the Ill, surrounds the Grande Île or historic centre of Strasbourg. The Ill is navigable from a junction with the Canal de la Marne au Rhin for a distance of just under 10 kilometres upstream to a head of navigation at Nachtweid; this stretch of river passes through the centre of Strasbourg, makes connection with the Canal du Faux-Rempart, the Canal du Rhone au Rhine and the, no longer navigable, Canal de la Bruche. There is a single lock, in the Petite France quarter of central Strasbourg. Navigation through the section of the central part of this section, through Petite France, is restricted to small pleasure craft in the downstream direction only. Passenger trip boats use this section in the opposite direction, completing their loop via the Canal du Faux-Rempart, closed to all other traffic. Other stretches of the Ill, downstream of the Canal de la Marne au Rhin to the confluence with the Rhine, upstream of Nachtweid, are not navigable by powered craft, although they may be used by canoes and similar craft.
Http://www.geoportail.fr The Ill at the Sandre database
Mosque of Rome
The Mosque of Rome, situated in Parioli, is one of the largest mosque outside the Islamic world, Russia or India. It can accommodate more than 12,000 people; the building is located in the Acqua Acetosa area, at the foot of the Monti Parioli, north of the city. Being the Western world's biggest mosque, it is the seat of the Italian Islamic Cultural Centre. In addition to being a meeting place for religious activities, it provides cultural and social services variously connecting Muslims together, it holds teachings, wedding ceremonies, funeral services, exhibitions and other essential events. The mosque was jointly founded by the exiled Prince Muhammad Hasan of Afghanistan and his wife, Princess Razia and was financed by Faisal of Saudi Arabia, head of the Saudi royal family, as well as Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques; the project was directed by Paolo Portoghesi, Vittorio Gigliotti and Sami Mousawi. Its planning took more than ten years: the Roman City Council donated the land in 1974, but the first stone was laid only in 1984, in the presence of President of the Italian Republic Sandro Pertini, with its inauguration on 21 June 1995.
There was some opposition to the building of a mosque but much of this dissipated when Pope John Paul II gave his blessing for the project. One issue that had to be agreed was its effect on the Rome skyline. In the end the issue was resolved by shortening the height of the minaret to be below that of the dome of St Peter’s by one meter; the structure is intended to be integrated into the surrounding green area, with a mix of modern structural design and omnipresent curves. Lights and shades are blended in a manner intended to create a meditative climate, the choice of materials, like travertino and cotto, evoke traditional Roman architectural styles; the interior decor is made of glazed tiles with light colors, with the recurrent Qur'anic theme "God is Light". The interiors are decorated with mosaics creating more optical effects and the floor is covered by a Persian carpet with geometrical patterns as well; the main prayer area can accommodate up to 2,500 worshipers. Above this are galleries.
The main prayer hall it topped by a central dome over 20 metres in diameter, surrounded by 16 smaller domes. The complex includes an educational area with classroom and a library, a conference centre with a large auditorium, an area where exhibitions are held; the outcome is an architecture made of repetitious designs and geometric patterns, where an important role is played by the light aimed to create a meditative atmosphere and various tricks of light as well. The mosque contains several palm-shaped columns, which represent the connection between Allah and the single devotee; the current Imam of the mosque is sheikh Salah Ramadan Elsayed. Former Imams include: 1983–1993: Muhammad Nur al-Din Isma'il 1993–2006: Mahmud Hammad Shwayta 2007–2010: Ala' al-Din Muhammad Isma'il al-Ghobashi 2010–2013: Ahmed Al-Saqqa 2013–2016: Muhammad Hassan Abdulghaffar Islam in Italy Coppa Alessandra, La moschea di Roma di Paolo Portoghesi, Federico Motta Editore, 2003. ISBN 88-7179-375-7 Mosque of Rome at the Facebook
Paolo Portoghesi is an Italian architect, theorist and professor of architecture at the University La Sapienza in Rome. He is a former President of the architectural section of the Venice Biennale, Editor-in-chief of the journal Controspazio, dean of the Faculty of Architecture at the Politecnico di Milano university. Portoghesi studied architecture at the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Rome, completing his studies in 1957, he began teaching the history of criticism at the same faculty in 1961. Portoghesi opened an architectural practice with architect-engineer Vittorio Gigliotti in Rome in 1964, he has specialized in teaching and researching Classical architecture Baroque architecture, in particular Borromini, but Michelangelo. His interest in more contemporary architecture coincided with that of his colleague in Rome, Bruno Zevi, in championing a more organic form of modernism, evident in, for instance, the work of Victor Horta and Frank Lloyd Wright, in Italy with neorealism and the Neo-Liberty style.
This attitude has continued throughout Portoghesi's career, is visible in his own architecture. It is evident in his concern for the studies of nature, brought to the fore in his more recent book Nature and Architecture. Casa Baldi, Rome Casa Andreis Scandriglia Casa Bevilacqua Theatre of Cagliari Casa Papanice Roma Church of Sacra Famiglia, Salerno The Grand Hotel, Sudan Royal Court, Jordan Mosque of Rome Academy of Fine Arts, L'Aquila ENEL Condominium, Tarquinia Centola Palinuro Town Plan Tegel residence, IBA Berlin, Germany Le terme di Montecatini, Pistoia The Politeama Theatre, Catanzaro The garden and library of Calcata La piazza Leon Battista Alberti, Rimini Chapel of Don Giuseppe Rizzo, Alcamo Church of Santa Maria della Pace, Terni Grande Mosque, France The Rinascimento in Talenti park, Rome The Montpellier Gardens, France The Central American Parliament, Guatemala The Primavera restaurant, Russia Town Hall square, Germany. Headquarters of the Royalties Institute, St. Peter's College, Oxford, UK Public square, China Strasbourg Mosque, due for completion 2010 Cimitero Nuovo di Cesena, 2011 Honoris Causa in Technical Sciences from the University of Lausanne, Switzerland Legion d'Honneur, France.
Christian Norberg-Schulz, Alla ricerca dell'architettura perduta, Rome 1982 G. C. Priori, L'architettura ritrovata, Rome 1985 G. C. Priori, Paolo Portoghesi, Bologna 1985 M. Pisani, Dialogo con Paolo Portoghesi, Rome 1989 P. Zermani, Paolo Portoghesi a Palazzo Farnese, Parma 1990 M. Pisani, Paolo Portoghesi, Milan 1992 G. C. Argan et al. Il punto su Paolo Portoghesi, Rome 1993 C. Di Stefano and D. Scatena, Paolo Portoghesi designer, Rome 1998 C. Di Stefano and D. Scatena, Paolo Portoghesi architetto, Rome 1999 Paolo Portoghesi, After modern architecture, New York, Rizoli, 1982 Stanley J. Grenz, A Primer on Postmodernism, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996. Paolo Portoghesi and Architecture, Milan, 2000. Paolo Portoghesi and Fulvio Irace, Emilio Ambasz: A Technological Arcadia, Milan, 2005. Benjamin Chavardés, "Paolo Portoghesi et la voie post-moderne: le débat architectural dans l'Italie de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle", Université de Montpellier III Paul Valéry, 2014. Portoghesi biography
Grand Mosque of Évry
The Grand Mosque of Évry is a mosque in Évry, France. A cultural center is associated with the building. A process was initiated in the early 1980s to collect funds to build the mosque in Évry; the modest results of this effort led to a search for additional funding from the Persian Gulf states. The Saudi Sheikh Akram Aadja saw; the first stone was laid in 1984, construction work began in 1985. Interior decoration was funded by the Hassan II Foundation; the mosque opened ten years in 1995, the same year as the Évry Cathedral. It was the work of the architect Henri Baudot, who has constructed several buildings in Algeria and Tunisia. Official website
Grande Île (Strasbourg)
The Grande Île is an island that lies at the historic centre of the city of Strasbourg in France. Its name means "Large Island", derives from the fact that it is surrounded on one side by the main channel of the Ill River and on the other side by the Canal du Faux-Rempart, a canalised arm of that river. Grand Île was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. At the time, the International Council on Monuments and Sites noted that Grand Île is "an old quarter that exemplifies medieval cities". Grande Île is sometimes referred to as "ellipse insulaire" because of its shape, it measures some 1.25 kilometres by 0.75 kilometres at broadest. At the centre of the island lies Place Kléber, the city's central square. Further south is Strasbourg Cathedral, the world's fourth-tallest church and an ornate example of 15th-century Gothic architecture. At the western end of the island is the quarter of Petite France, the former home of the city's tanners and fishermen, now one of Strasbourg's main tourist attractions.
The Grande Île houses the former fluvial customs house Ancienne Douane. Besides the cathedral, the Grande Île is home to four other centuries-old churches: St. Thomas, St. Pierre-le-Vieux, St. Pierre-le-Jeune, St. Étienne. Being the historical center of Strasbourg and the seat of local secular power, it houses the city's most imposing 18th-century hôtels particuliers and palaces, including the Palais Rohan, the Hôtel de Hanau, Hôtel des Deux-Ponts, Hôtel de Klinglin, Hôtel d'Andlau-Klinglin, Hôtel de Neuwiller, among many others; the island is home to the Episcopal palace of the Archdiocese of Strasbourg. To mark Grande Île's status as a World Heritage Site, 22 brass plates were placed on the bridges giving access to the island. UNESCO
Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid was an Iraqi-British architect. She was the first woman to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize, in 2004, she received the UK's most prestigious architectural award, the Stirling Prize, in 2010 and 2011. In 2012, she was made a Dame by Elizabeth II for services to architecture, in 2015 she became the first and only woman to be awarded the Royal Gold Medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects, she was described by The Guardian of London as the "Queen of the curve", who "liberated architectural geometry, giving it a whole new expressive identity". Her major works include the aquatic centre for the London 2012 Olympics, Michigan State University's Broad Art Museum in the US, the MAXXI Museum in Rome, the Guangzhou Opera House in China, the Beijing Daxing International Airport in China; some of her awards have been presented posthumously, including the statuette for the 2017 Brit Awards. Several of her buildings were still under construction at the time of her death, including the Daxing airport and the Al Wakrah Stadium in Qatar, a venue for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.
Zaha Hadid was born on 31 October 1950 in Iraq, to an upper class Iraqi family. Her father, Muhammad al-Hajj Husayn Hadid, was a wealthy industrialist from Mosul, he co-founded the left-liberal al-Ahali group in 1932. The group was a significant political organisation in the 1940s, he was the co-founder of the National Democratic Party in Iraq and served as minister of finance after the overthrow of the monarch after the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état for the government of General Abd al-Karim Qasim. Her mother, Wajiha al-Sabunji, was an artist from Mosul while her brother Foulath Hadid was a writer and expert on Arab affairs. Hadid once mentioned in an interview how her early childhood trips to the ancient Sumerian cities in southern Iraq sparked her interest in architecture. In the 1960s Hadid attended boarding schools in Switzerland. Hadid studied mathematics at the American University of Beirut before moving, in 1972, to London to study at the Architectural Association School of Architecture. There she studied with Elia Zenghelis and Bernard Tschumi.
Her former professor, described her at graduation as "a planet in her own orbit." Zenghelis described her as the most outstanding pupil he taught.'We called her the inventor of the 89 degrees. Nothing was at 90 degrees, she had spectacular vision. All the buildings were exploding into tiny little pieces." He recalled. "The way she drew a staircase you would smash your head against the ceiling, the space was reducing and reducing, you would end up in the upper corner of the ceiling. She couldn't care about tiny details, her mind was on the broader pictures—when it came to the joinery she knew we could fix that later. She was right.' Her fourth-year student project was a painting of a hotel in the form of a bridge, inspired by the works of the Russian suprematist artist Kazimir Malevich. After graduation in 1977, she went to work for her former professors and Zenghelis, at the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Through her association with Koolhaas, she met the architectural engineer Peter Rice, who gave her support and encouragement during the early stages of her career.
Hadid became a naturalised citizen of the United Kingdom. She opened her own architectural firm, Zaha Hadid Architects, in London in 1980. During the early 1980's Hadid's style introduced audiences to a new modern architecture style through her detailed and professional sketches. At the time people were focused on postmodernism designs, so her designs were a different approach to architecture that set her apart from other designers, she began her career teaching architecture, first at the Architectural Association over the years at Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge University, the University of Chicago, the Hochschule für bildende Künste in Hamburg, the University of Illinois at Chicago, Columbia University. She earned her early reputation with her lecturing and colourful and radical early designs and projects, which were published in architectural journals but remained unbuilt, her ambitious but unbuilt projects included a plan for Peak in Hong Kong, a plan for an opera house in Cardiff, Wales.
The Cardiff experience was discouraging. Her reputation in this period rested upon her teaching and the imaginative and colourful paintings she made of her proposed buildings, her international reputation was enhanced in 1988 when she was chosen to show her drawings and paintings as one of seven architects chosen to participate in the exhibition "Deconstructivism in Architecture" curated by Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley at New York's Museum of Modern Art. This, a conference at the Tate in London and some articles written about her began to not only get her name out into the Architecture world, but allowed people to associate a particular style of architecture with Hadid. One of her first clients was Rolf Fehlbaum the president-director general of the Swiss furniture firm Vitra, from 2004 to 2010, a member of the jury for the prestigious Pritzker Architecture Prize. In 1989 Fehlbaum had invited Frank Gehry little-known, to build a design museum at the Vitra factory in Weil-am-Rhein. In 1993, he invited Hadid to design a small fire station for the factory.
Her radical design, made of raw concrete and glass, was a sculptural work composed o
Moroccans, ancient names Spanish: Moros and English: Moors and Moorish People are a Maghrebi ethnic group inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry. The overwhelming majority of Moroccans are of Arab-Berber descent. In addition to the 36 million Moroccans in Morocco, there is a large Moroccan diaspora in France, Israel, the Netherlands and Spain, a smaller one in the United Kingdom, the United States, the Arabian Peninsula and in other Arab states. A sizeable part of the Moroccan diaspora is composed of Moroccan Jews; the first anatomically modern humans in North Africa are the makers of the Aterian, a Middle Stone Age stone tool culture. The earliest Aterian lithic assemblages date to around 145,000 years ago, were discovered at the site of Ifri n'Ammar in Morocco; this industry was followed by the Iberomaurusian culture, a backed bladelet industry found throughout the Maghreb. It was described in 1909 at the site of Abri Mouillah. Other names for this Cro-Magnon-associated culture include Oranian.
The Epipaleolithic Iberomaurusian makers were centred in prehistoric sites, such as Taforalt and Mechta-Afalou. They were succeeded by the Capsians; the Capsian culture is thought to have arrived in Africa from the Near East, although it is suggested that the Iberomaurusians may have been the progenitors of the Capsians. Around 5000 BC, the populations of North Africa were descended from the makers of the Iberomaurusian and Capsian cultures, with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic revolution; the proto-Berber tribes evolved from these prehistoric communities during the Late Bronze to Early Iron Age. Moroccans are of Berber origin, like other neighboring Maghrebians; as such, Berbers are descendants of the prehistoric populations of Morocco through the Iberomaurusians and Capsians. The Afroasiatic family may have originated in the Mesolithic period in the context of the Capsian culture. By 5000 BC, the populations of Morocco were an amalgamation of Ibero-Maurisian and a minority of Capsian stock blended with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic revolution.
Out of these populations, the proto-Berber tribes formed during the late Paleolithic era. Berber-speaking groups include the Riffians and Zayanes. Arabic-speaking groups include Sahrawiyin in the southeast. A small minority of the population is identified as Gnawa; these are sedentary agriculturalists of non-Berber origin, who inhabit the southern and eastern oases and speak either Berber or Moroccan Arabic. Between the Nile and the Red Sea were living Arab tribes expelled from Arabia for their turbulence, Banu Hilal and Sulaym, who plundered farming areas in the Nile Valley. According to Ibn Khaldun, whole tribes set off with women, ancestors and camping equipment. Through Moroccan history, the country had many cultural influences; the culture of Morocco shares similar traits with those of neighboring countries Algeria and Tunisia and to a certain extent Spain. Morocco influenced modern day Europe, in several fields, from architecture to agriculture, the introduction of Moroccan numbers used now in the world.
Each region possesses its own uniqueness. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diversity and the preservation of its cultural heritage; the traditional dress for men and women is called djellaba, a long, hooded garment with full sleeves. For special occasions, men wear a red cap called a bernousse, more known as a fez. Women wear kaftans decorated with ornaments. Nearly all men, most women, wear balgha; these are soft leather slippers with no heel dyed yellow. Women wear high-heeled sandals with silver or gold tinsel. Moroccan style is a new trend in decoration, it has been made popular by the vogue of riad renovation in Marrakech. Dar is the name given to one of the most common types of domestic structures in Morocco. Most Moroccan homes traditionally adhere to the Dar al-Islam, a series of tenets on Islamic domestic life. Dar exteriors are devoid of ornamentation and windows, except occasional small openings in secondary quarters, such as stairways and service areas; these piercings provide ventilation.
Moroccan cuisine consists of a blend of Berber and Arab influences. It is known among others. Spices such as cinnamon are used in Moroccan cooking. Sweets like halwa are popular, as well as other confections. Cuisines from neighbouring areas have influenced the country's culinary traditions. Additionally, Moroccan craftsmanship has a rich tradition of jewellery-making, leather-work and woodwork; the music of Morocco differs according to the various areas of the country. Moroccan music has a variety of styles from complex sophisticated orchestral music to simple music involving only voice and drums. There are three varieties of Berber folk music: village and ritual music, the music performed by professional musicians. Chaabi is a music consisting of numerous varieties which descend from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. Gnawa is a form of music, mystical, it was brought to Morocco by the