Ka Lae, known as South Point, is the southernmost point of the Big Island of Hawaii and of the 50 United States. The Ka Lae area is registered as a National Historic Landmark District under the name South Point Complex, the area is known for its strong ocean currents and winds and is the home of a wind farm. The name for the tip of the island of Hawaiʻi comes from Ka Lae in the Hawaiian language which means the point. It is often spelled as one word, Kalae, or called South Point or South Cape, a confluence of ocean currents just offshore makes this spot one of Hawaiis most popular fishing spots. Both red snapper and ulua are plentiful here, locals fish from the cliffs, some dangling perilously over the edge of steep lava ledges. Swimming here, however, is not recommended, due to the current, in fact, it is called the Halaea Current, named after a chief who was carried off to his death. The confluence of currents means the area is prone to accumulation of marine debris, most of this coastline is very remote and difficult to access, and is probably the most debris-littered coast in the state, primarily due to its difficult access for debris removal.
This debris poses an entanglement threat to wildlife and may refloat during storms, the shoreline is used by Hawaiian monk seals and hatchling hawksbill turtles, both endangered species. Efforts to clean the coastline are organized by the Hawaii Wildlife Fund in conjunction with the NOAA. Ka Lae is accessible via South Point Road, a 12-mile paved narrow road leading from State Route 11, the strong winds cause some trees to become almost horizontal with their branches all growing in the same direction near the ground. The road forks near its end, with one leading south to Ka Lae. Ka Lae is the southernmost point in the 50 United States, Ka Lae is the site of one of the earliest Hawaiian settlements, and it has one of the longest archaeological records on the islands. It is generally thought that this is where the Polynesians first landed because the Big Island is the closest of the Hawaiian Islands to Tahiti, ruins of an ancient Hawaiian temple and a fishing shrine can be found here. In addition, ancient Hawaiians drilled numerous holes in the ledges to use for mooring their canoes.
Tying long ropes to their boats, they would drift out to sea to fish without fear of being carried away by the strong currents, anthropologists from the Bishop Museum excavated the area in the 1960s. On March 5,1906 a small lighthouse opened at the point, in 1908 about 10 acres were set aside for the United States Coast Guard to build a house for a keeper. At the request of William Tufts Brigham of the Bishop Museum, in 1929 a steel tower was built for the light, and in 1972 a new 32 foot concrete tower with solar power. A NOAA Weather Radio transmitter broadcasts weather reports from KBA99 with callsign WWG27 on 162.55 MHz, a weather station monitors wind speed
Oʻahu or Oahu /oʊˈɑːhu/, known as The Gathering Place, is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands. It is home to about two-thirds of the population of the U. S. state of Hawaii, the state capital, Honolulu, is on Oʻahus southeast coast. Along with the rest of the Hawaiian Islands, Oahu is one of the largest and northernmost islands of Polynesia, in the greatest dimension, this volcanic island is 44 miles long and 30 miles across. The length of the shoreline is 227 miles, the island is the result of two separate shield volcanoes, the Waiʻanae and Koʻolau Ranges, with a broad valley or saddle between them. The highest point is Kaʻala in the Waiʻanae Range, rising to 4,003 feet above sea level, the island was home to the Kunia Regional SIGINT Operations Center from 1941 to 2012, it is now home to the National Security Agencys Hawaii Cryptologic Center. The island is home to 953,207 people in 2010, Oʻahu has for a long time been known as the Gathering Place. The term Oʻahu has no confirmed meaning in Hawaiian, other than that of the place itself, ancient Hawaiian tradition attributes the names origin in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the Polynesian navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiian Islands.
The story relates that he named the island after a son, residents of Oʻahu refer to themselves as locals, no matter their ancestry. The city of Honolulu—largest city, state capital, and main deepwater marine port for the State of Hawaiʻi—is located here. As a jurisdictional unit, the island of Oʻahu is in the Honolulu County, although as a place name. Well-known features found on Oʻahu include Waikīkī, Pearl Harbor, Diamond Head, Hanauma Bay, Kāneʻohe Bay, Kailua Bay, being roughly diamond-shaped, surrounded by ocean and divided by mountain ranges, directions on Oʻahu are not generally described with the compass directions found throughout the world. Locals instead use directions originally using Honolulu as the central point, to go ewa means traveling toward the western tip of the island, Diamond Head is toward the eastern tip, mauka is inland and makai toward the sea. Oʻahu is known for having the longest rain shower in history, kaneohe Ranch, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi reported 247 straight days with rain from August 27,1993 to April 30,1994.
The island has many one of them being rainbow state. This is because rainbows are a sight in Hawaiʻi due to the frequent rain showers. The average temperature in Oʻahu is around 70 to 85 degrees, the weather during the winter is cooler, but still warm with the average temperature of 68-78 degrees. The windward side is known for some of the most beautiful beaches in the world, lanikai Beach on the windward coast of Oʻahu has been consistently ranked among the best beaches in the world. The 300-year-old Kingdom of Oʻahu was once ruled by the most ancient aliʻi in all of the Hawaiian Islands, the first great king of Oʻahu was Mailikukahi, the lawmaker, who was followed by many generation of monarchs
Plovers are a widely distributed group of wading birds belonging to the subfamily Charadriinae. There are about 66 species in the subfamily, most of them called plover or dotterel, the closely related lapwing subfamily, comprises another 20-odd species. Plovers are found throughout the world, with the exception of the Sahara and the polar regions and they hunt by sight, rather than by feel as longer-billed waders like snipes do. They feed mainly on insects, worms or other invertebrates, depending on habitat, the plover group of birds has a distraction display subcategorized as false brooding. Examples include, pretending to change position or to sit on an imaginary nest site, a group of plovers may be referred to as a stand, wing, or congregation. A group of dotterels may be referred to as a trip, the Icelandic media always covers the first plover sighting, which in 2017, took place on March 27,2017. Plover videos, photographs & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection
Hornindalsvatnet is Norways and Europes deepest lake, officially measured to a depth of 514 metres. Its surface is 53 metres above sea level, which means that its bottom is 461 metres below sea level. The village of Grodås lies at the end of the lake in Hornindal Municipality. The European route E39 highway runs near the lake, the village of Heggjabygda and Heggjabygda Church lie on the northern shore of the lake. Its volume is estimated at 12 cubic kilometres, its area is 50 square kilometres and it is located in Sogn og Fjordane county, about a kilometer south of the county border with Møre og Romsdal county. The lake lies within the borders of Eid and Hornindal municipalities, the main outflow is the river Eidselva, which flows into the Eidsfjorden, an arm off the main Nordfjorden. The lake is the site of the Hornindalsvatnet Marathon, held annually in July, media related to Hornindalsvatnet at Wikimedia Commons
Peridot is gem-quality olivine, which is a silicate mineral with the formula of 2SiO4. As peridot is the variety of olivine, the formula approaches Mg2SiO4. The origin of the name peridot is uncertain, the Oxford English Dictionary suggests an alteration of Anglo–Norman pedoretés, a kind of opal, rather than the Arabic word faridat, meaning gem. The Middle English Dictionarys entry on peridot includes several variations, peritot, the earliest use in England is in the register of the St Albans Abbey, in Latin, and its translation in 1705 is possibly the first use of peridot in English. It records that on his death in 1245, Bishop John bequeathed various items including peridot to the Abbey, Peridot is one of the few gemstones that occur in only one color, an olive-green. In rare cases, peridot may occur in a medium-dark toned, peridots can be found in meteorites. Olivine in general is an abundant mineral, but gem quality peridot is rather rare. This is due to the chemical instability on the Earths surface.
Olivine is usually found as small grains, and tends to exist in a heavily weathered state, large crystals of forsterite, the variety most often used to cut peridot gems, are rare, as a result olivine is considered to be precious. Peridot crystals have been collected from some pallasite meteorites, Peridot is sometimes mistaken for emeralds and other green gems. Notable gemologist George Frederick Kunz discussed the confusion between emeralds and peridots in many church treasures, notably the Three Magi treasure in the Dom of Cologne, the largest cut peridot olivine is a 310 carat specimen in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D. C. Peridot olivine is the birthstone for the month of August, USGS peridot data Emporia Edu Florida State University – Peridot
Pacific golden plover
The Pacific golden plover is a medium-sized plover. The genus name is Latin and means relating to rain, from pluvia and it was believed that golden plovers flocked when rain was imminent. The species name fulva is Latin and refers to a tawny colour, the 23–26 cm long breeding adult is spotted gold and black on the crown, and back on the wings. Its face and neck are black with a border, and it has a black breast. In winter, the black is lost and the plover has a face and breast. It is similar to two other golden plovers, the Eurasian and American plovers, the Pacific golden plover is smaller and relatively longer-legged than the European golden plover, Pluvialis apricaria, which has white axillary feathers. Overall, the Pacific golden plover is found to be similar to the American golden plover, Pluvialis dominica. The Pacific golden plover is slimmer than the American species, has a shorter primary projection, longer legs and this wader forages for food on tundra, fields and tidal flats, usually by sight.
It eats insects and crustaceans and some berries, the breeding habitat of Pacific golden plover is the Arctic tundra from northernmost Asia into western Alaska. It nests on the ground in a dry open area and it is migratory and winters in south Asia and Australasia. A few winter in California and Hawaii, USA, in Hawaii, the bird is known as the kōlea. It is very rare vagrant to western Europe and this research revealed that these birds make the 4800 km non-stop flight between Alaska and Hawaii in 3–4 days. Pluvialis fulva in the Flickr, Field Guide Birds of the World
Mauna Loa is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U. S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean. The largest subaerial volcano in both mass and volume, Mauna Loa has historically considered the largest volcano on Earth. Lava eruptions from Mauna Loa are silica-poor and very fluid, Mauna Loa has probably been erupting for at least 700,000 years, and may have emerged above sea level about 400,000 years ago. The oldest-known dated rocks are not older than 200,000 years, the volcanos magma comes from the Hawaii hotspot, which has been responsible for the creation of the Hawaiian island chain over tens of millions of years. The slow drift of the Pacific Plate will eventually carry Mauna Loa away from the hotspot within 500,000 to one years from now. Mauna Loas most recent eruption occurred from March 24 to April 15,1984, no recent eruptions of the volcano have caused fatalities, but eruptions in 1926 and 1950 destroyed villages, and the city of Hilo is partly built on lava flows from the late 19th century.
Because of the hazards it poses to population centers, Mauna Loa is part of the Decade Volcanoes program. Mauna Loa has been monitored intensively by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory since 1912, observations of the atmosphere are undertaken at the Mauna Loa Observatory, and of the Sun at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, both located near the mountains summit. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park covers the summit and the flank of the volcano, and incorporates Kīlauea. Like all Hawaiian volcanoes, Mauna Loa was created as the Pacific tectonic plate moved over the Hawaiian hotspot in the Earths underlying mantle. The Hawaii island volcanoes are the most recent evidence of this process that, the prevailing view states that the hotspot has been largely stationary within the planets mantle for much, if not all of the Cenozoic Era. However, while the Hawaiian mantle plume is well-understood and extensively studied, Mauna Loa is one of five subaerial volcanoes that make up the island of Hawaiʻi, created by the Hawaii hotspot.
The oldest volcano on the island, Kohala, is more than a years old, and Kīlauea. Lōʻihi Seamount on the flank is even younger, but has yet to breach the surface. Since then, the volcano has remained active, with a history of effusive and explosive eruptions, although Mauna Loas activity has been overshadowed in recent years by that of its neighbor Kīlauea, it remains active. Mauna Loa is the largest subaerial and second largest overall volcano in the world, covering an area of 5,271 km2. Consisting of approximately 65,000 to 80,000 km3 of solid rock, the shield-stage lavas that built the enormous main mass of the mountain are tholeiitic basalts, like those of Mauna Kea, created through the mixing of primary magma and subducted oceanic crust. Mokuʻāweoweos caldera floor lies between 170 and 50 m beneath its rim and it is only the latest of several calderas that have formed and reformed over the volcanos life, two smaller pit craters lie southwest of the caldera, named Lua Hou and Lua Hohonu
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Black sand is sand that is black in color. One type of sand is a heavy, partly magnetic mixture of usually fine sands. Another type of sand, found on beaches near a volcano. While some beaches are made of black sand, even other colour beaches can often have deposits of black sand. Larger waves can sort out sand grains leaving deposits of heavy minerals visible on the surface of erosion scarps, Black sands are used by miners and prospectors to indicate the presence of a placer formation. Placer mining activities produce a concentrate that is composed mostly of black sand. Several gemstones, such as garnet, ruby and diamond are found in placers and in the course of placer mining, purple or ruby-colored garnet sand often forms a showy surface dressing on ocean beach placers. When lava contacts water, it cools rapidly and shatters into sand, much of the debris is small enough to be considered sand. A large lava flow entering an ocean may produce enough basalt fragments to build a new black sand beach almost overnight.
The famous black sand beaches of Hawaii, such as Punaluu Beach and Kehena Beach, were created virtually instantaneously by the violent interaction between hot lava and sea water. Since a black sand beach is made by a flow in a one time event. For this reason, the state of Hawaii has made it illegal to remove sand from its beaches. Further, a sand beach is vulnerable to being inundated by future lava flows, as was the case for Hawaiis Kaimū, usually known simply as Black Sand Beach. Black sand has formed beaches in places, including the below. Eustatius St. Kitts Nevis Jamaica Dominica St
Pasture is land used for grazing. Pasture lands in the narrow sense are enclosed tracts of farmland, grazed by domesticated livestock, such as horses, the vegetation of tended pasture, consists mainly of grasses, with an interspersion of legumes and other forbs. Pasture is typically grazed throughout the summer, in contrast to meadow which is ungrazed or used for grazing only after being mown to make hay for animal fodder. Pasture in a wider sense additionally includes rangelands, other unenclosed pastoral systems, soil type, minimum annual temperature, and rainfall are important factors in pasture management. Sheepwalk is an area of grassland where sheep can roam freely, the productivity of sheepwalk is measured by the number of sheep per area. This is dependent, among other things, on the underlying rock, sheepwalk is the name of townlands in County Roscommon and County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. Unless factory farming, which entails in its most intensive form entirely trough-feeding, in more humid regions, pasture grazing is managed across a large global area for free range and organic farming.
Grassland Heathland Machair Maquis Moorland Potrero Prairie Rangeland Rough pasture Savanna Steppe Wood pasture Veld Transhumance
Floreana Island is an island of the Galápagos Islands. It was named after Juan José Flores, the first president of Ecuador and it was previously called Charles Island, and Santa Maria after one of the caravels of Columbus. The island has an area of 173 square kilometres and it was formed by volcanic eruption. The islands highest point is Cerro Pajas at 640 metres, which is the highest point of the volcano like most of the islands of Galápagos. Cards and letters are placed in the barrel without any postage. Visitors sift through the letters and cards in order to them by hand. Due to its flat surface, supply of fresh water as well as plants and animals, Floreana was a favorite stop for whalers. When still known as Charles Island in 1820, the island was set alight as a prank by helmsman Thomas Chappel from the Nantucket whaling ship the Essex, being the height of the dry season, the fire soon burned out of control. The next day saw the still burning as the ship sailed for the offshore grounds. Many years Thomas Nickerson, who had been a boy on the Essex, returned to Charles Island and found a black wasteland, neither trees, shrubbery.
It is believed the fire contributed to the extinction of species originally on the island. In September 1835 the second voyage of HMS Beagle brought Charles Darwin to Charles Island, in 1929, Friedrich Ritter and Dore Strauch arrived in Guayaquil from Berlin to settle on Floreana, and sent letters back that were widely reported in the press, encouraging others to follow. In 1932 Heinz and Margret Wittmer arrived with their son Harry, and shortly afterwards their son Rolf was born there, the first citizen of the island known to have been born in the Galápagos. They set up a hotel which is managed by their descendants. A documentary film recounting these events, The Galapagos Affair, was released in 2013, when Charles Darwin visited the island in 1835, he found no sign of its native tortoise and assumed that whalers and human settlers had wiped them out. Since about 1850, no tortoises have found on the island. However, it may be there are pure Floreana tortoises living on other islands in the archipelago.
At Punta Cormorant, there is a green olivine beach to see sea lions and a walk past a lagoon to see flamingos, sea turtles
Hawaiʻi is the largest island located in the U. S. state of Hawaii. It is the largest and the southeastern-most of the Hawaiian Islands, with an area of 4,028 square miles, it is larger than all of the other islands in the archipelago combined and is the largest island in the United States. However, it only has 13% of Hawaiis people, the island of Hawaii is the third largest island in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand. The island is referred to as the Island of Hawaiʻi. Administratively, the island is encompassed by Hawaiʻi County. As of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079, the county seat and largest city is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaiʻi is said to have been named after Hawaiʻiloa, the legendary Polynesian navigator who first discovered it. The name is cognate with Savaii, the name of the largest island of Samoa, cook was killed on the Big Island at Kealakekua Bay on 14 February 1779, in a mêlée which followed the theft of a ships boat.
Hawaiʻi was the island of Paiʻea Kamehameha, known as Kamehameha the Great. Kamehameha united most of the Hawaiian islands under his rule in 1795, after years of war, and gave the kingdom. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 5,086 square miles. The countys land area comprises 62.7 percent of the land area. It is the highest percentage by any county in the United States, in greatest dimension, the island is 93 miles across and has a land area of 4,028 square miles comprising 62% of the Hawaiian Islands land area. Measured from its sea floor base to its highest peak, Mauna Kea is the worlds tallest mountain, taller than Mount Everest is, the Island of Hawaiʻi is built from five separate shield volcanoes that erupted somewhat sequentially, one overlapping the other. Geologists now consider these outcrops to be part of the building of Mauna Loa. Another volcano which has disappeared below the surface of the ocean is Māhukona. Because Mauna Loa and Kīlauea are active volcanoes, the island of Hawaii is still growing, between January 1983 and September 2002, lava flows added 543 acres to the island.
Lava flowing from Kīlauea has destroyed several towns, including Kapoho in 1960, in 1987 lava filled in Queens Bath, a large, L-shaped, freshwater pool in the Kalapana area