José Saraiva Martins
José Saraiva Martins, C. M. F. GCC is a Portuguese Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, he is the Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, having served as prefect from 1998 to 2008. Born in Gagos de Jarmelo in Guarda, Portugal, to Antonio and Maria Saraiva, he joined the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary known as the Claretians, professed his vows on 22 August 1950. Saraiva Martins was ordained as a priest by Archbishop Ettore Cunial on 16 March 1957, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University and the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas in Rome, where he earned a licentiate and a doctorate in theology. Saraiva Martins taught metaphysics for a year in Marino, Italy in 1959 came to the Roman Claretianum, where he taught fundamental and sacramental theology for a decade, he became rector of the Pontifical Urbaniana University for three terms. On 26 May 1988, Saraiva Martins was appointed Secretary of the Congregation for Catholic Education and titular archbishop of Thuburnica.
He received his episcopal consecration from Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, with Archbishops Jan Pieter Schotte and Giovanni Battista Re serving as co-consecrators, on the following 2 July in the Basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli. On 30 May 1998, he was named Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. Pope John Paul made him Cardinal Deacon of Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore in the consistory of 21 February 2001. Like all major Vatican officials he lost his position on 2 April 2005 on the death of the pope, he was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2005 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI, who confirmed him as prefect on 21 April 2005. On 9 July 2008, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation as prefect to be succeeded by Angelo Amato. On 24 February 2009, he was promoted to the order of cardinal bishops, with title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina. Biography at catholic-pages.com Salt+Light TV Interview: Cardinal José Saraiva Martins – Witness on YouTube "Saraiva Martins Card.
José, C. M. F." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2017
The biretta is a square cap with three or four peaks or horns, sometimes surmounted by a tuft. Traditionally the three peaked biretta is worn by Roman Catholic clergy and some Anglican and Lutheran clergy; the four peaked biretta is worn as academic dress by those holding a doctoral degree from a pontifical faculty or pontifical university. The biretta is worn by advocates in law courts, for instance the advocates in the Channel Islands; the origins of the biretta are uncertain. It is mentioned as early as the tenth century. One possible origin is the academic cap of the high Middle Ages, soft and square; this is the ancestor of the modern mortarboard used today in secular universities. The biretta seems to have become a more used as an ecclesiastical vestment after the synod of Bergamo, 1311, ordered the clergy to wear the "bireta on their heads after the manner of laymen." The tuft or pom sometimes seen on the biretta was added later. The biretta may be used by all ranks of the Latin clergy cardinals and other bishops to priests and seminarians.
Those worn by cardinals are scarlet red and made of silk. After the Second Vatican Council the ceremony of giving the galero to cardinals was replaced with giving the biretta; the biretta of a bishop is amaranth in color, while those worn by priests and seminarians are black. The pope does not make use of the biretta. Cardinals bear no tuft or "pom", bishops bear a purple pom, priests who have been appointed as prelates to certain positions within the Vatican wear a black biretta with red pom, diocesan priests and deacons wear a black biretta with or without a black pom, it is asserted that seminarians are only entitled to wear a biretta without a pom-pom, but there would seem to be no formal ruling on this point. Priests in monastic and mendicant religious orders that have their own habits do not wear birettas: in most circumstances liturgical, the monastic hood took the place of the biretta. Canons Regular do—for instance the canons of the Order of Prémontré wear a white biretta. Clerks Regular wear a black biretta with no tuft.
Other priests who belong to various forms of community life, as the Congregation of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri for instance also wear birettas, but without a pom; the liturgical biretta has three peaks, with the "peak-less" corner worn on the left side of the head. According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia, "It was the rule that a priest should always wear it in giving absolution in confession, it is probable that the ancient usage which requires an English judge assume the'black cap' in pronouncing sentence of death is of identical origin."The use of the biretta has not been abolished as a result of changes in the regulation of clerical dress and vesture following the Second Vatican Council and still remains the correct liturgical headgear for those in Holy Orders whilst "in choir", but its use has been made optional. Its use is prevalent among bishops and cardinals, less so among other clergy; some priests wear it during outdoor services such as burials or processions and, as is intended, during the celebration of Mass and other liturgical services.
The biretta is worn by a priest, deacon and bishop in attendance at a Mass offered according to the rubrics for the Roman Missal of 1962. Birettas are occasionally worn by Anglo-Catholic Anglican clergy, though is it considered a Romanism. Canons and deans could wear a black biretta with a red pom; the Canterbury cap is of similar origin to the biretta, although used since the early 20th century, has been considered a more authentically Anglican alternative to the biretta. The Canterbury cap has a square top rather than the rigid horns that developed on the biretta. In the medieval university, the ceremony by which a new master or doctor received his degree included the birretatio, or imposition of the biretta; this was given with a token book in recognition of the person's scholarship. The academic biretta developed into various styles of academic headgear on the European continent and in the British Isles. Today some secular universities still use the term, if not the actual biretta, to name their academic cap.
For those holding doctoral degrees from a pontifical university or faculty, whether ordained or lay, "the principal mark of a Doctor's dignity is the four horned biretta." In commencement ceremonies and other academic settings, doctors of the four ecclesiastical disciplines from pontifical faculties and universities have a canonical right to wear the doctoral biretta as stated in the Codex Iuris Canonici, 1917, can. 1378, explained in commentary 262 of the Commentarium Codicis Iuris Canonici as follows: "262. Doctoratus ac Scentiae effectus. 1378...doctoribus seu gradum academicum in una ex quatuor supradictis facultatibus <<vide 261: philosophia, ius canonicum, Sacra Scriptura>> supremum obtinentibus, rite creatis, seu promotis regulariter post examen, iuxta « statuta a Sede Apostolica probata » saltem quoad usum validum « facultatis ab eadem Aplca. Sede concessae », extra sacras fu
The pope known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy; the current pope is Francis, elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI. While his office is called the papacy, the episcopal see and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See, it is the Holy See, the sovereign entity of international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal and spiritual independence. The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built; the apostolic see of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition.
The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history. In ancient times the popes helped spread Christianity, intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs. In addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, the defense of human rights. In some periods of history, the papacy, which had no temporal powers, accrued wide secular powers rivaling those of temporal rulers. However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now exclusively focused on religious matters. By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.
Still, the Pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people because of his extensive diplomatic and spiritual influence on 1.3 billion Catholics and beyond, as well as the official representative of the Catholic Church being the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world, with a vast international network of charities. The word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning "father". In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied in the east, to all bishops and other senior clergy, became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century; the earliest record of the use of this title was in regard to the by deceased Patriarch of Alexandria, Pope Heraclas of Alexandria. The earliest recorded use of the title "pope" in English dates to the mid-10th century, when it was used in reference to the 7th century Roman Pope Vitalian in an Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.
The Catholic Church teaches that the pastoral office, the office of shepherding the Church, held by the apostles, as a group or "college" with Saint Peter as their head, is now held by their successors, the bishops, with the bishop of Rome as their head. Thus, is derived another title by which the pope is known, that of "Supreme Pontiff"; the Catholic Church teaches that Jesus appointed Peter as leader of the Church, the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles. Some historians argue against the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, noting that the episcopal see in Rome can be traced back no earlier than the 3rd century; the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD 180 reflect a belief that Peter "founded and organized" the Church at Rome.
Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peter's presence in the early Roman Church. Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, such as Emperor Constantine's erection of the "Old St. Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero, although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine. First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches. Episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas.
Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome. In Rome, there were many who claimed to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them; some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus and Clement were prominent presbyter-bishops
Pope John VIII
Pope John VIII can refer to Pope John VIII of Alexandria. Pope John VIII was Pope from 14 December 872 to his death in 882, he is considered one of the ablest pontiffs of the 9th century. He devoted much of his papacy attempting to halt and reverse the Muslim gains in southern Italy and their march northwards, "destroying the economy of papal patrimony." When his efforts to obtain assistance from either the Franks or the Byzantines was unavailing, John was forced to focus on strengthening the defenses of the city of Rome. To this end he reinforced the walls around the Vatican, had defense works constructed at Saint Paul Outside the Walls. Pope John supported Methodius in his mission to the Slavs, defended him against the German episcopy, which felt that Methodius was intruding on their terrain, he authorized the translation of the Bible into Slavonic and extended diplomatic recognition to the Duchy of Croatia. Pope John resolved the Photian schism by agreeing to recognize Photios as Patriarch of Constantinople, on, excommunicating him.
He was born as a young man witnessed the Arab raid against Rome by the Muslim Aghlabids. Among the reforms achieved during his pontificate was a notable administrative reorganisation of the papal Curia. Pope Adrian II had supported his mission to the Slavs. In 873, John VIII learned of the imprisonment of Methodiusby his German enemies, who objected to his use of the Slavonic language in the liturgy. John forbade the celebration of Mass in Bavaria. Following Methodius' release John allowed him to resume his episcopal duties in Illyricum, but forbid him to celebrate mass in the Slavonic language, a prohibition Methodius may have ignored; the imprisonment of Methodius seems to have been caused by Aldwin of Salzburg, who viewed Methodius as encroaching on his jurisdiction in Moravia. Upon the release of Methodius, the Pope extended his jurisdiction not only to Great Moravia and Pannonia, but to Serbia as well, authorized Methodius to translate the Bible into Slavonic. "He who made three main languages - Hebrew and Roman - made all other languages to sing his praise and glory."During the solemn divine service in St. Peter's church in Rome in 879, John VIII gave his blessing to duke Branimir of Croatia and the whole Croatian people, about which he informed Branimir in his letters.
His country received papal recognition as a state. John made the decision on 21 May and confirmed it in his letter of 7 June 879. Pope John asked for military aid from Charles the Bald and Count Boso of Provence, in response to Saracens who were raiding Campania and the Sabine Hills, his efforts failed and he was forced to pay tribute to the Emirate of Sicily. The threatening Muslim military presence, coupled with alliances they formed with the local Christians, prompted John to promote "a new and uncompromisingly hostile view of the Saracens." This included a ban on forming alliances with the Muslims. However, his efforts proved unsuccessful because Christian leaders viewed his calls for unity as an excuse to assert papal authority in southern Italy. In 876, John VIII traveled throughout Campania in an effort to form an alliance among the cities of Salerno, Naples and Amalfi against Muslim raids. By 877, all five cities sent delegates to Traietto to formalize an alliance; the Pope John VIII urged HRE Charles to come to his defence in Italy.
Charles again crossed the Alps, but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles, by his regent in Lombardy and they refused to join his army. At the same time Carloman of Bavaria, son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis on 6 October 877. Obtaining little support from outside sources, John fell back on what resources he could command, he reinforced the walls restored by Pope Leo IV. As the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls was located outside the Aurelian Walls, had been damaged in a Saracen raid, the Pope fortified the Basilica, the monastery, the nearby dwellings of the peasants, he founded a papal fleet. In 879 he recognised the reinstatement of Photius as the legitimate patriarch of Constantinople; this was undertaken to appease the Byzantines, since in them he saw the only hope of removing the Arabs from Italy. Some time afterward, Pope John VIII had re-confirmed the excommunication against Photius, after the death of Emperor Basil in 886, Emperor Leo VI used the papal proclamation to move against Photius, casting Photius away to an Armenian monastery.
In 878 John crowned Louis II, king of France. He anointed two Holy Roman Emperors: Charles II and Charles III. John VIII was assassinated in 882 certainly by his own clerics —the first pope in history to suffer such a fate. According to Barbara M. Kreutz, the assassination has been blamed upon such factors as his exhaustion of the papal treasury, his lack of support among the Carolingians, his gestures towards the Byzantines and his failure to stop the Saracen raids. Without the protection of powerful magnates such as the Emperor, the papacy became subject to the machinations and greedy ambition of the rival clans of the local nobility. Council of Constantinople List of Catholic saints List of murdered popes List of popes This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope John VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Balan, Pietro. Il pont
John Fisher, venerated by Roman Catholics as Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop and theologian. Fisher was an academic, served as Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. Fisher was executed by order of Henry VIII during the English Reformation for refusing to accept the King as Supreme Head of the Church of England and for upholding the Roman Catholic Church's doctrine of papal supremacy, he was named a cardinal shortly before his death. He is honoured as a saint by the Catholic Church, he shares his feast day with St Thomas More on 22 June in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints and on 6 July in that of the Church of England. John Fisher was born in Beverley, Yorkshire, in 1469, the eldest son of Robert Fisher, a modestly prosperous merchant of Beverley, Agnes, his wife, he was one of four children. His father died, his mother had five more children by her second husband, William White. Fisher seems to have had close contacts with his extended family all his life. Fisher's early education was received in the school attached to the collegiate church in his home town.
He attended Beverley Grammar School, an old foundation claiming to date from the year 700. In the present day, one of the houses at the school is named in Fisher's honour. Fisher studied at the University of Cambridge from 1484, where at Michaelhouse he came under the influence of William Melton, a pastorally-minded theologian open to the new current of reform in studies arising from the Renaissance. Fisher earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1491 proceeded to a Master of Arts degree. In 1491 Fisher received a papal dispensation to enter the priesthood despite being under canonical age. Fisher was ordained into the Catholic priesthood on 17 December 1491 – the same year that he was elected a fellow of his college, he was made Vicar of Northallerton, Yorkshire. In 1494 he resigned his benefice to become proctor of the university and three years was appointed master debater, about which date he became chaplain and confessor to Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of King Henry VII.
On 5 July 1501, he became a doctor of sacred theology and 10 days was elected Vice-Chancellor of the University. Under Fisher's guidance, his patroness Lady Margaret founded St John's and Christ's Colleges at Cambridge, a Lady Margaret Professorship of Divinity at each of the two universities at Oxford and Cambridge, Fisher himself becoming the first occupant of the Cambridge chair. From 1505 to 1508 he was the President of Queens' College. At the end of July 1516 he was at Cambridge for the opening of St John's College and consecrated the chapel. Fisher's strategy was to assemble funds and attract to Cambridge leading scholars from Europe, promoting the study not only of Classical Latin and Greek authors, but of Hebrew, he placed great weight above all popular preaching by the endowed staff. Fisher's foundations were dedicated to prayer for the dead through chantry foundations. Fisher had a vision to which he dedicated all energies. A scholar and a priest and conscientious, he managed despite occasional opposition to administer a whole university, one of only two in England.
He saw through long-term projects. A stern and austere man, Fisher was known to place a human skull on the altar during Mass and on the table during meals. Erasmus said of John Fisher: "He is the one man at this time, incomparable for uprightness of life, for learning and for greatness of soul." By Papal Bull dated 14 October 1504, Fisher was appointed the Bishop of Rochester at the personal insistence of Henry VII. Rochester was the poorest diocese in England and seen as a first step on an ecclesiastical career. Nonetheless, Fisher stayed there by his own choice, for the remaining 31 years of his life. At the same time, like any English bishop of his day, Fisher had certain state duties. In particular, he maintained a passionate interest in the University of Cambridge. In 1504 he was elected the university's chancellor. Re-elected annually for 10 years, Fisher received a lifetime appointment. At this date he is said to have acted as tutor to Prince Henry, afterwards King Henry VIII; as a preacher his reputation was so great that Fisher was appointed to preach the funeral oration for King Henry VII and the Lady Margaret, both of whom died in 1509, the texts being extant.
Besides his share in the Lady Margaret's foundations, Fisher gave further proof of his zeal for learning by inducing Erasmus to visit Cambridge. The latter attributes it to Fisher's protection that the study of Greek was allowed to proceed at Cambridge without the active molestation that it encountered at Oxford. Despite his fame and eloquence, it was not long before Fisher came into conflict with the new King, his former pupil; the dispute arose over funds left by the Lady Margaret, the King's grandmother, for financing foundations at Cambridge. In 1512 Fisher was nominated as one of the English representatives at the Fifth Council of the Lateran sitting, but his journey to Rome was postponed, abandoned. Fisher has been named, though without any real proof, as the true author of the royal treatise against Martin Luther entitled "Assertio septem sacramentorum", published in 1521, which won for King Henry VIII the title "Fidei Defensor". Prior to this date Fisher had denounced various abuses in the church, urging the need for disciplinary reforms.
On about 11 February 1526, at the King's command, he preached a famous sermon against Luther at St Paul's Cross, the open-air p
A galero is a broad-brimmed hat with tasselated strings worn by clergy in the Catholic Church. Over the centuries, the red galero was restricted to use by individual cardinals while such other colors as green and violet were reserved to clergy of other ranks and styles; when creating a cardinal, the pope used to place a scarlet galero on the new cardinal's head in consistory, the practice giving rise to the phrase "receiving the red hat." In 1969, a Papal decree ended the use of the galero. Since that time, only the scarlet zucchetto and biretta are placed over the heads of cardinals during the consistory; some cardinals continue to obtain a galero so that the custom of suspending it over their tombs may be observed. Cardinal Raymond Burke has been known to wear the galero on occasion in the 21st century. A few cardinals from eastern rites wear distinctive oriental headgear. Other ecclesiastical hats are used by ministers of other Christian communities. Alongside Catholic clergy, the Scots Public Register records its use by Episcopalian and Presbyterian ministers.
The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland uses a black hat, with blue cords and ten tassels Traditionally, the galero remains over the tomb until it is reduced to dust, symbolizing how all earthly glory is passing. In a cathedral that has no crypt, the galeri are suspended from the ceiling. For example, following the death of Cardinal Basil Hume, Archbishop of Westminster, in 1999, his relatives had a galero installed above his tomb in Westminster Cathedral, alongside those of his predecessors; the privilege of wearing the red galero was first granted to cardinals by Pope Innocent IV in 1245 at the First Council of Lyon. Tradition in the Archdiocese of Lyon is that the red color was inspired by the red hats of the canons of Lyon. Pope Innocent wanted his favorites to be distinct and recognizable in the lengthy processions at the council. Anachronistically, some early Church Fathers are shown wearing a galero, notably Jerome is pictured in art either wearing a galero, or with one close by.
Though the office of cardinal did not exist in Jerome's day, he had been secretary to Pope Damasus I, which in days would have made him a cardinal ex officio. Cardinal Jean Cholet used his galero to crown Charles of Valois in 1285 at Girona during the Aragonese Crusade, pronouncing him King of Aragon; as a result, roi du chapeau became Charles's nickname. The use of the galero was abolished in 1969 with instruciton Ut sive sollicite; the galero continues to appear today in ecclesiastical heraldry as part of the achievement of the coat of arms of an armigerous Catholic cleric. The ecclesiastical hat replaces the helmet and crest, because those were considered too belligerent for men in the clerical estate; the color of the hat and number of tassels indicate the cleric's place in the hierarchy. Priests and ministers have a black hat with cords and tassels, the number depending upon their rank. Bishops use a green hat with green cords and six green tassels on each side, archbishops have a green hat with green cords and ten green tassels on each side, cardinals have a red hat with red cords and fifteen red tassels on each side.
Depiction in arms can vary depending on the artist's style. Philippi, Dieter. Sammlung Philippi – Kopfbedeckungen in Glaube, Religion und Spiritualität. St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig. ISBN 978-3-7462-2800-6. Pictures of clerical headgear and literature in German language Picture of a cardinal's galero, hanging
The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the Pope’s name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular Churches and provides the central organization for the Church to advance its objectives; the structure and organization of responsibilities within the Curia are at present regulated by the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus, issued by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988, which Pope Francis has decided to revise. Other bodies that play an administrative or consulting role in Church affairs are sometimes mistakenly identified with the Curia, such as the Synod of Bishops and regional conferences of bishops. Cardinal Gerhard Müller, former prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, wrote in 2015 that "the Synod of Bishops is not a part of the Roman Curia in the strict sense: it is the expression of the collegiality of bishops in communion with the Pope and under his direction.
The Roman Curia instead aids the Pope in the exercise of his primacy over all the Churches." Curia in medieval and Latin usage means "court" in the sense of "royal court" rather than "court of law". The Roman Curia is sometimes anglicized as the Court of Rome, as in the 1534 Act of Parliament that forbade appeals to it from England, it assists the Pope in carrying out his functions. The Roman Curia can be loosely compared to cabinets in governments of countries with a Western form of governance, but only the Second Section of the Secretariat of State, known as the Section for Relations with States, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and the Congregation for Catholic Education, can be directly compared with specific ministries of a civil government, it is normal for every Latin Catholic diocese to have its own curia for its administration. For the Diocese of Rome, these functions are not handled by the Roman Curia, but by the Vicariate General of His Holiness for the City of Rome, as provided by the apostolic constitution Ecclesia in Urbe.
The Vicar General of Rome, traditionally a cardinal, his deputy the vicegerent, who holds the personal title of archbishop, supervise the governance of the diocese by reference to the Pope himself, but with no more dependence on the Roman Curia, as such, than other Catholic dioceses throughout the world. A distinct office, the Vicar General for Vatican City, administers the portion of the Diocese of Rome in Vatican City; until there still existed hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, holding titles denominating functions that had ceased to be a reality when the Papal States were lost to the papacy. A reorganization, ordered by Pope Pius X, was incorporated into the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Further steps toward reorganization were begun by Pope Paul VI in the 1960s. Among the goals of this curial reform were the modernization of procedures and the internationalization of the curial staff; these reforms are reflected in the 1983 Code of Canon Law. The offices of the Vatican City State are not part of the Roman Curia, composed only of offices of the Holy See.
The following organs or charges, according to the official website of the Holy See, comprise the Curia. All members of the Curia except the Cardinal Camerlengo and the Major Penitentiary resign their office after a papal death or resignation. See sede vacante. Sr. Luzia Premoli, superior general of the Combonian Missionary Sisters, was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in 2014, becoming the first woman to be appointed a member of a Vatican congregation; the principal departments of the Roman Curia are called dicasteries. The most recent comprehensive constitution of the church, Pastor bonus, provides this definition: "By the word "dicasteries" are understood the Secretariat of State, Tribunals and Offices"; those remain the five principal categories of departments, with the noteworthy change in that there is now more than a single Secretariat. Two new departments announced to begin functioning on 1 August 2016 and 1 January 2017 have been identified only as dicasteries–Dicastery for the Laity and Life and Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development.
Both are headed by a prefect. The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church, it is headed by the Secretary of State, since 15 October 2013 by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, responsible for all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See. The Secretariat is divided into two sections, the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, known as the First Section and Second Section, respectively; the Secretariat of State was created in the 15th century and is now the department of the curia most involved in coordinating the Holy See's activities. Matters not within the competence of another dicastery are dealt with by the Secretariat of State; the Secretariat for the Economy was established by Pope Francis in 2014, with the Australian Cardinal George Pell the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, as its Cardinal Prefect. Pell's appointment was terminated on 12 December 2018. Two departments of the Roman Curia established by Pope Francis in 2016 have been identified as "dicasteries" rather than as one of the traditional department types.
A third dicastery was named on 23 June 2018. Pope Francis announced on 15 August 2016 the creation of the Dicastery for the Laity and Life, effective 1 September 2016, it took over the responsibilities of the Pontifical Council for the Laity and the Pontifical Council for the Family. As its first Prefect, Francis named Bishop Kevin Farrell