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Paperback

A paperback known as a softcover or softback, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth, plastic or leather; the pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U. S. there are "mass-market paperbacks" and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks". In the U. K. there are A-format, B-format, the largest C-format sizes. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, newer editions or reprintings of older books.

Since paperbacks tend to have a smaller profit margin, many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit. First editions of many modern books genre fiction, are issued in paperback. Best-selling books, on the other hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide; the early 19th century saw numerous improvements in the printing and book-distribution processes, with the introduction of steam-powered printing presses, pulp mills, automatic type setting, a network of railways. These innovations enabled the likes of Simms and McIntyre of Belfast, Routledge & Sons and Ward & Lock to mass-produce cheap uniform yellowback or paperback editions of existing works, distribute and sell them across the British Isles, principally via the ubiquitous W. H. Smith & Sons newsagent found at most urban British railway stations.

These paper bound volumes were offered for sale at a fraction of the historic cost of a book, were of a smaller format, 110 mm × 178 mm, aimed at the railway traveller. The Routledge's Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until 1898, offered the traveling public 1,277 unique titles; the German-language market supported examples of cheap paper-bound books: Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British and American Authors in 1841. These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a direct precursor to mass-market paperbacks ran to over 5,000 volumes. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October 1857 and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November 1867; the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in 1931, but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short. It proved an immediate financial success in the United Kingdom in 1935 when Penguin Books adopted many of Albatross' innovations, including a conspicuous logo and color-coded covers for different genres.

British publisher Allen Lane invested his own financial capital to launch the Penguin Books imprint in 1935, initiating the paperback revolution in the English-language book market by releasing ten reprint titles. The first released book on Penguin's 1935 list was André Maurois' Ariel. Lane intended to produce inexpensive books, he purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep unit prices low, looked to non-traditional book-selling retail locations. Booksellers were reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, the books sold well. After that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, the name "Penguin" became associated with the word "paperback". In 1939, Robert de Graaf issued a similar line in the United States, partnering with Simon & Schuster to create the Pocket Books label; the term "pocket book" became synonymous with paperback in English-speaking North America. In French, the term livre de poche is still in use today.

De Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market. To reach an broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences; because of its number-one position in what became a long list of pocket editions, James Hilton's Lost Horizon is cited as the first American paperback book. However, the first mass-market, pocket-sized, paperback book printed in the US was an edition of Pearl Buck's The Good Earth, produced by Pocket Books as a proof-of-concept in late 1938, sold in New York City. In World War II, the U. S. military distributed some 122 million "Armed Services Editions" paperback novels to the troops, which helped popularize the format after the war. Through the circulation of the paperback in kiosks and bookstores and intellectual knowledge was able to reach the masses.

This occurred at the same time that the masses were starting to attend university, leading to the student revolts of 1968 prompting open access to knowledge. The paperback book meant that more people were able to and access knowledge and this led to people wanting more and more of it; this accessibility posed a threat to the

Albert Hoffa

Albert Hoffa was a German surgeon and physiotherapist born in Richmond, Cape of Good Hope. He studied medicine at the Universities of Marburg and Freiburg, earning his doctorate with a thesis on nephritis saturnina. In 1886, he opened a private clinic for orthopedics and massage in Würzburg, where in 1895 he became an associate professor at the university. In 1902 he succeeded Julius Wolff at the department of orthopedics in Berlin. Hoffa is remembered for introducing an operation for congenital hip dislocations, as well as for development of a system of massage therapy, his name is associated with a condition known as "Hoffa's fat pad disease", being characterized by chronic knee pain beneath the patella. In 1892 he founded the journal Zeitschrift für orthopädische Chirurgie. Lehrbuch der Fracturen und Luxationen für Ärzte und Studierende, 1888 - Textbook of fractures and luxations for physicians and students. Lehrbuch der orthopädischen Chirurgie, 1891 - Textbook of orthopedic surgery. Technik der Massage, 1893 - Technique of massage.

Atlas und Grundriss der Verbandlehre, 1897 - Atlas and outline of the teaching association. Die orthopädische Literatur, 1905 - Orthopedic literature. Hoffa fracture Busch-Hoffa fracture

Edward Russell (Australian politician)

Edward John Russell was an Australian politician. Russell was born in Warrnambool and educated at Newport State School and St Mary's Catholic School, Williamstown. In 1899 he became involved with the labour movement and soon became a Printers' Union delegate to the Melbourne Trades Hall Council and a member of the Victorian Socialist Party. In 1904 Russell ran unsuccessfully for the Victorian Legislative Assembly seat of Prahran for the Australian Labor Party. Despite being unemployed, he campaigned in a suit provided by the VSP, for election as a senator at the 1906 election, he married Margaret May Evans in April 1907. From September 1913 he was an assistant minister in the Hughes governments. On 27 October 1916, he resigned from the ministry along with William Higgs and William Webster in opposition to Hughes handling of conscription. On 14 November 1916, he joined Hughes' National Labor Party government and was reappointed to the ministry as assistant minister. From March 1918 to December 1921, he was Vice-President of the Executive Council.

He was chairman of various boards dealing with agricultural commodities and vice-president of the Board of Trade and for much of 1919 he was acting Minister for Defence. He was not able to cope with this workload and he was dropped from the ministry in December 1921. Although he was still a senator, he did not participate in parliament after 1922 and died in the Sunbury Hospital for the Insane, survived by his wife, two sons and two daughters