SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Papyrus of Ani

The Papyrus of Ani is a papyrus manuscript in the form of a scroll with cursive hieroglyphs and color illustrations, created c. 1250 BCE, during the nineteenth dynasty of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt. Egyptians compiled an individualized book for certain people upon their death, called the Book of Going Forth by Day, more known as the Book of the Dead containing declarations and spells to help the deceased in their afterlife; the Papyrus of Ani is the manuscript compiled for the Theban scribe Ani. The scroll was discovered in 1888 by Sir E. A. Wallis Budge, as described in his two-volume By Nile and Tigris, Extract: "Soon after my return to Luxor I set out with some natives one evening for the place on the Western bank where the "finds" of the papyri had been made. Here I found a rich store of fine and rare objects, among them the largest roll of papyrus I had seen." Dr. Budge packed the Papyrus of Ani into several custom tin boxes which were safely sent to the Principal Librarian at the British Museum under safe watch and transport of British Major Hepper RE Dr. Budge was subsequently paid a 150GBP "gratuity" from the British Treasury on behalf of the British Museum for his acquisition of the Papyrus of Ani Note: Divisions vary based on compilations.

Maat: 42 Negative Confessions The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day, The First Authentic Presentation of the Complete "Papyrus of Ani", Introduction and commentary by Dr. Ogden Goelet, Translation by Dr. Raymond O. Faulkner, Preface by Carol Andrews, Featuring Integrated Text and Full Color Images, c1994, Rev. ed. c1998. Contains: Map Key to the Papyrus, Commentary by Dr. Ogden Goelet, Selected Bibliography, "Glossary of Terms and Concepts" Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum, Edna Russmann The Egyptian Book of the Dead:, c1895, Dover ed. 1967. Egyptian Text Transliteration and Translation, etc. by Sir E. A. Wallis Budge Facsimile: Papyrus Ani: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1978. Complete colour facsimile edition of the 37 segments of the papyrus in original size; this facsimile edition is available either in a portfolio or in a book case that can be used as a desk - CODICES SELECTI, Vol. LXII The papyrus of Ani. Vol. 1 at the Internet Archive.

Vol. 2 at the Internet Archive. Vol. 3 at the Internet Archive. The Egyptian Book of the Dead

Spirochaete

A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled cells. Spirochaetes are chemoheterotrophic in nature, with lengths between 3 and 500 μm and diameters around 0.09 to at least 3 μm. Spirochaetes are distinguished from other bacterial phyla by the location of their flagella, sometimes called axial filaments, which run lengthwise between the bacterial inner membrane and outer membrane in periplasmic space; these cause a twisting motion. When reproducing, a spirochaete will undergo asexual transverse binary fission. Most spirochaetes are free-living and anaerobic. Spirochaetes bacteria are diverse in their pathogenic capacity and the ecological niches that they inhabit, as well as molecular characteristics including guanine-cytosine content and genome size. Many organisms within the Spirochaetes phylum cause prevalent diseases. Pathogenic members of this phylum include the following: Leptospira species, which causes leptospirosis Borrelia burgdorferi, B. garinii, B. afzelii, which cause Lyme disease Borrelia recurrentis, which causes relapsing fever Treponema pallidum subspecies which cause treponematoses such as syphilis and yaws.

Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira aalborgi, which cause intestinal spirochaetosisSpirochaetes may cause dementia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Salvarsan, the first organic synthetic antimicrobial drug in medical history, was effective against spirochaetes only and was used to cure syphilis; the class consists of 14 validly named genera across 4 orders and 5 families. The orders Brachyspirales and Leptospirales each contain a single family, Brachyspiraceae and Leptospiraceae, respectively; the Spirochaetales order harbours two families and Borreliaceae. Molecular markers in the form of conserved signature indels and CSPs have been found specific for each of the orders, with the exception of Brevinimetales, that provide a reliable means to demarcate these clades from one another within the diverse phylum. Additional CSIs have been found shared by each family within the Spirochaetales; these molecular markers are in agreement with the observed phylogenetic tree branching of two monophyletic clades within the Spirochaetales order.

CSIs have been found that further differentiate taxonomic groups within the Borreliaceae family that further delineate evolutionary relationships that are in accordance with physical characteristics such as pathogenicity. However, this study has been criticized, other studies using different approaches do not support the proposed split; the new naming system for the Lyme and relapsing fever Borrelia has not been adopted by the scientific literature. A CSI has been found shared by all Spirochaetes species; this CSI is a 3 amino acid insert in the flagellar basal body rod protein FlgC, an important part of the unique endoflagellar structure shared by Spirochaetes species. Given that the CSI is shared by members within this phylum, it has been postulated that it may be related to the characteristic flagellar properties observed among Spirochaetes species. All families belonging to the Spirochaetes phylum were assigned to a single order, the Spirochaetales. However, the current taxonomic view is more connotative of accurate evolutionary relationships.

The distribution of a CSI is indicative of shared ancestry within the clade for which it is specific. It thus functions as a synapomorphic characteristic, so that the distributions of different CSIs provide the means to identify different orders and families within the phylum and so justify the phylogenetic divisions; the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 132 by The All-Species Living Tree Project. The accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature and National Center for Biotechnology Information. Phylum Spirochaetes Garrity & Holt 2001 Class Spirochaetae Cavalier-Smith 2002 Order Leptospirales Gupta et al. 2014 Family Leptospiraceae Hovind-Hougen 1979 emend. Levett et al. 2005 Genus Leptonema Hovind-Hougen 1983 Genus Leptospira Noguchi 1917 emend. Faine and Stallman 1982 Genus Turneriella Levett et al. 2005 Order Brachyspirales corrig. Gupta et al. 2014 Family Brachyspiraceae Paster 2012 Genus Brachyspira Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982 Order Brevinematales Gupta et al. 2014 Family Brevinemataceae Paster 2012 Genus Brevinema Defosse et al. 1995 Order Spirochaetales Buchanan 1917 emend.

Gupta et al. 2013 Genus Exilispira Imachi et al. 2008 Genus Alkalispirochaeta Sravanthi et al. 2016 Genus Oceanispirochaeta Subhash & Lee 2017b Genus Pleomorphochaeta Arroua et al. 2016 Genus Sediminispirochaeta Shivani et al. 2016 Genus Sphaerochaeta Ritalahti et al. 2012 emend. Miyazaki et al. 2014 Family Borreliaceae Gupta et al. 2014 Genus Borrelia Swellengrebel 1907 emend. Adeolu & Gupta 2014, emend. Margos et al. 2018 Genus Cristispira pectinis Gross 1910 Family Spirochaetaceae Swellengrebel 1907 Genus? Clevelandina reticulitermitidis ♦ Bermudes et al. 1988 Genus? Diplocalyx calotermitidis ♦ Bermudes et al. 1988 Genus? Hollandina pterot

Frederick May (composer)

Frederick May was an Irish composer and arranger. His musical career was hindered by a lifelong hearing problem and he produced few compositions. Frederick May was born into a Dublin Protestant family, his father named Frederick, was employed at the Guinness Brewery. May pursued his musical studies at the Royal Irish Academy of Music, where he was taught composition by John Larchet. In 1930, McCullough Pigott and Co. published his Irish Love Song. The same year he was awarded the Esposito Cup at the Feis Ceoil and as a result of this he was nominated as the first recipient of a new scholarship prize worth £100 to be spent on the further study of piano. In July he took his preliminary examination for the BMus at Trinity College Dublin before departing Dublin to utilise his scholarship in London. In September he enrolled at the Royal College of Music where his teachers included Charles Kitson, Ralph Vaughan Williams, R. O. Morris and Gordon Jacob, he took his final TCD examination in December 1931 submitting a string quartet and on 10 December his degree was conferred.

During 1932 May's study was funded by the RCM's Foli Scholarship and in October May was awarded the Octavia Travelling Scholarship. On 17 March 1933 there was a first orchestral run through of May's Scherzo for orchestra, it received its first public performance on 1 December when it was heard as part of the Patron's Concert. Between the months of May and October May composed his Four Romantic Songs, which received their premiere in London at a Macnaghten-Lemare concert on 22 January 1934. At some point in the second half of 1933, May followed in the footsteps of other Octavia Scholarship winners and travelled to Vienna to study with Egon Wellesz. On 1 January 1936, he took up the position of Director of Music at the Abbey Theatre Dublin, a position he retained until he was fired in 1948, his duties consisted of leading the piano trio which bore the title "The Abbey Orchestra" in music during the intervals of productions. In 1936 he composed what is today his best known composition, the String Quartet in C Minor, but it was not premiered until 1948 when it was performed by the Martin Quartet in the Wigmore Hall, London.

This was followed by the Symphonic Ballad, the Suite of Irish Airs, Spring Nocturne, Songs from Prison and the Lyric Movement for Strings. May ceased original composition at this point, the major exception being his late orchestral work Sunlight and Shadow, premiered in January 1956. Work was confined to arrangements and the revision of earlier compositions. Throughout his life May suffered from significant mental health issues which resulted in hospitalisation, he suffered from otosclerosis, as a result of which May was to become deaf. In addition he suffered from severe tinnitus with constant ringing noises in his head. In life he became homeless for a time due to alcoholism and slept at night in Grangegorman Asylum, Dublin, he was rescued by some friends led by Garech Browne whose record company Claddagh recorded the String Quartet in 1974. Throughout his career May was an advocate of better musical education in Ireland and expressed his views on this and other musical matters through the medium of The Bell, a monthly journal dealing with the arts.

He was a co-founder, along with Brian Boydell and Aloys Fleischmann, of the Music Association of Ireland, set up in 1948 to promote art music as an integral part of the cultural life of Ireland. He became a member of Aosdána, he lived for the last years of his life at Dublin. He is buried in Mount Jerome Cemetery. May's compositions are few in number and he produced most of his small output in the 1930s and early 1940s. May's first significant work was the Scherzo for Orchestra, written while he was still a student in London. In 1936 he composed his String Quartet in C Minor, described in the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians as "one of the most individual statements from an Irish composer in the first half of the 20th century". May composed the quartet as his hearing was beginning to deteriorate and he described it as "an appeal for release"; the first performance of his Songs From Prison, a setting for baritone and orchestra of poems by Ernst Toller and Erich Stadlen, was broadcast on BBC Radio in December 1942.

For fellow composer Arthur Duff, the work demonstrated that May was "more a follower of Mahler and Berg than a successor to Stanford and Harty". Following a long break from composition, May produced what was to be his valedictory work in 1955; this was the nine-minute orchestral piece Sunlight and Shadows, given its first performance on 22 January 1956 by the Radio Éireann Symphony Orchestra at Dublin's Gaiety Theatre. Although this was his last original work, May did not abandon music completely, he produced arrangements of Irish music for Radio Éireann, which while not rewarding artistically did help to alleviate his always precarious financial situation. May composed a number of songs for voice and piano and a short piece entitled Idyll for violin and piano; the latter was chosen as a set work for the junior violin competition at the Feis Ceoil in 2017. Suite of Irish Airs, Radio Éireann Symphony Orchestra, Milan Horvat, on: Decca DL 9843, LP. String Quartet in C Minor, Aeolian Quartet, on: Claddagh Records CSM2, LP.

String Quartet in C Minor, Vanbrugh Quartet, on: Marco Polo 8.223888, CD. Sunlight and Shadow, Spring Nocturne, Suite of Irish Airs, Songs from Prison, RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra, Owen Gilhooley, Robert Hou