Life of Jesus in the New Testament
The four canonical gospels of the New Testament are the primary sources of information for the narrative of the life of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament, such as the Pauline epistles which were written within 20–30 years of each other include references to key episodes in his life such as the Last Supper, and the Acts of the Apostles says more about the Ascension episode than the canonical gospels. The genealogy and Nativity of Jesus are described in two of the four canonical gospels: the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke. While Luke traces the genealogy upwards towards Adam and God, Matthew traces it downwards towards Jesus. Both gospels state that Jesus was begotten not by Joseph, but conceived miraculously in the womb of Mary, mother of Jesus by the Holy Spirit. Both accounts trace Joseph back from there to Abraham; these lists are identical between Abraham and David, but they differ completely between David and Joseph. Matthew gives Jacob as Joseph’s father and Luke says Joseph was the son of Heli.
Attempts at explaining the differences between the genealogies have varied in nature. Much of modern scholarship interprets them as literary inventions; the Luke and Matthew accounts of the birth of Jesus have a number of points in common. In the Luke account Joseph and Mary travel from their home in Nazareth for the census to Bethlehem, where Jesus is born and laid in a manger. Angels proclaim him a savior for all people, shepherds come to adore him. In Matthew, The Magi follow a star to Bethlehem, where the family are living, to bring gifts to Jesus, born the King of the Jews. King Herod massacres all males under two years old in Bethlehem in order to kill Jesus, but Jesus's family flees to Egypt and settles in Nazareth. Over the centuries, biblical scholars have attempted to reconcile these contradictions, while modern scholarship views them as legendary, they consider the issue of historicity as secondary, given that gospels were written as theological documents rather than chronological timelines.
The five major milestones in the New Testament narrative of the life of Jesus are his Baptism, Crucifixion and Ascension. In the gospels, the ministry of Jesus starts with his Baptism by John the Baptist, when he is about thirty years old. Jesus begins preaching in Galilee and gathers disciples. After the proclamation of Jesus as Christ, three of the disciples witness his Transfiguration. After the death of John the Baptist and the Transfiguration, Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem, having predicted his own death there. Jesus makes a triumphal entry into Jerusalem, there friction with the Pharisees increases and one of his disciples agrees to betray him for thirty pieces of silver. In the gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples; the Gospel of Luke states. A chronology of Jesus has the date of the start of his ministry estimated at around 27–29 and the end in the range 30–36.
Jesus' Early Galilean ministry begins when after his Baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert. In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and form the core of the early Church as it is believed that the Apostles dispersed from Jerusalem to found the Apostolic Sees; the Major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee. The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem. In the Later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea; as Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized. The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem.
The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem. In the gospel accounts, towards the end of the final week in Jerusalem, Jesus has the Last Supper with his disciples, the next day is betrayed and tried; the trial ends in his death. Three days after his burial, he is resurrected and appears to his disciples and a multitude of his followers over a 40-day period, after which he ascends to Heaven. In the New Testament accounts, the principle locations for the ministry of Jesus were Galilee and Judea, with activities taking place in surrounding areas such as Perea and Samaria; the gospel narrative of the ministry of Jesus is traditionally separated into sections that have a geographical nature. Galilean ministry: Jesus' ministry begins when after his baptism, he returns to Galilee, preaches in the synagogue of Capernaum; the first disciples of Jesus encounter him near the Sea of Galilee and his Galilean ministry includes key episodes such as Sermon on the Mount which form the core of his moral teachings.
Jesus' ministry in the Galilee area draws to an end with the death of John the Baptist. Journey to Jerusalem: After the death of the Baptist, about half way through the gospels two key events take place tha
King James Version
The King James Version known as the King James Bible or the Authorized Version, is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed as well as published in 1611 under the sponsorship of James VI and I. The books of the King James Version include the 39 books of the Old Testament, an intertestamental section containing 14 books of the Apocrypha, the 27 books of the New Testament; the translation is noted for its "majesty of style", has been described as one of the most important books in English culture and a driving force in the shaping of the English-speaking world. It was first printed by Robert Barker, the King's Printer, was the third translation into English approved by the English Church authorities: The first had been the Great Bible, commissioned in the reign of King Henry VIII, the second had been the Bishops' Bible, commissioned in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. On the European continent, the first generation of Calvinists had produced the Geneva Bible of 1560 from the original Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, influential in the writing of the Authorized King James Version.
In January 1604, King James convened the Hampton Court Conference, where a new English version was conceived in response to the problems of the earlier translations perceived by the Puritans, a faction of the Church of England. James gave the translators instructions intended to ensure that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology of, reflect the episcopal structure of, the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy; the translation was done by 47 scholars. In common with most other translations of the period, the New Testament was translated from Greek, the Old Testament from Hebrew and Aramaic, the Apocrypha from Greek and Latin. In the Book of Common Prayer, the text of the Authorized Version replaced the text of the Great Bible for Epistle and Gospel readings, as such was authorised by Act of Parliament. By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version had become unchallenged as the English translation used in Anglican and English Protestant churches, except for the Psalms and some short passages in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England.
Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English-speaking scholars. With the development of stereotype printing at the beginning of the 19th century, this version of the Bible became the most printed book in history all such printings presenting the standard text of 1769 extensively re-edited by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford, nearly always omitting the books of the Apocrypha. Today the unqualified title "King James Version" indicates this Oxford standard text; the title of the first edition of the translation, in Early Modern English, was "THE HOLY BIBLE, Conteyning the Old Teſtament, AND THE NEW: Newly Tranſlated out of the Originall tongues: & with the former Tranſlations diligently compared and reuiſed, by his Maiesties ſpeciall Comandement". The title page carries the words "Appointed to be read in Churches", F. F. Bruce suggests it was "probably authorised by order in council" but no record of the authorisation survives "because the Privy Council registers from 1600 to 1613 were destroyed by fire in January 1618/19".
For many years it was common not to give the translation any specific name. In his Leviathan of 1651, Thomas Hobbes referred to it as the English Translation made in the beginning of the Reign of King James. A 1761 "Brief Account of the various Translations of the Bible into English" refers to the 1611 version as a new and more accurate Translation, despite referring to the Great Bible by its name, despite using the name "Rhemish Testament" for the Douay-Rheims Bible version. A "History of England", whose fifth edition was published in 1775, writes that new translation of the Bible, viz. that now in Use, was begun in 1607, published in 1611. King James's Bible is used as the name for the 1611 translation in Charles Butler's Horae Biblicae. Other works from the early 19th century confirm the widespread use of this name on both sides of the Atlantic: it is found both in a "Historical sketch of the English translations of the Bible" published in Massachusetts in 1815, in an English publication from 1818, which explicitly states that the 1611 version is "generally known by the name of King James's Bible".
This name was found as King James' Bible: for example in a book review from 1811. The phrase "King James's Bible" is used as far back as 1715, although in this case it is not clear whether this is a name or a description; the use of Authorized Version and used as a name, is found as early as 1814. For some time before this, descriptive phrases such as "our present, only publicly authorised version", "our Authorized version", "the authorized version" are found; the Oxford English Dictionary records a usage in 1824. In Britain, the 1611 translation is known as the "Authorized Version" today; as early as 1814, we find King James' Version, evidently a descriptive phrase, being used. "The King James Version" is found, unequivocally used as a name, in a letter from 1855. The next year King James Bible, with no possessive, appears as a name in a Scottish source. In the United States, the "1611 translation" is generally
Tacitus on Christ
The Roman historian and senator Tacitus referred to Christ, his execution by Pontius Pilate, the existence of early Christians in Rome in his final work, book 15, chapter 44. The context of the passage is the six-day Great Fire of Rome that burned much of the city in AD 64 during the reign of Roman Emperor Nero; the passage is one of the earliest non-Christian references to the origins of Christianity, the execution of Christ described in the canonical gospels, the presence and persecution of Christians in 1st-century Rome. Scholars consider Tacitus' reference to the execution of Jesus by Pontius Pilate to be both authentic, of historical value as an independent Roman source. Paul Eddy and Gregory Boyd state that it is now "firmly established" that Tacitus provides a non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus. Historian Ronald Mellor has stated that the Annals is "Tacitus's crowning achievement" which represents the "pinnacle of Roman historical writing". Scholars view it as establishing three separate facts about Rome around AD 60: that there were a sizable number of Christians in Rome at the time, that it was possible to distinguish between Christians and Jews in Rome, that at the time pagans made a connection between Christianity in Rome and its origin in Roman Judea.
The Annals passage, subjected to much scholarly analysis, follows a description of the six-day Great Fire of Rome that burned much of Rome in July 64 AD. The key part of the passage reads as follows: Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judæa, the first source of the evil, but in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular. Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all. Tacitus describes the torture of Christians: Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired.
Nero offered his gardens for the spectacle, was exhibiting a show in the circus, while he mingled with the people in the dress of a charioteer or stood aloft on a car. Hence for criminals who deserved extreme and exemplary punishment, there arose a feeling of compassion; the exact cause of the fire remains uncertain, but much of the population of Rome suspected that Emperor Nero had started the fire himself. To divert attention from himself, Nero accused the Christians of starting the fire and persecuted them, making this the first documented confrontation between Christians and the authorities in Rome. Tacitus never accused Nero of playing the lyre while Rome burned – that statement came from Cassius Dio, who died in the 3rd century, but Tacitus did. No original manuscripts of the Annals exist and the surviving copies of Tacitus' works derive from two principal manuscripts, known as the Medicean manuscripts, written in Latin, which are held in the Laurentian Library in Florence, Italy, it is the second Medicean manuscript, 11th century and from the Benedictine abbey at Monte Cassino, the oldest surviving copy of the passage describing Christians.
Scholars agree that these copies were written at Monte Cassino and the end of the document refers to Abbas Raynaldus cu..., most one of the two abbots of that name at the abbey during that period. The passage states:... called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin... In 1902 Georg Andresen commented on the appearance of the first'i' and subsequent gap in the earliest extant, 11th century, copy of the Annals in Florence, suggesting that the text had been altered, an'e' had been in the text, rather than this'i'. "With ultra-violet examination of the MS the alteration was conclusively shown. It is impossible today to say. In Suetonius' Nero 16.2,'christiani', seems to be the original reading". Since the alteration became known it has given rise to debates among scholars as to whether Tacitus deliberately used the term "Chrestians", or if a scribe made an error during the Middle Ages, it has been stated that both the terms Christians and Chrestians had at times been used by the general population in Rome to refer to early Christians.
Robert E. Van Voorst states that many sources indicate that the term Chrestians was used among the early followers of J
Johannes or Jan Luyken was a Dutch poet and engraver. He was died in Amsterdam, where he learned engraving from his father Kaspar Luyken, he married at 19 and had several children, of who Kasparus Luiken became a renowned engraver. In his twenty-sixth year, he had a religious experience that inspired him to write moralistic poetry, he illustrated the 1685 edition of the Martyrs Mirror with 104 copper etchings. Thirty of these plates are part of The Mirror of the Martyrs exhibit, he published Het Menselyk Bedryf in 1694, which contains numerous engravings, by Luiken and his son Caspar, of 17th century trades. Huysmans' anti-hero Des Esseintes was an admirer of Luyken's engravings and had prints from his Religious Persecutions hung in his drawing room, he described them as'appalling engravings containing all the tortures that the madness of religion could devise.' Des Esseintes was enthralled not just by Luyken's graphic depictions but his ability to reconstruct times and places in his works. Media related to Jan Luyken at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about Jan Luyken at Internet Archive Works by Jan Luyken at LibriVox
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, was head of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death. Before his election to the papacy, he served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio to Germany, Cardinal Secretary of State, in which capacity he worked to conclude treaties with European and Latin American nations, most notably the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany. While the Vatican was neutral during World War II, Pius XII maintained links to the German Resistance, used diplomacy to aid the victims of the war and lobby for peace, spoke out against race-based murders and other atrocities; the Reichskonkordat and his leadership of the Catholic Church during the war remain the subject of controversy—including allegations of public silence and inaction about the fate of the Jews. After the war, he advocated peace and reconciliation, including lenient policies towards former Axis and Axis-satellite nations, he was a staunch opponent of Communism and of the Italian Communist Party.
During his papacy, the Church issued the Decree against Communism, declaring that Catholics who profess Communist doctrine are to be excommunicated as apostates from the Christian faith. In turn, the Church experienced severe persecution and mass deportations of Catholic clergy in the Eastern Bloc, he explicitly invoked ex cathedra papal infallibility with the dogma of the Assumption of Mary in his Apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus. His magisterium includes 1,000 addresses and radio broadcasts, his forty-one encyclicals include the Church as the Body of Christ. He eliminated the Italian majority in the College of Cardinals in 1946. After his 1958 death, he was succeeded by Pope John XXIII. In the process toward sainthood, his cause for canonization was opened on 18 November 1965 by Pope Paul VI during the final session of the Second Vatican Council, he was made a Servant of God by Pope John Paul II in 1990 and Pope Benedict XVI declared Pius XII Venerable on 19 December 2009. Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli was born on 2 March 1876 in Rome into a family of intense Catholic piety with a history of ties to the papacy.
His parents were Virginia Pacelli. His grandfather, Marcantonio Pacelli, had been Under-Secretary in the Papal Ministry of Finances and Secretary of the Interior under Pope Pius IX from 1851 to 1870 and helped found the Vatican's newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano in 1861, his cousin, Ernesto Pacelli, was a key financial advisor to Pope Leo XIII. Together with his brother Francesco and his two sisters and Elisabetta, he grew up in the Parione district in the centre of Rome. Soon after the family had moved to Via Vetrina in 1880 he began school at the convent of the French Sisters of Divine Providence in the Piazza Fiammetta; the family worshipped at Chiesa Nuova. Eugenio and the other children made their First Communion at this church and Eugenio served there as an altar boy from 1886. In 1886 too he was sent to the private school of Professor Giuseppe Marchi, close to the Piazza Venezia. In 1891 Pacelli's father sent Eugenio to the Liceo Ennio Quirino Visconti Institute, a state school situated in what had been the Collegio Romano, the premier Jesuit university in Rome.
In 1894, aged 18, Pacelli began his theology studies at Rome's oldest seminary, the Almo Collegio Capranica, in November of the same year, registered to take a philosophy course at the Jesuit Pontifical Gregorian University and theology at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, he was enrolled at the State University, La Sapienza where he studied modern languages and history. At the end of the first academic year however, in the summer of 1895, he dropped out of both the Capranica and the Gregorian University. According to his sister Elisabetta, the food at the Capranica was to blame. Having received a special dispensation he continued his studies from home and so spent most of his seminary years as an external student. In 1899 he completed his education in Sacred Theology with a doctoral degree awarded on the basis of a short dissertation and an oral examination in Latin. While all other candidates from the Rome diocese were ordained in the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Pacelli was ordained a priest on Easter Sunday, 2 April 1899 alone in the private chapel of a family friend the Vicegerent of Rome, Mgr Paolo Cassetta.
Shortly after ordination he began postgraduate studies in canon law at Sant'Apollinaire. He received his first assignment as a curate at Chiesa Nuova. In 1901 he entered the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, a sub-office of the Vatican Secretariat of State. Monsignor Pietro Gasparri, the appointed undersecretary at the Department of Extraordinary Affairs, had underscored his proposal to Pacelli to work in the "Vatican's equivalent of the Foreign office" by highlighting the "necessity of defending the Church from the onslaughts of secularism and liberalism throughout Europe". Pacelli became an apprentice, in Gasparri's department. In January 1901 he was chosen, by Pope Leo XIII himself, according to an official account, to deliver condolences on behalf of the Vatican to King Edward VII of the UK
Josephus on Jesus
The extant manuscripts of the writings of the first-century Romano-Jewish historian Flavius Josephus include references to Jesus and the origins of Christianity. Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, written around 93–94 AD, includes two references to the biblical Jesus Christ in Books 18 and 20 and a reference to John the Baptist in Book 18. Scholarly opinion varies on the total or partial authenticity of the reference in Book 18, Chapter 3, 3 of the Antiquities, a passage that states that Jesus the Messiah was a wise teacher, crucified by Pilate called the Testimonium Flavianum; the general scholarly view is that while the Testimonium Flavianum is most not authentic in its entirety, it is broadly agreed upon that it consisted of an authentic nucleus, subject to Christian interpolation and/or alteration. Although the exact nature and extent of the Christian redaction remains unclear, broad consensus exists as to what the original text of the Testimonium by Josephus would have looked like. Modern scholarship has acknowledged the authenticity of the reference in Book 20, Chapter 9, 1 of the Antiquities to "the brother of Jesus, called Christ, whose name was James" and considers it as having the highest level of authenticity among the references of Josephus to Christianity.
All modern scholars consider the reference in Book 18, Chapter 5, 2 of the Antiquities to the imprisonment and death of John the Baptist to be authentic and not a Christian interpolation. The references found in Antiquities have no parallel texts in the other work by Josephus such as The Jewish War, written 20 years earlier, but some scholars have provided explanations for their absence. A number of variations exist between the statements by Josephus regarding the deaths of James and John the Baptist and the New Testament accounts. Scholars view these variations as indications that the Josephus passages are not interpolations, for a Christian interpolator would have made them correspond to the New Testament accounts, not differ from them. In the Antiquities of the Jews Josephus refers to the stoning of "James the brother of Jesus" by order of Ananus ben Ananus, a Herodian-era High Priest; the James referred to in this passage is most the James to whom the Epistle of James has been attributed.
The translations of Josephus' writing into other languages have at times included passages that are not found in the Greek texts, raising the possibility of interpolation, but this passage on James is found in all manuscripts, including the Greek texts. The context of the passage is the period following the death of Porcius Festus, the journey to Alexandria by Lucceius Albinus, the new Roman Procurator of Judea, who held that position from 62 AD to 64 AD; because Albinus' journey to Alexandria had to have concluded no than the summer of 62 AD, the date of James' death can be assigned with some certainty to around that year. The 2nd century chronicler Hegesippus left an account of the death of James, while the details he provides diverge from those of Josephus, the two accounts share similar elements. Modern scholarship has universally acknowledged the authenticity of the reference to "the brother of Jesus, called Christ, whose name was James" and has rejected its being the result of Christian interpolation.
Moreover, in comparison with Hegesippus' account of James' death, most scholars consider Josephus' to be the more reliable. However, a few scholars question the authenticity of the reference, based on various arguments, but based on the observation that various details in The Jewish War differ from it. In the Antiquities of the Jews Josephus refers to the imprisonment and death of John the Baptist by order of Herod Antipas, the ruler of Galilee and Perea; the context of this reference is the 36 AD defeat of Herod Antipas in his conflict with Aretas IV of Nabatea, which the Jews of the time attributed to misfortune brought about by Herod's unjust execution of John. All modern scholars consider this passage to be authentic in its entirety, although a small number of authors have questioned it; because the death of John appears prominently in the Christian gospels, this passage is considered an important connection between the events Josephus recorded, the chronology of the gospels and the dates for the ministry of Jesus.
A few scholars have questioned the passage, contending that the absence of Christian tampering or interpolation does not itself prove authenticity. While this passage is the only reference to John the Baptist outside the New Testament, it is seen by most scholars as confirming the historicity of the baptisms that John performed. According to Marsh, any contrast between Josephus and the Gospel's accounts of John would be because the former lacked interest in the messianic element of John's mission. While both the gospels and Josephus refer to Herod Antipas killing John the Baptist, they differ on the details and the motive; the gospels present this as a consequence of the marriage of Herod Antipas and Herodias in defiance of Jewish law. Danielou contends that Josephus missed the religious meaning while recording only the political aspect of the conflict between Herod and John, which led to the latter's death. While Josephus identifies the location of the imprisonment of John as Machaerus, southeast of the mouth of the Jordan river, the gospels mention no location for the place where John was imprisoned.
According to other historical accounts Machaerus was rebuilt by Herod the Great around 30 BC and passed
Ministry of Jesus
In the Christian gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke states. A chronology of Jesus has the date of the start of his ministry estimated at around AD 27–29 and the end in the range AD 30–36. Jesus' early Galilean ministry begins when after his baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert. In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and form the core of the early Church as it is believed that the Apostles dispersed from Jerusalem to found the Apostolic Sees; the major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee. The final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem. In the Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea.
As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized. The final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem; the gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem. The gospel accounts place the beginning of Jesus' ministry in the countryside of Roman Judea, near the River Jordan; the gospels present John the Baptist's ministry as the precursor to that of Jesus and the baptism of Jesus as marking the beginning of Jesus' ministry, after which Jesus travels and performs miracles. Jesus's Baptism is considered the beginning of his ministry and the Last Supper with his disciples in Jerusalem as the end. However, some authors consider the period between the Resurrection and the Ascension part of the ministry of Jesus.
Luke 3:23 states. There have been different approaches to estimating the date of the start of the ministry of Jesus. One approach, based on combining information from the Gospel of Luke with historical data about Emperor Tiberius yields a date around 28–29 AD/CE, while a second independent approach based on statements in the Gospel of John along with historical information from Josephus about the Temple in Jerusalem leads to a date around AD 27–29. In the New Testament, the date of the Last Supper is close to the date of the crucifixion of Jesus. Scholarly estimates for the date of the crucifixion fall in the range AD 30–36; the three Synoptic Gospels refer to just one passover the Passover at the end of Jesus's ministry when he is crucified. While the Gospel of John refers to two actual passovers, one at the beginning of Jesus's ministry and the second at the end of Jesus's ministry. There is a third reference to passover that many claim is a third actual festival, but this can not be supported, it is more to be a forecasting of the second Passover in the Gospel of John.
This third reference to a passover in the Gospel of John is why many suggest that Jesus's ministry was a period of about three years. Scholars that support a three year ministry, such as Köstenberger state that the Gospel of John provides a more detailed account. During the ministry of Jesus, the tetrarch ruling over Galilee and Perea in this period was Herod Antipas, who obtained the position upon the division of the territories following the death of Herod the Great in 4 BC; the gospels present John the Baptist's ministry as the precursor to that of Jesus and the Baptism of Jesus as marking the beginning of Jesus' ministry. In his sermon in Acts 10:37–38, delivered in the house of Cornelius the centurion, Apostle Peter gives an overview of the ministry of Jesus, refers to what had happened "throughout all Judaea, beginning from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached" and that Jesus whom "God anointed with the Holy Spirit and with power" had gone about "doing good". John 1:28 specifies the location where John was baptizing as "Bethany beyond the Jordan".
This is not the village Bethany just east of Jerusalem, but the town Bethany called Bethabara in Perea. Perea is the province east of the Jordan, across the southern part of Samaria, although the New Testament does not mention Perea by name, John 3:23 implicitly refers to it again when it states that John was baptising in Enon near Salim, "because there was much water there". First-century historian Flavius Josephus wrote in the Antiquities of the Jews that John the Baptist was imprisoned and killed in Machaerus on the border of Perea. Luke 3:23 and Luke 4:1 indicate possible activities of Jesus near the Jordan River around the time of his baptism, as does the initial encounter with the disciples of John the Baptist in John 1:35–37, where "two disciples heard him speak, they followed Jesus". Assuming that there were two incidences of Cleansing of the Temple, located in Jerusalem, a possible reference to an early Judean ministry may be John 2:13–25; the Early Galilean ministry begins when, according to Matthew, Jesus goes back to Galilee from the Judean desert, after rebuffing the temptation of Satan.
In this early period, Jesus preaches around Galilee and, in Matthew 4:18-20, his first disciples encounter him, begin to travel with him and form the core of the early Church. The Gospel of John includes Marriage at Cana as the first miracle of Jesus taki