A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Rio Negro (Mato Grosso do Sul)
The Rio Negro is a river of Mato Grosso do Sul state in southwestern Brazil. List of rivers of Mato Grosso do Sul Pantanal jaguar Brazilian Ministry of Transport Rand McNally, The New International Atlas, 1993
For the mine of the same name and located in the state, see Corumbá. Corumbá Portuguese pronunciation: is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, 425 km northwest of Campo Grande, the state's capital, it has a population of 111,000 inhabitants, its economy is based on agriculture, animal husbandry, mineral extraction, tourism, being the gateway to the biggest wetlands of the world, the Pantanal. Corumbá International Airport connects it to many Brazilian cities and operates some international flights. There is another airport serving Corumbá indirectly: the Puerto Suárez International Airport, 20 km away from the center of the city of Corumbá; the city is one of the few Brazilian cities to be served by two international airports Corumbá is the westernmost and northernmost city in Mato Gosso do Sul, it is by far the largest municipality by area in that state, composing 18% of its territory. It is the eleventh largest municipality in Brazil and the largest outside Amazonas and Pará.
The territory of Corumbá has an enclaved municipality within it: Ladário. Founded as a military outpost and colony in 1778 by the Spanish, it became strategically important with the opening of the Paraguay River to international trade after the Paraguayan War. Nearby are the buttes of Mt Urucum, which contain vast mineral deposits. In 1878 it was raised to the category of city; the ecoregion Pantanal is the most important plain of all humid areas in South America. Its large territory meets in the Mato Grosso do Sul, is known as South Pantanal and the city of Corumbá serves as its entrance door; the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul is recognized as one of the most exuberant and diversified natural reserves on the planet. The great diversity of the fauna is one of its great attractions: caiman, fish, tapirs, hyacinth macaws and jabiru storks, among others; the Pantanal received the recognition as National Patrimony in the Constitution of 1988 and as Patrimony of the Humanity and Reserve of the Biosfera from UNESCO.
According to World Wide Fund for Nature, there exist in the Pantanal 650 species of birds, 80 of mammals, 260 of fish and 50 of reptiles. It is a region of great importance for preservation of biodiversity, considered one of the biggest centers of reproduction of fauna of America. More than 263 species of fish, 122 species of mammals, 93 species of reptiles, 1,132 species of butterflies, 656 species of birds and 1,700 species of plants have been cataloged there; the municipality of Corumbá is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay, a situation, known as tríplice border. Its urban area borders on the Bolivian cities of Puerto Suárez and Puerto Quijarro, that together make up a Free Zone for purchases of imported products and Bolivian crafts, the limit of, the end of Ramon Gomes Road; the border with Paraguay is at the south extremity of the municipality in the agricultural zone. Corumbá consists of two areas; the lower area is. The upper area and much bigger, is chessboard-shaped, its architecture is not like other old Brazilian cities, where the predominant architectural style is the colonial romantic Portuguese.
Its architecture is Italian neoclassical, the same as central Asunción, the old suburbs of Buenos Aires, the towns of the countryside of the Uruguay, the majority of the southwestern Rio Grande do Sul. Its urbanization rate is high, reaching around 90%. In recent years, due to a better quality of life, the population is aging and the fertility rate is decreasing. Várzea Grande, Brazil Pisa, Italy Dunkirk, France Corumbá travel guide from Wikivoyage Pantanal Escapes - Travel Guide and tourist information for Corumbá About the annual Carnaval de Corumbá
The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated and semi-arid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region. This land is sometimes called the Chaco Plain; the name Chaco comes from a word in Quechua, an indigenous language from the Andes and highlands of South America. The quechua word chaqu meaning "hunting land" comes from the rich variety of animal life present throughout the entire region; the Gran Chaco is about 647,500 km ² in size. It is located west of the Paraguay River and east of the Andes, is an alluvial sedimentary plain shared among Paraguay and Argentina, it stretches from about 17° to 33° South latitude and between 65° and 60° West longitude, though estimates differ. The Chaco has been divided in three main parts: the Chaco Austral or Southern Chaco, south of the Bermejo River and inside Argentinian territory, blending into the Pampa region in its southernmost end.
Locals sometimes divide it today by the political borders, giving rise to the terms Argentinian Chaco, Paraguayan Chaco and Bolivian Chaco. The Chaco Boreal may be divided in two: closer to the mountains in the west, the Alto Chaco, sometimes known as Chaco Seco, is dry and sparsely vegetated. To the east, less arid conditions combined with favorable soil characteristics permit a seasonally dry higher-growth thorn tree forest, further east still higher rainfall combined with improperly drained lowland soils result in a somewhat swampy plain called the Bajo Chaco, sometimes known as Chaco Húmedo, it has a more open savanna vegetation consisting of palm trees, quebracho trees and tropical high-grass areas, with a wealth of insects. The landscape is flat and slopes at a 0.004 degree gradient to the east. This area is one of the distinct physiographic provinces of the Parana-Paraguay Plain division; the areas more hospitable to development are along the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers. It is a great source of timber and tannin, derived from the native quebracho tree.
Special tannin factories have been constructed there. The wood of the palo santo from the Central Chaco is the source of oil of guaiac. Paraguay cultivates mate in the lower part of the Chaco. Large tracts of the central and northern Chaco have high soil fertility, sandy alluvial soils with elevated levels of phosphorus and a topography, favorable for agricultural development. Other aspects are challenging for farming: a semi-arid to semi-humid climate with a six-month dry season and sufficient fresh groundwater restricted to one third of the region, two thirds being without groundwater or with groundwater of high salinity. Soils are erosion prone once the forest has been cleared. In the central and northern Paraguay Chaco, occasional dust storms have caused major top soil loss; the Chaco was occupied by nomadic peoples, notably the various groups making up the Guaycuru who resisted Spanish control with success, of the Chaco from the 16th until the early 20th century. Prior to national independence of the nations that compose the Chaco, the entire area was a separate colonial region named by the Spaniards as Chiquitos.
The Gran Chaco had been a disputed territory since 1810. It was supposed to be part of Argentina and Paraguay, although a bigger land portion west of the Paraguay River had belonged to Paraguay since its independence. Argentina claimed territories south of the Bermejo River until Paraguay's defeat in the War of the Triple Alliance in 1870 established its current border with Argentina. Over the next few decades, Bolivia began to push the natives out and settle in the Gran Chaco, while Paraguay ignored it. Bolivia sought the Paraguay River for shipping oil out into the sea, Paraguay claimed ownership of the land; this became the backdrop to The Gran Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia over supposed oil in the Chaco Boreal. Argentine Foreign Minister Carlos Saavedra Lamas mediated a cease fire and subsequent treaty signed in 1938, which gave Paraguay three quarters of the Chaco Boreal and gave Bolivia a corridor to the Paraguay River with the ability to use the Puerto Casado and the right to construct their own port.
In the end, no oil was found in the region. Mennonites immigrated into the Paraguayan part of the region from Canada in the 1920s; these immigrants created some of the largest and most prosperous municipalities in the deep Gran Chaco. The region is home to over nine million people, divided about evenly among Argentina, Bolivia and including around 100,000 in Paraguay; the area remains underdeveloped, In the 1960s, the Paraguayan authorities constructed the Trans-Chaco Highway and the Argentine National Highway Directorate, National Routes 16 and 81, in an effort to encourage
Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third-largest by area, located in the western part of the country. Neighboring states are Rondônia, Pará, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul; the nation of Bolivia is located to the southwest. A state with a flat landscape, alternating great chapadas and plain areas, Mato Grosso has three different ecosystems: Cerrado and the Amazon Rainforest; the vegetation of the open pasture covers 40% of the state. The Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, with caves, grottoes and waterfalls, is one of its tourist attractions. In the north is the Amazonian forest, with a biodiversity covering half of the state. Much of this has been disrupted and cleared for logging, agricultural purposes, pastures; the Xingu National Park and the Araguaia River are in Mato Grosso. Further south, the Pantanal, the world's largest wetland, is the habitat for nearly one thousand species of animals, many aquatic birds. Located in the Mato Grosso is the Chapada dos Guimarães, a unique environment of sandstone mountains that have eroded into amazingly varied terrain.
The terrain of the Mato Grosso is varied and includes cliffs and waterfalls. The biologically rich Pantanal, one of the world's largest wetland/prairie ecosystems, is located within this state. Much environmental degradation has occurred to the Pantanal since the late 20th century because of development, efforts to contain or slow it have had limited success; the Pantanal has a habitat similar to that of the Everglades in Florida in the United States, although the Pantanal is on a much larger scale. See also: History of Mato GrossoIn 1977, the state was split into two halves, with Mato Grosso do Sul being organized as a new state; the Bororo Indians live in the Mato Grosso area. As late as 1880, soldiers patrolled lands on the outskirts of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso's capital and largest city, to protect settlers from Bororo raids. By the end of the 19th century, although reduced by disease and by warfare with explorers, slave traders, prospectors and other indigenous groups, as many as five to ten thousand Bororo continued to occupy central and eastern Mato Grosso, as well as western Goiás.
The southwestern part of this state was ceded by Brazil to Bolivia in exchange for Acre, according to the Treaty of Petrópolis in 1903. This remote area attracted expeditions of exploration in the early 20th century that sought to find lost civilizations. A notable example were efforts by British Captain Percy Fawcett. In addition, theorists of Hollow Earth speculated that this region had sites of access to the interior of the earth and its settlements. Mato Grosso had a high rate of population growth in the 20th century due to timber and agricultural development; the state as a whole still has one of the lowest population densities of any Brazilian state. According to the IBGE of 2018, 3,441,998 people resided in the state; the population density was 3.8 inh./km². Urbanization: 76.6%. Ethnically, the state includes a high proportion of caboclos, as do other areas of interior Brazil; the last PNAD census revealed the following numbers: 1,532,000 Brown people. Agriculture is the largest component of GDP at 40.8%, followed by the service sector at 40.2%.
The industrial sector represents 19% of GDP. Mato Grosso exports: soybeans 83%, wood 5.6%, meats 4.8%, cotton 3.3%. The state's share of the Brazilian economy is 1.8%. Vehicles: 1,614,797. Portuguese is the official national language, as well as the primary language taught in schools; however and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. More than 58 universities are located in state of Mato Grosso. Cuiabá is home to the following universities: Federal University of Mato Grosso; the local culture is rich, due to the influences of and encounters with various cultures, such as indigenous peoples, colonial Spanish and other European settlers, Africans enslaved and transported there in the Atlantic slave trade by the Portuguese, other Europeans. Two long periods of isolation contributed to its developing along different lines than coastal areas of Brazil. Recent immigration has brought many urban influences to the state. Cuiabá has a rich cuisine influenced by natives, they have maintained traditional dances and music.
Dance and music were traditionally connected to the worship of Catholic saints and their festivals, Saint Benedict, being one of the favorite. The four-day period before Lent leading up to Ash Wednesday, known as Carnival is well celebrated; as with every state in Brazil, Mato Grosso celebrates this holiday in a typical fashion - including parades and dance - with wide participation. Fishing in the Teles Pires, São Benedito and Azul rivers is productive all year long. Bird watching: with the more than 570 species of catalogued birds and new species being discovered every year, the region of Alta Floresta and Azul River Basin receives constant visits from famous ornithologists and bird watchers; the largest sandstone cavern in Brazil, Aroe Jari, extends nearly 1,550 meters and several pr
Corrientes is the capital city of the province of Corrientes, located on the eastern shore of the Paraná River, about 1,000 km from Buenos Aires and 300 km from Posadas, on National Route 12. It has a population of 346,334 according to the 2010 Census, it lies opposite its twin city, Chaco. It has a mix of colonial and modern architecture, several churches and a number of lapacho, ceibo and orange trees, it is home to one of the biggest carnival celebrations in the country. The annual average temperature is 20 °C, with maximum and minimum averages of 45 and 5 °C respectively; the annual rainfall is around 1,200 millimetres. The General Belgrano Bridge crosses the Paraná River that serves as the natural border with the neighbouring Chaco Province. On the other side of the bridge is Resistencia, capital of Chaco. To the west and up the Paraná, between Paraguay and Argentina, lies the Yaciretá dam, one of the largest hydroelectric power generators in the world; the Doctor Fernando Piragine Niveyro International Airport at coordinates 27°26′20″S 58°46′03″W, 5 km away from the city, serves the city.
The Ferrocarril Económico Correntino narrow gauge railway line to Mburucuyá operated from 1912 until 1927. In 1516 Juan Díaz de Solís commanded the first expedition to reach the area populated by Guaraní aboriginals, but his expedition was attacked and Solís perished in the adventure. Sebastian Cabot established in 1527 the Sancti Spiritu fort upstream of the Paraná River, in 1536 Pedro de Mendoza reached further north into the basin of the river, searching for the Sierras of Silver. Juan Torres de Vera y Aragón founded on April 3, 1588 San Juan de Vera de las Siete Corrientes, shortened to Corrientes; the "seven currents" refer to the seven peninsulas on the shore of the river at this place, that produced wild currents that made difficult the navigation of the river through this part. Its position between Asunción - in present Paraguay - and Buenos Aires made it an important middle point because of its 55-metre-high lands that prevent flooding when the water level rises. In 1615 Jesuits settled near the Uruguay River.
In 1807 the city resisted the British invasions. During the Argentine War of Independence it was in permanent conflict with the centralist government of Buenos Aires, but the Paraguayan War united them after the city was attacked by Paraguayan forces in 1865; the annual average temperature is 21 °C, with maximum and minimum averages of 45 and 5 °C respectively. The annual rainfall is around 1,200 millimetres; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa". Frosts are rare; the highest temperature recorded was 42.4 °C on November 15, 1985 while the lowest temperature recorded was −2.8 °C on June 15, 1979. National University of the Northeast University of Cuenca del Plata The Graham Greene spy novel The Honorary Consul"' takes place in Corrientes. Municipality of Corrientes – official website MCC Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Sights Map
The Paraná River is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil and Argentina for some 4,880 kilometres. It is second in length only to the Amazon River among South American rivers; the name Paraná is an abbreviation of the phrase "para rehe onáva", which comes from the Tupi language and means "like the sea". It merges first with the Paraguay River and farther downstream with the Uruguay River to form the Río de la Plata and empties into the Atlantic Ocean; the first European to go up the Paraná River was the Venetian explorer Sebastian Cabot, in 1526, while working for Spain. The course is formed at the confluence of the Rio Grande rivers in southern Brazil. From the confluence the river flows in a southwestern direction for about 619 km before encountering the city of Saltos del Guaira, Paraguay; this was once the location of the Guaíra Falls (Sete Quedas waterfalls, where the Paraná fell over a series of seven cascades. This natural feature was said to rival the world-famous Iguazu Falls to the south.
The falls were flooded, however, by the construction of the Itaipu Dam, which began operating in 1984. For the next 200 km the Paraná flows southward and forms a natural boundary between Paraguay and Brazil until the confluence with the Iguazu River. Shortly upstream from this confluence, the river is dammed by the Itaipu Dam, the second largest hydroelectric power plant in the world, creating a massive, shallow reservoir behind it. After merging with the Iguazu, the Paraná becomes the natural border between Paraguay and Argentina. Overlooking the Paraná River from Encarnación, across the river, is downtown Posadas, Argentina; the river continues its general southward course for about 468 km before making a gradual turn to the west for another 820 km, encounters the Paraguay River, the largest tributary along the course of the river. Before this confluence the river passes through a second major hydroelectric project, the Yaciretá Dam, a joint project between Paraguay and Argentina; the massive reservoir formed by the project has been the source of a number of problems for people living along the river, most notably the poorer merchants and residents in the low-lying areas of Encarnación, a major city on the southern border of Paraguay.
River levels rose upon completion of the dam, flooding out large sections of the city's lower areas. From the confluence with the Paraguay River, the Paraná again turns to the south for another 820 km through Argentina, making a slow turn back to the east near the city of Rosario for the final stretch of less than 500 km before merging with the Uruguay River to form the Río de la Plata; this flows into the Atlantic Ocean. During the part of its course downstream from the city of Diamante, Entre Ríos, it splits into several arms and it forms the Paraná Delta. Together with its tributaries, the Rio Paraná forms a massive drainage basin that encompasses much of the southcentral part of South America including all of Paraguay, much of southern Brazil, northern Argentina, the southeastern part of Bolivia. If the Uruguay River is counted as a tributary to the Paraná, this watershed extends to cover most of Uruguay as well; the volume of water flowing into the Atlantic Ocean through the Río de la Plata equals the volume at the Mississippi River delta.
This watershed contains a number of large cities, including São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Asunción, Brasília, La Plata. The Paraná and its tributaries provide a source of income and of daily sustenance for fishermen who live along its banks; some of the species of fish are commercially important, they are exploited for heavy internal consumption or for export. The Parana River delta ranks as one of the world's greatest bird-watching destinations. Much of the length of the Paraná is navigable, the river serves as an important waterway linking inland cities in Argentina and Paraguay with the ocean, providing deepwater ports in some of these cities; the construction of enormous hydroelectric dams along the river's length has blocked its use as a shipping corridor to cities further upstream, but the economic impact of those dams offsets this. The Yacyretá Dam and the Itaipu Dam on the Paraguay border have made the small undeveloped nation of Paraguay the world's largest exporter of hydroelectric power.
Due to its use for oceangoing ships, measurements of the water tables extend back to 1904. The data correlates with the solar cycle; the course of the Paraná is crossed by the following bridges, beginning upstream: Tributaries of the Río de la Plata Paraná River steamers Information and a map of the Paraná's watershed "Paraná". New International Encyclopedia. 1905