Park Geun-hye is a former South Korean politician who served as President of South Korea from 2013 to 2017. Park was the first woman to be President of South Korea and the first female president popularly elected as head of state in East Asia, she was the first South Korean president to be born after the founding of First Republic of South Korea. Before her presidency, Park was chairwoman of the conservative Grand National Party from 2004 to 2006 and 2011 to 2012, she was a member of the National Assembly, serving four consecutive parliamentary terms between 1998 and 2012. She started her fifth term as a representative elected via national list in June 2012, her father, Park Chung-hee, was the President of South Korea from 1963 to 1979, serving five consecutive terms after he seized power in 1961. In 2013 and 2014, Park ranked 11th on the Forbes list of the world's 100 most powerful women and the most powerful woman in East Asia. In 2014, she ranked 46th on the Forbes list of the world's most powerful people, the third-highest South Korean on the list, after Lee Kun-hee and Lee Jae-yong.
On 9 December 2016, the National Assembly impeached Park on charges related to influence peddling by her top aide, Choi Soon-sil. Then-Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn assumed her duties as Acting President as a result; the Constitutional Court upheld the impeachment by a unanimous 8–0 ruling on 10 March 2017, thereby removing Park from office. On 6 April 2018, South Korean courts sentenced Park to 24 years in prison, increased to 25 years. Park is imprisoned at Seoul Detention Center. In 2018, two separate criminal cases resulted in an increase of seven years in prison for Park. Park was found guilty of illegally taking off-the-book funds from the National Intelligence Service; this resulted in a five year prison sentence. In another case Park was found guilty of illegally interfering in the Saenuri Party primaries in the 2016 South Korean legislative election, she was sentenced to two more years in prison. Park was born on 2 February 1952, in Samdeok-dong of Jung District, Daegu, as the first child of Park Chung-hee, the unelected 3rd president of South Korea, who having come to power with the May 16 military coup d'état of 1961, served from 1963 until his assassination in 1979, Yuk Young-soo.
Both of her parents were assassinated. She has a younger brother, Park Ji-man, a younger sister, Park Geun-ryeong, she is unmarried with no children. Pew Research Center described her as an atheist with a Roman Catholic upbringing. In addition to her native Korean, Park speaks English, French and Mandarin with varying degrees of fluency. In 1953, Park's family moved to Seoul and she graduated from Seoul's Jangchung Elementary School and Sungshim Girls' Middle and High School in 1970, going on to receive a bachelor's degree in electronic engineering from Sogang University in 1974, she studied at Joseph Fourier University, but left France following the murder of her mother. Park's mother was killed on 15 August 1974 in the National Theater of Korea. Park was regarded as First Lady until the assassination of her father by his own intelligence chief, Kim Jae-gyu, on 26 October 1979. During this time, activists who were political opponents of her father claimed to be subject to arbitrary detention. Further, human rights were considered subordinate to economic development.
In 2007, Park expressed regret at the treatment of activists during this period. Park received honorary doctoral degrees from the Chinese Culture University in Taiwan in 1987, Pukyong National University and KAIST in 2008, Sogang University in 2010, TU Dresden in 2014. Park was elected a Grand National Party assemblywoman for Dalseong County, Daegu, in 1998 by-election, three more times in the same electoral district between 1998 and 2008, being the incumbent assemblywoman till April 2012. In 2012, she announced that she would not run for a constituency representative seat for the 19th election in Dalseong or anywhere else, but for a proportional representative position for the Saenuri Party instead, in order to lead the party's election campaign, she was elected as a proportional representative in the April 2012 election. Due to the failed attempt to impeach President Roh Moo-hyun and the bribery scandal of its 2002 presidential candidate, Lee Hoi-chang, the GNP was facing a severe defeat in the 2004 general election.
Park was led the election efforts. In the election, the GNP lost its majority position but managed to gain 121 seats, considered a great achievement under such inhospitable circumstances for the party; as the chairwoman of the GNP, Park helped her party make significant gains in local elections and obtain a majority in 2006. During the campaign, on 20 May 2006, Ji Chung-ho, a 50-year-old man with eight criminal convictions, slashed Park's face with a utility knife, causing an 11-centimeter wound that required 60 stitches and several hours of surgery. A famous anecdote from this incident occurred; the first word that she said to her secretary after her recovery from her wound was "How is Daejeon?" After this, the candidate from the Grand National Party won the election for mayor of the city of
Francis-André Wollman is a French biologist born on May 5, 1953. He is a research director at the CNRS and works at the Institut de biologie physico-chimique in Paris, he is a member of the French Academy of sciences. His grandparents, Eugène and Elisabeth Wollman, researchers at the Pasteur Institute, were the pioneers of discoveries on phage and lysogeny, their work was brutally interrupted in December 1943 following their arrest by the French police and their murder in Auschwitz. His father Elijah Wollman a researcher at the Pasteur Institute, of which he was deputy director for many years, was one of the pioneers of bacterial genetics and brought to light the genetic nature of prophecy and the sexuality of bacteria; this last work was done in collaboration with François Jacob, awarded the Nobel Prize in 1965. After studying physico-chemistry at university, he received a scholarship from the Délégation Générale à la Recherche Scientifique et Technique in 1975 to study biological membranes.
In 1977 he completed his PhD at the University of Paris VII, followed in 1982 by a State Thesis at the same University. He spent his entire career at the CNRS, where he was appointed Director of Exceptional Class Research in 2005 after having joined in 1980 as a research associate, he does all his scientific research at the IBPC in Paris, a research establishment founded in 1927 where he joined Pierre Joliot's laboratory in 1975. From 1998 to 2018, he will head this laboratory, which has become a joint CNRS-Université-Pierre et Marie Curie research unit, under the title "Physiologie Membranaire et Moléculaire du Chloroplaste". At the same time, in 2007, he was appointed Director of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Biology, a position he held until 2018. In 2012, he became Director of the "Labex DYNAMO" Laboratory of Excellence, which brings together biologists and chemists working at the IBPC at the Collège de France and the Ecole Normale Supérieure on different aspects of biogenesis, the function and evolution of energy-transmitting membranes.
Committed to the defence of public research, whose cultural and economic dimensions seem essential to the country's influence, he presided over the Plant Biology section of the National Committee for Scientific Research from 2000 to 2004 sat on the High Council for Research and Technology from 2005 to 2014 and on the CNRS Scientific Council from 2014 to 2018. In 2004, he participated in the "Save Research" movement and became a member of the board of the Initiative and Proposal Committee, led by Etienne-Emile Baulieu and Edouard Brezin, which organizes the Etats Généraux de la Recherche in Grenoble. Francis-André Wollman's scientific work has been devoted to the biogenesis and evolution of oxygen photosynthesis. Using the power of the genetic approach in a microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhartdii, he combined biophysical and structural biology approaches to establish an exhaustive mapping of the composition of photosynthesis proteins and their supramolecular organization within photosynthetic membranes.
He showed how dynamic this organization is in allowing photosynthesis to react to changes in the environment. His work on the biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus has led him to identify post-endosymbiotic innovations that are decisive for the genetic integration of nucleo-cytosolic and chloroplastic compartments, his work shows how the nucleus of the photosynthetic cell has taken control of the expression of chloroplast genes. He discovered, in the chloroplast, an original mechanism of self-regulation of translation for certain photosynthesis proteins that are only produced if they can be assembled in a functional protein complex, he revisited the early days of endosymbiosis by showing how protein addressing signals to intracellular organelles would derive from antimicrobial peptides against which the ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts developed resistance. 1984: Prize of the French Academy of sciences in homage to the French scientists murdered by the Germans 1996: Fuller's Prize of the French Academy of sciences 2000: CNRS Silver medal 2018: Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur 1999-2003: President of the French Society of Photosynthesis 2004-2010: Member of the Board of Directors of the International Society of Photosynthesis 2000: Member of EMBO 2017: Elected member of Academia Europaea 2017: Elected member of the French Academy of sciences Institutional activities 2000-2004: President of the Plant Biology Section of the National Committee for Scientific Research 2005-2014: Member of the Higher Council for Research and Technology, placed under the Ministry of Higher Education and Research.
2006-2014: Member of the Scientific Council of Life Sciences at the CNRS 2007-2010: Member of the Scientific Council of the Ile de France region. 2007-2012: Member of the Board of Directors of Henri Poincaré University, France. 2007-2018: Member of the Assembly of 100 of the Institut Pasteur. 2014: Member of the Executive Committee of the University of Paris Sciences et Lettres 2014-2018: Member of the CNRS Scientific Council 2019: Member of the Board of Directors of the Edmond de Rothschild Foundation Associate editor with Photosynthesis Research Publisher associated with Current Genetics Consultant editor at The Plant Cell
Stanley Albert Landes was a professional baseball umpire who worked in the National League from 1955 to 1972. Landes umpired 2,872 major league games in his 18-year career, he umpired in one League Championship Series and three All-Star Games. After serving in the United States Marine Corps from 1942 to 1945, Landes pitched in minor league baseball in 1946 and 1947. Landes umpired for several seasons in the North Atlantic League, Middle Atlantic League, South Atlantic League and the American Association, he debuted in the National League on April 13, 1955. Landes was terminated by National League President Chub Feeney in November 1972. Several months Landes said that he still had not received a specific explanation for his firing; the day that his termination letter was written, Stan had been outspoken about the mistreatment of umpires at a professional organization meeting. He speculated that his personal problems may have been contributing factors. Landes had weight problems, went through three divorces and passed bad checks owing to a lack of communication from his second wife.