Harold L. Ickes
Harold LeClair Ickes was an American administrator and politician. He served as United States Secretary of the Interior for 13 years, from 1933 to 1946, the longest tenure of anyone to hold the office, the second longest-serving Cabinet member in U. S. history after James Wilson. Ickes and Labor Secretary Frances Perkins were the only original members of the Roosevelt cabinet who remained in office for his entire presidency. Ickes was responsible for implementing much of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "New Deal", he was in charge of the major relief program, the Public Works Administration, in charge of the federal government's environmental efforts. In his day, he was considered a prominent liberal spokesman, a skillful orator and a noted supporter of many African-American causes, although he was at times politically expedient where state-level segregation was concerned. Before his national-level political career, where he did remove segregation in areas of his direct control, he had been the president of the Chicago NAACP.
Robert C. Weaver, who in 1966 became the first African-American person to hold a cabinet position in the U. S. was in Ickes' group of advisers on race relations. Ickes was the father of Harold M. Ickes, White House Deputy Chief of Staff for President Bill Clinton. Of Scottish and German ancestry, Ickes was born in Hollidaysburg, the son of Matilda and Jesse Boone Williams Ickes, he moved to Chicago at the age of 16 upon his mother's death and attended Englewood High School there. He was the class president while at Englewood. After graduating, he worked his way through the University of Chicago, finishing with a B. A. in 1897. At Chicago, Ickes was a charter member re-establishing the Illinois Beta Chapter of Phi Delta Theta, he first worked as a newspaper reporter for The Chicago Record and for the Chicago Tribune. He obtained a law degree from the University of Chicago Law School in 1907 but practiced. Instead, he became active in reform politics. A Republican in Chicago, Ickes was never part of the establishment.
He was unsatisfied with Republican policies and joined Theodore Roosevelt's Bull Moose movement in 1912. After returning to the Republican fold, he campaigned for progressive Republicans Charles Evans Hughes and Hiram Johnson, he fought lengthy and legendary battles first with Chicago figures Samuel Insull, the utilities magnate, William Hale Thompson, the mayor, Robert R. McCormick, the owner of The Chicago Tribune, he had an ongoing battle with Thomas E. Dewey, the presidential candidate. Although locally active in Chicago politics, he was unknown nationally until 1933; as part of this involvement, Ickes was involved in Chicago's political affairs. After Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president in 1932, he began putting together his cabinet, his advisers thought the Democratic president needed a progressive Republican to attract middle-of-the-road voters. He sought out Hiram Johnson, a Republican Senator at the time who had supported Roosevelt in the campaign, but Johnson was uninterested.
Johnson, recommended an old ally, Ickes. Ickes served in several major roles for Roosevelt. Although he was the Secretary of the Interior, he was better known to the public for his simultaneous work as the director of the Public Works Administration, where he directed billions of dollars of projects designed to lure private investment and provide employment during the depths of the Great Depression, his management of the PWA budget and his opposition to corruption earned him the name "Honest Harold." He presented projects to Roosevelt for the President's personal approval. Ickes' support of PWA power plants put increased financial pressure on private power companies during the Great Depression, which had both positive and negative effects, he tried to enforce the Raker Act against the city of San Francisco, an act of Congress that specified that because the dam at Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park was on public land, no private profit could be derived from the development. The city continues selling the power to PG&E, resold at a profit.
In July 1938, Ickes wrote a letter to President Roosevelt, imploring him not to turn Palmyra Atoll over to the US Navy for use as a military base. Quoting his letter, he writes... the Navy Department has plans for the acquisition and development of the island as an air base. Our representatives have studied conditions at Palmyra and other islands in the south Pacific, they report that use of this small land area as an air base for Navy Department purposes would undoubtedly destroy much if not all that makes the island one of our most scientifically and scenically unique possessions; the letter was unsuccessful, plans for the base proceeded, but he was by all accounts the first official to propose Palmyra Atoll become a national monument. Today the atoll is part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument, despite suffering the kind of devastation Ickes predicted, it has recovered and is used for scientific study, having still retained what Ickes described in his letter as "geologic and biologic exhibits... of great beauty and scientific importance".
He was instrumental in establishing the Kings Canyon National Park, commissioning Ansel Adams as a'photographic muralist' in a visionary public relations project that Ickes had himself conceived to document and communicate, on a visceral level, the outstanding beauty of the parks for the capitol public to see, indirectly but persuading the Congress to support the bill to President Roosevelt in 1940. Afte
San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California, is located within the Greater Los Angeles area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the 12th-most populous in the United States; the county seat is San Bernardino. While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaska's boroughs and census areas are larger; the county is close to the size of West Virginia. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, larger than 70 sovereign nations; this vast county stretches from where the bulk of the county population resides (in two Census County Divisions, holding 1,422,745 people as of the 2010 Census, covering the 450 square miles, across the thinly populated deserts and mountains.
It spans an area from south of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Valley, to the Nevada border and the Colorado River. Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, after the feast day of St. Bernardino of Siena; the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, a mission farm in what is now Redlands. Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, settled by immigrants from New Mexico on land donated from the Rancho Jurupa in 1841.
Following the purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851 by Mormon colonists, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County. Some of the southern parts of the county's territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 20,105 square miles, of which 20,057 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water, it is the largest county by the largest in the United States. It is larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined, it borders both Arizona. The bulk of the population two million, live in the 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering 280 square miles in Victor Valley, adjacent to Los Angeles County. Another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the eastern desert between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. Trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley; this national park within Inyo County has a small portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the incorporated localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley and Victorville. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near the High Desert area, in the vicinity of Twentynine Palms; the remaining towns make up the remainder of the High Desert: Pioneertown, Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, Big Bear Lake.
The San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley. The San Bernardino Valley includes the cities of Ontario, Chino Hills, Fontana, Colton, Grand Terrace, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Loma Linda, Highland and Yucaipa. Angeles National Forest Death Valley National Park Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Joshua Tree National Park Mojave National Preserve San Bernardino National Forest There are at least 35 official wilderness areas in the county that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the largest number of any county in the United States. The majority are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral components of the above listed national protected areas. Most of these wilderness areas lie within the county, but a few are shared with neighboring counties. Except as noted, these wilderness areas are managed by the Bureau of Land Management and lie within San Bernardino County: The 2010 United States Census reported that San Bernardino County had a population of 2,035,210.
The racial makeup of San Bernardino County was 1,153,16
Central Arizona Project
The Central Arizona Project is a 336 mi diversion canal in Arizona in the United States. The aqueduct diverts water from the Colorado River from the Bill Williams Wildlife Refuge south portion of Lake Havasu near Parker into central and southern Arizona; the CAP is the second largest and expansive aqueduct system constructed in the United States. CAP is operated by the Central Arizona Water Conservation District, it was shepherded through Congress by Carl Hayden. The C. A. P delivers Colorado River water, either directly or by exchange, into Southern Arizona; the project was envisioned to provide water to nearly one million acres of irrigated agricultural land areas in Maricopa and Pima counties, as well as municipal water for several Arizona communities, including the metropolitan areas of Phoenix and Tucson. Authorization was included for development of facilities to deliver water to Catron and Grant counties in New Mexico, but these facilities have not been constructed because of cost considerations, a lack of demand for the water, lack of repayment capability by the users, environmental constraints.
In addition to its water supply benefits, the project provides substantial benefits from flood control, outdoor recreation and wildlife conservation, sediment control. The project was subdivided, for administration and construction purposes, into the Granite Reef, Salt-Gila, Gila River, Indian Distribution, Colorado River divisions. During project construction, the Orme Division was re-formulated and renamed the Regulatory Storage Division. Upon completion, the Granite Reef Division was renamed the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, the Salt-Gila Division was renamed the Fannin-McFarland Aqueduct; the CAP was created by the Colorado River Basin Project Act of 1968, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 30, 1968. Senator Ernest McFarland, along with Senator Carl Hayden, lobbied for the Central Arizona Project aimed at providing Arizona's share of the Colorado River to the state. McFarland's efforts failed as senator. According to the Arizona Republic, Senator Goldwater, Senator Hayden, the Udalls Representative Morris Udall and Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall and other Arizona leaders teamed up on the successful passage of what was McFarland's visionary and intended legislation that became the CAP, "probably the state's most celebrated bipartisan achievement of the 20th century."
This act provided for the Secretary of the Interior to enter into an agreement with non-federal interests, whereby the federal government acquired the right to 24.3 percent of the power produced at the non-federal Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Project. The agreement includes the delivery of power and energy over the transmission facilities to delivery points within the Central Arizona Project service area. Construction of the project began in 1973 with the award of a contract for the Havasu Intake Channel Dike and excavation for the Havasu Pumping Plant on the shores of Lake Havasu. Construction of the other project features, such as the New Waddell Dam, followed; the backbone aqueduct system, which runs about 336 miles from Lake Havasu to a terminus 14 mi southwest of Tucson, was declared complete in 1993. The new and modified dams constructed as part of the project were declared complete in 1994. All of the non-Native American agricultural water distribution systems were completed in the late 1980s, as were most of the municipal water delivery systems.
Several Native American distribution systems remain to be built. The final extension to Tucson required a borehole through the mountains; the CAP funded the Brock Reservoir project with $28.6 million. In return for its contribution, Arizona has been awarded 100,000 acre feet of water per year since 2016; the CAP project brought river water to Tucson but the initial implementation was a "debacle." The river water had a different mineral mixture and flow pattern from the aquifer water, stirring up and dislodging rust in city water mains and house pipes. By the end of 1993, the city of Tucson paid about $145,000 to install filters in 925 homes, lost about $200,000 in revenues by adjusting water bills, paid about $450,000 in damages claimed by homeowners for ruined pipes, water heaters, other appliances; the city returned some houses to ground water. Zinc orthophosphate was added to coat the pipes and prevent the rust from dislodging, but the return to groundwater removed the zinc orthophosphate; the solution was an EPA-funded'blended' water system, including automatically monitoring water quality throughout the city, a website to report the water quality to the public without intervention by the City Water Department.
Aqueduct List of canals in the United States August, Jr. Jack L. "Water and the Arizona Dream: Carl Hayden and the Modern Origins of the Central Arizona Project, 1922-1963," Journal of Arizona History 40#4 pp 391–414 August, Jr. Jack L. Vision in the Desert: Carl Hayden and Hydropolitics in the American Southwest CAP: Central Arizona Project Overview map Alternate photo of the canal Roy Elson Oral History Interviews
La Paz County, Arizona
La Paz County is a county in the western part of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 20,489, making it the second-least populous county in Arizona; the county seat is Parker. The name of the county is the Spanish word for "the peace", is taken from the early settlement of La Paz along the Colorado River. La Paz County was established in 1983 after voters approved separating the northern portion of Yuma County, making it the only county to be established after Arizona became a state in 1912, the second youngest county in the United States; the county did not have a large enough tax base to begin supporting a separate county government and had to rely on state money at first. As a result, Arizona laws were changed to make splitting other existing counties much more difficult. Under the revised Arizona laws, a county shall not be formed or divided by county initiative unless each proposed county would have all of the following characteristics: at least three-fourths of one percent of the total state assessed valuation and at least the statewide per capita assessed valuation.
A county formation commission is required to be formed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed county. A proposal to divide a county must be approved by a majority of the votes cast in each proposed new county; the Colorado River Indian Reservation is located in the western portion of the county. Part of the reservation extends westward into San Riverside counties in California. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,514 sq mi, of which 4500 sq mi is land and 14 sq mi is water; the area that now makes up La Paz County was part of Yuma County. La Paz County hosts a variety of fauna; the endangered California Fan Palm, Washingtonia filifera grows in a few spots in the county. Mohave County - north Yavapai County - northeast Maricopa County - east Yuma County - south Imperial County, California - southwest Riverside County, California - west San Bernardino County, California - northwest Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge Cibola National Wildlife Refuge Imperial National Wildlife Refuge Kofa National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 census, there were 19,715 people, 8,362 households, 5,619 families residing in the county.
The population density was 4.4 people per square mile. There were 15,133 housing units at an average density of 3.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the county was 74.15% white, 0.79% black or African American, 12.53% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 9.35% from other races, 2.68% from two or more races. 22.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.90% reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 8,362 households, with 21.20% having children under the age of 18, 54.20% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.80% were non-families. 26.60% of households were made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.79. The county population had 21.10% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 20.40% from 25 to 44, 26.60% from 45 to 64, 25.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 105.50 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,839, the median income for a family was $29,141. Males had a median income of $26,642 versus $20,965 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,916. About 13.60% of families and 19.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.50% of those under age 18 and 12.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 20,489 people, 9,198 households, 5,584 families residing in the county; the population density was 4.5//sq mi. There were 16,049 housing units at an average density of 3.56/sq mi. The racial makeup of the county was 69.8% white, 12.8% American Indian, 0.6% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 12.5% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 23.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.4% were German, 15.9% were Irish, 15.3% were English, 2.1% were American. Of the 9,198 households, 19.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.3% were non-families, 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.72. The median age was 53.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,147 and the median income for a family was $37,721. Males had a median income of $35,464 versus $27,484 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,165. About 14.3% of families and 20.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.4% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over. La Paz County is within Arizona's 4th congressional district represented by Republican Paul Gosar. Interstate 10 U. S. Route 95 U. S. Route 60 State Route 72 State Route 95 Avi Suquil
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California is a regional wholesaler and the largest supplier of treated water in the United States. The name is shortened to "Met," "Metropolitan," or "MWD." It is a cooperative, of fourteen cities, eleven municipal water districts and one county water authority, that provides water to 19 million people in a 5,200-square-mile service area. It was created by an act of the California Legislature in 1928 to build and operate the Colorado River Aqueduct. Metropolitan became the first contractor to the State Water Project in 1960. Metropolitan owns and operates an extensive range of capital facilities including the Colorado River Aqueduct which runs from an intake at Lake Havasu on the California-Arizona border, to an endpoint at Metropolitan's Lake Mathews reservoir in Riverside County, it imports water supplies from northern California via the 444-mile California Aqueduct as a contractor to the State Water Project. Metropolitan operates sixteen hydroelectric facilities, nine reservoirs, 830 miles of large-scale pipes, five water treatment plants.
Four of these treatment plants are among the ten largest plants in the US. It serves parts of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino and Ventura counties; the district covers the coastal and most populated portions of Southern California. The Metropolitan headquarters is located at 700 North Alameda Street in downtown Los Angeles, adjacent to historic Union Station; the Metropolitan story dates back to the early 20th century, as Southern California cities were faced with a growing population and shrinking local groundwater supplies. The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California was established in 1928 under an act of the California Legislature to build and operate the 242-mile Colorado River Aqueduct that would bring water to southern coastal areas. Southland residents voted for a major bond in the depths of the Great Depression to fund the construction effort through the desert to deliver essential water supplies and generate badly needed jobs; the post-World War II boom and 1950s dry spells prompted a huge expansion of the Metropolitan service area as new cities began seeking additional reliable water supplies.
In 1960, along with 30 other public agencies, signed a long-term contract that made possible the construction of the State Water Project, including reservoirs, pumping plants and the 444-mile California Aqueduct, which serves urban and agricultural agencies from the San Francisco Bay to Southern California. As the largest of the now 29 agencies, Metropolitan contracts with the state Department of Water Resources, which owns and operates the State Water Project, for less than half of all supplies delivered to Metropolitan. Metropolitan is governed by a board of 38 directors whose powers and functions are specified in the 1927 authorization act; this board was in charge of issuing bonds and financing their repayment by selling water to member agencies. In the early years, revenue from water sales was too low, so Metropolitan collected taxes that ranged from 0.25 to 0.50 percent of assessed value. Ninety percent of the cost of the aqueduct has been paid for by the taxpayers. In 1929 the district was set up with an area of 600 square miles and served a population of around 1,600,000 in 13 cities.
During the aqueduct's first five years of service from 1941 to 1946 it delivered an average of about 27,000 acre feet of water, using less than 2% of its capacity. Only one pump at each lift, operating from one to six months out of the year, was needed to meet all the demands made on the system. At this time, due to availability of ground water, less than 10% of the Colorado River Aqueduct's capacity was used, only 178,000 acre feet of water; the San Diego County Water Authority joined Metropolitan as its first wholesale member agency in 1946. SDCWA was formed in 1944 to facilitate joining Metropolitan, received its first deliveries in 1947 and was buying half of Metropolitan's water by 1949; the SDCWA annexation broke two traditions at Metropolitan: Member agencies had been cities in the south coast basin. The next "break" came in 1950. Since Pomona was a agricultural member agency at the time, Metropolitan was no longer selling water only for "domestic use". In 1952, Metropolitan began a 200 million dollar program to bring the Colorado River Aqueduct to its full capacity of 1,212,000 acre feet annually.
The Colorado River Aqueduct added six pumps to the original three at each of its five pumping stations. CRA pumping expanded from about 16,500 acre feet of water in 1950 to about 1,029,000 acre feet by 1960. On August 9, 1962, the Metropolitan set an all-time delivery record of 1,316,000,000 gallons of water in just a 24-hour period. Metropolitan's additional supplies and easier rules of entry facilitated an expansion through annexation of large areas of low populations: The eight MWDs that joined from 1946 to 1955 added 200 percent to Metropolitan's service area but only 75 percent to Metropolitan's population served. By 1965, Metropolitan had 13 municipal water districts as members, it covered more than 4,500 square miles in the counties of Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego and San Bernardino—and served some 10,000,000 people. As of 2008