Alexander Hore-Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie
Brigadier General Alexander Gore Arkwright Hore-Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie & Bar, PC was a British Army officer who served as the tenth Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1936 to 1945. He was Governor of South Australia and Governor of New South Wales. Gowrie was born in Windsor, England, into a minor aristocratic family, he joined a voluntary Yeomanry unit at the age of 17, enlisted in the regular army at the age of 19. Gowrie fought in the Sudan during the Mahdist Revolt, was awarded the Victoria Cross for saving a wounded Egyptian soldier, he served in the Somaliland Campaign and as an aide-de-camp to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. During World War I, Gowrie commanded units in the Gallipoli Campaign and on the Western Front, winning several further honours, he finished his military career with the rank of brigadier-general. In 1928, Gowrie was appointed Governor of South Australia, his handling of political instability during the Great Depression was regarded, when his term expired he was instead appointed Governor of New South Wales.
However, Gowrie's second governorship lasted little more than a year, as Joseph Lyons recommended him to become Governor-General. As well as the stresses of World War II, he faced several constitutional challenges, including Lyons' death in office and the defeat of Arthur Fadden's government on a confidence motion. Gowrie's term in office was prolonged as a result of war, in total he spent nine years in the position, the longest of any governor-general. Alexander Hore-Ruthven was born on 6 July 1872 in Windsor, England, United Kingdom, as the second son of Walter Hore-Ruthven, 1st Baron Ruthven of Gowrie, the 9th Lord Ruthven of Freeland, Lady Caroline Annesley Gore, the daughter of The 4th Earl of Arran. After attending Winton House School in Winchester as a boarder from 1884 to 1885, Hore-Ruthven spent most of his early education at Eton College and Haileybury and Imperial Service College, where he stayed until 1888, when he was withdrawn owing to eyesight problems and sent into business by his parents.
He first worked in a tea merchant's office in Glasgow and traveled to India to work on a tea plantation in Assam. Hore-Ruthven, soon succumbed to malaria and he returned to England in 1892. On 19 October 1889, Hore-Ruthven was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Lanarkshire Yeomanry Cavalry. After his return to England in 1892, he joined the regular army. Following training at the United Services College, he was commissioned on 27 April 1893 as a lieutenant in the 3rd Battalion of the Highland Light Infantry, was promoted to captain on 18 November 1896. During the Sudan Campaign, he was mentioned in despatches. During the action at Gedarif on 22 September 1898, Hore-Ruthven performed an act of courage which earned him the Victoria Cross: 28 February 1899 – Captain the Honourable A. G. A. Hore-Ruthven, 3rd Battalion, Highland Light InfantryThe Queen has been graciously pleased to signify Her intention to confer the decoration of the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned Officer, whose claims have been submitted for Her Majesty's approval, for his conspicuous bravery during the attack on the Baggage Guard at the action of Gedarif on the 22nd September 1898, as recorded against his name: On the 22nd September 1898, Captain Hore-Ruthven, seeing an Egyptian officer lying wounded within 50 yards of the advancing Dervishes, who were firing and charging, picked him up and carried him towards the 16th Egyptian Battalion.
He dropped the wounded officer two or three times and fired upon the Dervishes, who were following, to check their advance. Had the officer been left where he first dropped, he must have been killed In May 1899, Hore-Ruthven was awarded the Order of Osmanieh, Fourth Class, by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for his services in the Sudan. On 17 May, he received a regular commission as a second lieutenant in the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders, dropping back two ranks. In late November, he was part of a Camel Corps during the operations leading to the defeat of the Khalifa. Promoted to supernumerary lieutenant on 14 December 1900, vice a Lieutenant Murdoch killed in action, he fought in the Somaliland Campaign between 1903 and 1904, was promoted to a regular lieutenancy on 16 April 1904. In 1905, Hore-Ruthven became an aide-de-camp to Lord Dudley Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Transferring to the 1st Dragoon Guards in 1908, he was promoted to supernumerary captain in that regiment on 11 April, regaining his former rank after nine years.
In 1908, Dudley was appointed Governor-General of Australia, Hore-Ruthven went with him as military secretary. In the same year he married Zara Pollok, he returned to military service in India. On 2 April 1915, Hore-Ruthven transferred to the Welsh Guards and was promoted to major from the same date, he was appointed a GSO 1 on 18 January 1916, with the temporary rank of lieutenant-colonel, was awarded the DSO on 1 January 1916. The citation reads as follows: He commanded his brigade with conspicuous gallantry and judgment throughout the operations east of Ypres from 28th September to 27th October 1918, inclusive, his presence and personal bearing at critical times during the fighting was of decisive value during a strong enemy counter-attack. On 20th October, at St. Louis, he went forward among the attacking troops at a critical juncture and inspired them to the final effort, whereby the high ground of great tactical value was captured, he was promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant colonel on
South Australian Legislative Council
The Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. Its central purpose is to act as a house of review for legislation passed through the lower house, the House of Assembly, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The upper house has 22 members elected for eight-year terms by proportional representation, with 11 members facing re-election every four years, it is elected in a similar manner to the Australian Senate. Casual vacancies—where a member resigns or dies—are filled by a joint sitting of both houses, who elect a replacement; the Legislative Council was the first parliament in South Australia, having been created in 1840, seventeen years before the Assembly. It was appointed by the Governor, only served in an advisory capacity, as the governor retained all legislative powers, it was expanded in 1843, when several prominent landowners were allowed to join. In the same year, proceedings were opened to the general public. Public demand for some form of representative government had been growing throughout the 1840s, this was reflected in a series of reforms in 1851, which created a representative Legislative Council.
After the changes, it consisted of 24 members, four official and four non-official members, both nominated by the governor on behalf of the Crown, 16 elected members. The right to vote for these positions was not universal, being limited to propertied men. In addition, the reforms meant that the Governor no longer oversaw proceedings, with the role being filled by a Speaker, elected by the members. In 1856, the Legislative Council prepared what was to become the 1857 Constitution of South Australia; this laid out the means for true self-government, created a bicameral system, which involved delegating most of its legislative powers to the new House of Assembly. While all adult males could vote in the new Assembly, the Council continued to limit voting rights to the wealthier classes; the entire province was a single electorate for the Legislative Council, electing 18 members. In 1882, the Legislative Council was increased to 24 members by the a special election brought on by the Constitution Act Further Amendment Act 1881, the Province was divided into four districts which each elected six members: Central, North-Eastern and Southern districts.
Women earned the right to vote in the Council at the same time as the Assembly, in 1895, the first Parliament in Australia to do so, under the radical Premier Charles Kingston. In 1902, following the Federation of Australia, the Constitution Act Amendment Act, 1901 reduced the size of the legislative council from 24 back to 18 members - 6 from Central District and four each from Northern, North-Eastern and Southern districts. North-Eastern District was replaced by Midland District from the 1910 election, the restricted franchise was extended to include ministers of religion, school head teachers, railway stationmasters, the officer in charge of a police station. In 1913 the franchise extended to the inhabitant occupier of a house and the council expanded to 20 people, four from each of five districts, with the Central district being replaced by Central District No. 1 and Central District No. 2. "Contingency voting", a form of preferences, was introduced from 1930. The council had its purpose in replicating the British House of Lords as a restricted'house of review' in a colonial context.
When the Province of South Australia received its original constitution in 1857, it was the most democratic in the British Empire, combining a universal-suffrage lower house, with a restricted-suffrage upper house. The purpose of the Legislative Council was, as with the 19th century House of Lords, to safeguard the "longer term interests of the nation rather than just reacting to short term ephemeral issues of the day"; the council's numbers have varied. From inception to 1902 it had 24 members; the electoral districts were drawn to favour regional areas with a 2:1 bias in place, with half of the council being elected each time. From 1915 to 1975, Labor did not gain more than two members at each election, with the conservative parties always holding a sizeable majority. From 1975, the Council was increased with half to be elected at each election; the conservative members in the council were independent, differed markedly from their counterparts in the House of Assembly. During the long reign of Liberal and Country League Premier Sir Thomas Playford, they would prove to be an irritant, Labor support was sometimes required for bills to pass.
When a Labor government was elected in 1965 and began introducing social legislation, anathema to LCL councillors, they would delay and modify such bills. The councillors, saw their actions necessary to "oppose... radical moves that I feel would not be in the permanent will of the people." The House of Assembly contained some progressive Liberals, its membership would abide by the party line. The council contained none, its members rebelled against the decisions of the party leadership and the popular will of the people. After electoral legislation had been implemented in 1967 by Steele Hall that produced a fairer electoral system for the House of Assembly, the council remained unchanged, it was only in 1973 under Don Dunstan that changes were made. Dunstan, a social reformist, tired of the co
Adelaide city centre
Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals as "The City" or "Town" to distinguish it from Greater Adelaide and from the City of Adelaide; the locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East and West Terraces. The locality is home to the Parliament of many key state government offices. Due to the construction of many new apartments in the city, the population has grown over ten years from 10,229 to 15,115. Before the European settlement of South Australia, the Adelaide Plains, on which Adelaide was built, were home to the Kaurna group of Indigenous Australians; the colony of South Australia was established in 1836 at Glenelg, the city itself established in 1837. The location and layout of the city is accredited to Colonel William Light, in a plan known as Light's Vision; the area where the Adelaide city centre now exists was once known as "Tarndanya", which translates as "male red kangaroo rock" in Aboriginal, an area along the south bank of what is now known as the River Torrens, which flows through Adelaide.
Kaurna numbers were reduced by at least two widespread epidemics of smallpox which preceded European settlement, having been transported downstream along the Murray River. When European settlers arrived in 1836, estimates of the Kaurna population ranged from 300 to 1000 people. British Captain Matthew Flinders, along with French Captain Nicolas Baudin, charted the southeast coast of Australia, where Adelaide is located. Flinders provided little information on Adelaide itself. Charles Sturt explored the Murray and wrote a favourable reflection on what he saw. Colonel William Light is credited with settling and laying out the Adelaide region, which included a grid plan of Adelaide's streets. Adelaide was not as badly affected by the 1860s economic depression in Australia as other gold rush cities like Sydney and Melbourne, allowing it to prosper. Historian F. W. Crowley noted that the city was full of elite upper-class citizens which provided a stark contrast to the grinding poverty of the labour areas and slums outside the inner city ring.
Due to its historic puritan wealth during the 20th century, the city retains a notable portion of Victorian architecture. Adelaide is separated from its greater metropolitan area by a ring of public parklands on all sides; the so-called "square mile" within the park lands is defined by a small area of high rise office and apartment buildings in the centre north, around King William Street, which runs north-to-south through the centre. Surrounding this central business district are a large number of medium to low density apartments and detached houses which make up the residential portion of the city centre; the layout of Adelaide, known as Light's Vision, features a cardinal direction grid pattern of wide streets and terraces and five large public squares: Victoria Square in the centre of the city, Hindmarsh, Light and Whitmore Squares in the centres of each of the four quadrants of the Adelaide city centre. These squares occupy 32 of the 700 numbered "town acre" allotments on Light's plan.
All east-west roads change their names as they cross King William Street, except for North and South terraces. They alternate between being wide and narrow, 99 and 66 feet, except for the central Grote and Wakefield which are extra-wide, 132 feet, along with the surrounding four terraces. In the south half of the city, in several places the Adelaide City Council has constructed wide footpaths and road markings to restrict traffic to a lesser number of lanes than the full width of the road could support; the street pairs, design widths, town acres in Light's Vision are illustrated in this diagram: The streets and squares were named by a committee of a number of prominent settlers after themselves, after early directors of the South Australian Company, after Commissioners appointed by the British government to oversee implementation of the acts that established the colony, after various notables involved in the establishment of the colony. The Street Naming Committee comprised: All members of the committee had one or more of the streets and squares in the Adelaide city centre and North Adelaide named after themselves.
Brown Street, named for John Brown, was subsequently subsumed as a continuation of Morphett Street in 1967. In the same year, Hanson Street, named for Richard Hanson, was subsumed as a continuation of Pulteney Street; the squares were named after: Victoria - the regent the monarch Queen Victoria Hindmarsh - Rear Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh, first Governor Hurtle - Sir James Hurtle Fisher, first Resident Commissioner Light - Colonel William Light, Surveyor General Whitmore - William Wolryche-Whitmore MP, a Colonial Commissioner in LondonThe east-west streets named on 22 December 1836 were: Rundle – John Rundle MP, Director of the South Australian Company Hindley – Charles Hindley MP, Director of South Australian Company Grenfell – Pascoe St Leger Grenfell MP, presented town acre for Holy Trinity Church and other country lands Currie – Raikes Currie MP, Director of South Australian Company Pirie – Sir John Pirie and Lord Mayor of London, Director of South Australian Company Waymouth – Henry Waymouth, Director South Australian Company Flinders – Matthew Flinders, explorer Franklin – Rear Admiral Sir John Franklin, midshipman under Flinders Wakefield – Daniel Bell Wakefield, bar
Kapunda is a town on the Light River and near the Barossa Valley in South Australia. It was established after a discovery in 1842 of significant copper deposits; the southern entrance to the town has been dominated since 1988 by the 8-metre-tall statue of Map Kernow, a traditional Cornish miner. The statue was destroyed by a fire on the morning of 1 June 2006 but has since been rebuilt by its creator, Ben van Zetten. Francis Dutton and Charles Bagot, who both ran sheep in the area, discovered copper ore outcrops in 1842, they purchased 80 acres around the outcrop. Mining began with the removal of surface ore and had progressed to underground mining by the end of the year. Copper was mined until 1879. There are quarries near the town which provide fine marble ranging from dark blue to white. Marble from the Kapunda quarries was used to face Parliament House in Adelaide, the pedestal of the statue of Venus on North Terrace, Adelaide is made of Sicilian and Kapunda marble. Ore was exported to Swansea, but Welsh smelters migrated to South Australia and the ore was smelted locally by 1851.
The miners were Cornish, labourers were Irish and smelter specialists were Welsh. Trade and agriculture were Scottish and English. German farmers and timber cutters at nearby Bethel had been in the area. Underground mining became more difficult. A steam engine to drive a water pump was installed in 1847, replaced by a larger one in 1851. In 1865, the mine was leased to a Scottish company which switched to open cut mining methods and replaced the smelters with a different treatment method. Copper prices fell in 1877 and the mine closed in 1879. Mining operations ground to a halt in 1851 with the impact of the Victorian gold rush, restarted in 1855. A railway from Adelaide was opened in 1860, extended to Eudunda and Morgan in 1878. Kapunda had a strong Catholic community and Saint Mary MacKillop visited and established a convent there. St John's Reformatory for Girls operated from 1897 to 1909. Kapunda is famous as the home of Sir Sidney Kidman, he was a major cattle pastoralist who at one time owned 68 properties with a total area larger than the British Isles.
He held annual horse sales at Kapunda with up to 3,000 horses sold during the week. His house, was donated to the Education Department, is still used as the administration building for Kapunda High School; the town has the unfortunate honour of being titled the most haunted town in Australia after a television documentary focused on the town. Most locals were not amused, however it has led to an increase in the number of tourists that visit the area. Owing to this, the ruins of the Reformatory, located outside the town, were bulldozed, although some locals still believe in the ghost stories popular in town; the town is close to the historical Anlaby Station and the manor, houses and other buildings on the property, many of which are being restored by its current owners. Kapunda was home to several notable manufacturers of farm and mining machinery: Robert Cameron, Joseph Mellors, James Rowe and Adamson Brothers, it was with this last-named company that T. J. Richards, the founder of one of Australia's largest coach-building firms, started his career.
Today, Kapunda is a producer of cereal crops wheat and oats. Value-added services carried out by local industry include hay processing. Kapunda is a contributor to the wine-growing industry centred in the nearby Barossa Valley. Kapunda has hosted the Kapunda Celtic Music Festival since 1976. Kapunda was home to several newspapers; the Kapunda Herald was printed in the town until 1951, when it was merged with the Barossa News to become the Barossa and Light Herald. Another publication, the Farmers' Weekly Messenger was printed in Kapunda by Ebenezer Ward. Within a month, in May 1874, it absorbed another Ward newspaper, Northern Guardian, which itself was a continuation of the Guardian and Northern and North-eastern Advertiser and the short-lived Gumeracha Guardian and North-eastern Advertiser. Kapunda is in the state electoral district of Stuart, the federal Division of Wakefield, the centre of the Light Regional Council. Ellen Ida Benham, educationist Vivian Bullwinkel, Australian Army nurse, P.
O. W. Albert Hawke, Premier of Western Australia Rosanne Hawke, Author Alice Rosman, writer Sidney Kidman, Pastoralist Drew, G. J.. Discovering historic Kapunda, South Australia. Adelaide: Department of Mines and Energy, Kapunda tourism committee. ISBN 0-7243-4277-X. Drew, G. J.: Captain Bagot's Mine: Kapunda Mine, 1844–1916. Published by the author. ISBN 9780646969497 Charlton, Rob: The History of Kapunda Published by the District Council of Kapunda. ISBN 0-7256-0039-X Media related to Kapunda, South Australia at Wikimedia Commons
North Terrace, Adelaide
North Terrace is one of the four terraces that bound the central business and residential district of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It runs east-west, along the northern edge of "the square mile"; the western end continues on to Port Road, the eastern end continues across the Adelaide Parklands as Botanic Road. Theoretically, the northern side of North Terrace is part of the Adelaide Parklands. However, much of the space between North Terrace and the River Torrens is occupied by cultural institutions and other public buildings. Starting from West Terrace and travelling east, these buildings include: Parkland The Royal Adelaide Hospital South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute Adelaide Medical and Nursing Schools University of South Australia Cancer Research Institute Adelaide Convention Centre, Exhibition Halls Riverside Centre InterContinental Hotel Adelaide railway station building Adelaide Casino Old Parliament House - the original South Australian Parliament building Parliament House The Adelaide Festival Centre and Elder Park are behind Parliament House, between North Terrace and the River Torrens – accessible from King William Road Government House, the official residence of the Governor of South Australia The historic Torrens Parade Ground is behind Government House, between North Terrace and the River Torrens – accessible from King William Road The South African War Memorial stands in front of Government House on a traffic island at the corner of North Terrace and King William Road The Jubilee 150 Walkway commences in front of Government House National War Memorial State Library of South Australia Institute Building Spence Wing Mortlock Wing South Australian Museum Art Gallery of South Australia University of Adelaide: Mitchell Building Elder Conservatorium of Music Bonython Hall Napier Building Ligertwood Building The Jubilee 150 Walkway finishes in front of the Napier/Ligertwood plaza.
University of South Australia Brookman Building The old Royal Adelaide Hospital Adelaide Botanic Gardens Adelaide Botanic Gardens National Wine Centre of Australia Starting at West Terrace and travelling east, the southern side of the street includes: The Newmarket Hotel Assorted accommodation and medical practices Many buildings forming the City West campus of the University of South Australia The Lion Arts Centre The historic Holy Trinity Church Assorted accommodation and government offices The Dame Roma Mitchell building Assorted accommodation and various Adelaide head offices The former Adelaide head office of the Westpac Bank The exclusive and discreetly labelled Adelaide Club The Myer Centre, part of the Rundle Mall shopping precinct The exclusive and unlabelled Queen Adelaide Club "Gawler Chambers", the former Adelaide offices of the South Australian Company Assorted businesses and medical practices David Jones, part of the Rundle Mall shopping precinct Assorted businesses, medical practices and University of Adelaide buildings The historic Scots Church Various buildings occupied by the University of Adelaide The historic and architecturally elaborate Freemasons' building The Waterhouse house Assorted businesses The First Church of Christ, Scientist Assorted businesses The historic Ayers House 19th century Terrace houses The historic Botanic Hotel Parkland In October 2007, the extension of the Glenelg tram from Victoria Square to the University of South Australia City West campus was completed.
In 2010, a further extension along the remainder of North Terrace to continue along Port Road to the Adelaide Entertainment Centre was opened. Construction of a new junction, branch lines along the eastern end of North Terrace and King William Road and four new stops began in July/August 2017 and opened on 13 October 2018. Australia Award for Urban Design South Australia portal Australian Roads portal
Parliament House, Sydney
The Parliament House in Sydney is a heritage-listed complex of buildings housing the Parliament of the state of New South Wales, Australia. The building is located on the east side of Macquarie Street in the state capital; the façade consists of a two-storey Georgian building, the oldest public building in the City of Sydney, flanked by two Neo-gothic additions containing the parliamentary chambers. These buildings are linked to a 1970s 12-storey block at the rear, it is known as Parliament House, Parliament of New South Wales, Parliamentary Precincts and Rum Hospital. Built with the initial purpose of a public hospital, unlike the parliamentary buildings of Australia's other capital cities, Sydney's Parliament House is not grand in its architectural appearance, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 19 April 2002. Parliament House is of exceptional social value, it has played a key role in the history of Australia from an early symbol of colonial government and civil improvement to its long tenure as the first NSW Parliament House and association with the Federation of the Australian colonies.
The Parliament House and the Mint Museum are the two surviving wings of the triple wing General Hospital, commenced in 1811. Built just 20 years after first settlement, the hospital was part of Macquarie's sweeping building campaign which included schools, orphanages and storehouses; as Governor Macquarie had been refused funding by London, he entered into an agreement with three businessmen who proposed to build the hospital for three years' exclusive rights to the importation of rum and the hospital became known as The Rum Hospital. The north wing was requisitioned and converted to accommodate the first NSW Parliament House in 1829 because it was the largest public building in New South Wales at that time. Housing the Colonial Representative Government it was the first Parliament in Australia. Aside from its significance as the legislative arm of government in New South Wales, Parliament House has played a key role in the history of Australia as two important conventions were held to look at the issues of Federation of the colonies and the drafting of the Australian Constitution.
Parliament House is significant for its association with important social and political figures of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries The Parliamentary precincts comprise the original old colonial Georgian building known as the Rum Hospital, finished in 1816 as well as additions and extensions to the Parliament buildings. A new chamber was constructed at the northern end of the building in 1842 to accommodate the elected and nominee Council, established with the new constitution of 1842; the Legislative Council is a pre-fabricated cast-iron building shipped to Melbourne from Glasgow, before being sent to Sydney as one of the two parliamentary chambers and is still a seat of government in NSW today. The centre wing, erected on poor foundations, was demolished in 1879 and the replacement building, the Sydney Hospital, was finished in 1894; as part of Sydney's oldest remaining complex of public buildings, Parliament House has been at the centre of the history of New South Wales and continues to play a key role in the history of New South Wales as the seat of government today.
The main entrances are contained in a two-storey building with a colonnaded front verandah. On the ground floor, there are two entrance halls. Between these halls is the Greenway Room, used for small committee meetings and events; the upstairs rooms are used by Hansard. To the north of this building is the chamber of the Legislative Assembly, the lower house; the colour scheme of the chamber is green, following the colours in the United Kingdom House of Commons. At one end of the room is the speaker's chair, in front of this is a table holding the mace. Government members sit in the two rows of seating to the speaker's right, opposition members to the left. There are galleries for the press behind the speaker, Hansard to the speaker's left, guests of the speaker opposite the speaker and the public above the speaker's gallery and to the speaker's right. At the opposite end of the entrance building is the Legislative Council chamber. Here, the colour scheme is red; this chamber contains a vice-regal chair, for use by the Monarch in Australia or her representative, the governor, the chair of the president of the council.
Both chairs are made from red cedar, the vice-regal chair in 1856 and the president's chair in 1886. The table in front of the chairs was made in 1856 from red cedar; the wall behind the two chairs is covered by bookshelves holding the Hansard records. The chamber is decorated with seven busts, four depicting early presidents of the council in ceremonial dress and three of other prominent former members in Roman togas; as in the lower house, government members sit on the president's right and opposition members on the left. Behind the entrance building is the Jubilee Room, used for public functions. In this area, open to the public, there is the Fountain Court, an exhibition venue containing a fountain by Robert Woodward. Beneath the Fountain Court is a 166-seat theatrette and above it a roof garden sometimes used for functions. Together with a small post office, these 1970s features form a "square doughnut"-shaped building linking the streetfront buildings with a 12-storey block at the rear; this block, with views over the Domain contains offices for members and other staff and meetings rooms, as well as dining facilities, a fitness area and car parking and service areas.
The building has a power co-generation unit that serves Sydney Hospital and the State Libra
Governor-General of Australia
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is shared with the 15 other Commonwealth realms, resides in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her prime minister, appoints a governor-general to carry out constitutional duties within the Commonwealth of Australia; the governor-general has formal presidency over the Federal Executive Council and is commander-in-chief of the Australian Defence Force. The functions of the governor-general include appointing ministers and ambassadors. In general, the governor-general observes the conventions of the Westminster system and responsible government, maintaining a political neutrality, has always acted only on the advice of the prime minister or other ministers or, in certain cases, parliament; the governor-general has a ceremonial role: hosting events at either of the two official residences—Government House in the capital and Admiralty House in Sydney—and travelling throughout Australia to open conferences, attend services and commemorations, provide encouragement to individuals and groups who are contributing to their communities.
When travelling abroad, the governor-general is seen as the representative of Australia, the Queen of Australia. The governor-general is supported by a staff headed by the official secretary to the governor-general. A governor-general is not appointed for a specific term, but is expected to serve for five years subject to a possible short extension. Since 28 March 2014, the Governor-General has been General Sir Peter Cosgrove. From Federation in 1901 until 1965, 11 out of the 15 governors-general were British aristocrats. Since all but one of the governors-general have been Australian-born. Only one Governor-General, Dame Quentin Bryce, has been a woman. On 16 December 2018 it was announced that General Sir Peter Cosgrove would be replaced with General David Hurley the Governor of New South Wales. To provide continuity through general elections both federally and in New South Wales, Hurley would succeed Cosgrove, who had planned to retire in March 2019, on 28 June 2019; the selection of a Governor-General is a responsibility for the Prime Minister of Australia, who may consult with staff or colleagues, or with the monarch.
The candidate is approached to confirm whether they are willing to accept the appointment. Having agreed to the appointment, the monarch permits it to be publicly announced in advance several months before the end of the current Governor-General's term. During these months, the person is referred to as the Governor-General-designate; the actual appointment is made by the monarch. After receiving his or her commission, the Governor-General takes an Oath of Allegiance to the Australian monarch, an Oath of Office, undertaking to serve Australia's monarch "according to law, in the office of Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia", issues a proclamation assuming office; the oaths are taken in a ceremony on the floor of the Senate and are administered by the Chief Justice of Australia in the presence of the Prime Minister of Australia, the Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives, the President of the Australian Senate. In 1919, Prime Minister Billy Hughes sent a memorandum to the Colonial Office in which he requested "a real and effective voice in the selection of the King's representative".
He further proposed that the Dominions be able to nominate their own candidates and that "the field of selection should not exclude citizens of the Dominion itself". The memorandum met with strong opposition within the Colonial Office and was dismissed by Lord Milner, the Colonial Secretary; the following year, as Ronald Munro Ferguson's term was about to expire, Hughes cabled the Colonial Office and asked that the appointment be made in accordance with the memorandum. To mollify Hughes, Milner offered him a choice between three candidates. After consulting his cabinet he chose 1st Baron Forster. In 1925, under Prime Minister Stanley Bruce, the same practice was followed for the appointment of Forster's successor Lord Stonehaven, with the Australian government publicly stating that his name "had been submitted, with others, to the Commonwealth ministry, who had selected him"; the Prime Minister now advises the monarch to appoint their nominee. This has been the procedure since November 1930, when James Scullin's proposed appointment of Sir Isaac Isaacs was fiercely opposed by the British government.
This was not because of any lack of regard for Isaacs but because the British government considered that the choice of Governors-General was, since the 1926 Imperial Conference, a matter for the monarch's decision alone. Scullin was insistent that the monarch must act on the relevant prime minister's direct advice. Scullin cited the precedents of the Prime Minister of South Africa, J