The Parliament of the Republic of Fiji is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of Fiji. It consists of 51 members elected every 4 years using open list proportional representation in one multi-member nationwide constituency; the Fijian Parliament dates from 10 October 1970, when Fiji became independent from the United Kingdom. The Parliament replaced the former colonial legislative body, the Legislative Council, which had existed in various forms throughout the entire colonial period. A grandfather clause in the 1970 Constitution, adopted on independence, provided for the old Legislative Council to be renamed as the House of Representatives and remain in office, pending the first post-independence elections in 1972. Since independence, Parliamentary rule has been interrupted three times; the first interruption was from 1987 through 1992, owing to two coups d'état in 1987 instigated by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka. The second interruption occurred when a coup in 2000 attempted by George Speight rendered the parliamentary system unworkable and resulted in Parliament's dissolution.
A general election in 2001 restored the democratic system. The Republic of Fiji Military Forces under the leadership of Frank Bainimarama overthrew the government again in 2006. No further elections would be held until the September 2014 election; the composition of Parliament has changed over the years. From 1972 to 1987, there were 22 Senators. In 1992, Parliament was enlarged to 70 Representatives and 34 Senators, figures marginally adjusted in 1999 to provide for 71 Representatives and 32 Senators. 25 of these were elected by universal suffrage. The remaining 46 were reserved for Fiji's ethnic communities and were elected from communal electoral rolls: 23 Fijians, 19 Indo-Fijians, 1 Rotuman, 3 "General electors"; the upper chamber of the parliament, the Senate, had 32 members, formally appointed by the President on the nomination of the Great Council of Chiefs, the Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition, the Rotuman Islands Council. The Senate was less powerful than the House of Representatives.
The Senate's powers over financial bills were more restricted: it could veto them in their entirety, but could not amend them. The House of Representatives could override a Senatorial veto by passing the bill a second time in the parliamentary session following the one in which it was rejected by the Senate, after a minimum period of six months. Amendments to the Constitution were excepted: the veto of the Senate was absolute. Following the passage of a bill by the House of Representatives, the Senate had 21 days to approve, amend, or reject it; as a result of the parliament building having only one debating chamber, the Senate and House of Representatives used the same chamber at different times. The 2013 Constitution promulgated by the military-backed interim government abolished the Senate and the House of Representatives, instituting a single-chamber 50-member Parliament. Section 54 of the Constitution requires the Fiji Electoral Commission to review the composition of the parliament at least one year before a general election and may if necessary increase or decrease the total number of members.
In its review the Commission will ensure that ratio of members to the population is the same as the ratio at the date of the first general election under this Constitution. Furthermore, the Commission is required to consider the most recent census, the Register of Voters or any other official information available when undertaking its review; the Parliament of Fiji consists of 51 members and is led by the Prime Minister of Fiji, the leader of the largest party of Government. The current Parliament was elected in the 2018 election, with FijiFirst, led by Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama, holding a majority of 27 seats; the Social Democratic Liberal Party, led by Sitiveni Rabuka, gained 21 seats and was thus the main Opposition party. The National Federation Party, led by Biman Prasad, gained 3 seats and formally joined the Opposition alongside Sodelpa; the salary of the speaker is FJ$150,000 annually. Politics of Fiji Legislative Council of Fiji before 1970 House of Representatives of Fiji from 1970 to 2006 Senate of Fiji from 1970 to 2006 List of legislatures by country Parliament of Fiji Live Streaming Fiji Government Online Portal Official Website of the Parliament of Fiji
The Multi-Purpose Solution are an American rock band from New Jersey. The Multi-Purpose Solution is a five-piece rock band from Jersey City, New Jersey that formed in 1999. Guitarist Stephen Mejias and vocalist Peter Prochilo met while studying abroad in England, both college seniors attending Fairleigh Dickinson University. Upon returning to the United States, the two enlisted Prochilo's brother Dan Prochilo and friend Dave Caldwell; the Multi-Purpose Solution were a four-piece band for several years before recruiting their friend Alan Ten Hoeve, a bass-player. According to Mejias, shortly after Hoeve joined they began focusing more on songwriting, practicing at an all-purpose space in Jersey City and playing local venues, such as Hoboken's Maxwell's, their music is characterized by piercing guitars. Between 2001 and 2005 the Multi-Purpose Solution released a few EPs and two full-length albums and they appeared on the Weird NJ compilation Local Heroes and Artists in 2004, they released How Can a Man Be Tougher Than the World? in 2005.
Q Later that year, the members took a hiatus, playing their last show for five years in 2006. They signed to Mint 400 Records in 2011, digitally reissued their albums. In November of that year, the Multi-Purpose Solution reunited to play Maxwell's with several other Mint 400 Records artists, they appeared on Mint 400 Records Presents the Beach Boys Pet Sounds, covering "Sloop John B," as well as Our First Compilation and Patchwork. Dave Caldwell – drums Alan Ten Hoeve – bass Stephen Mejias – guitar Dan Prochilo – guitar Peter Prochilo – vocals Albumsthe mps In Bed How Can a Man Be Tougher Than the World? Appearing onLocal Heroes and Artists Our First Compilation Mint 400 Records Presents the Beach Boys Pet Sounds Patchwork Citations Bibliography The Multi-Purpose Solution discography at Discogs
A monorail is a railway in which the track consists of a single rail or a beam. The term is used to describe the beam of the system, or the trains traveling on such a beam or track; the term originates from joining "mono" and "rail" from 1897 from German engineer Eugen Langen, who called an elevated railway system with wagons suspended the Eugen Langen One-railed Suspension Tramway. Colloquially, the term "monorail" is used to describe any form of elevated rail or people mover. More the term refers to the style of track. Monorails have found applications in airport medium capacity metros. To differentiate monorails from other transport modes, the Monorail Society defines a monorail as a "single rail serving as a track for passenger or freight vehicles. In most cases rail is elevated, but monorails can run at grade, below grade or in subway tunnels. Vehicles either straddle a narrow guide way. Monorail vehicles are wider than the guide way that supports them.” Monorails are elevated, sometimes leading to confusion with other elevated systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, Vancouver SkyTrain and the AirTrain JFK, which run on two rails.
Monorail vehicles appear similar to light rail vehicles, can be manned or unmanned. They can be individual rigid vehicles, articulated single units, or multiple units coupled into trains. Like other advanced rapid transit systems, monorails can be driven by linear induction motors. Unlike some trams and light rail systems, modern monorails are always separated from other traffic and pedestrians due to the geometry of the rail, they are both guided and supported via interaction with the same single beam, in contrast to other guided systems like rubber-tyred metros, the Sapporo Municipal Subway. Monorails do not use pantographs. From the passenger's perspective, monorails can have some advantages over trains and automobiles; as with other grade-separated transit systems, monorails avoid red lights, intersection turns, traffic jams. Surface-level trains, buses and pedestrians can collide each one with the other, while vehicles on dedicated, grade-separated rights-of-way such as monorails can collide only with other vehicles on the same system, with much fewer opportunities for collision.
As with other elevated transit systems, monorail passengers enjoy sunlight and views and by watching for familiar landmarks, they can know better when to get off to reach their destinations. Monorails can be quieter than diesel trains, they obtain electricity from the track structure, eliminating costly and, to many people, unsightly overhead power lines and poles. Compared to the elevated train systems of New York and elsewhere, a monorail beamway casts a narrow shadow. Under the Monorail Society's beam-width criterion, but not all, maglev systems are considered monorails, such as the Transrapid and Linimo. Maglevs differ from other monorails; the first monorail prototype was made in Russia in 1820 by Ivan Elmanov. Attempts at creating monorail alternatives to conventional railways have been made since the early part of the 19th century; the Centennial Monorail was featured at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876. Around 1879 a "one-rail" system was proposed independently by Haddon and by Stringfellow, which used an inverted "V" rail.
It was intended for military use, but was seen to have civilian use as a "cheap railway." The Boynton Bicycle Railroad was a steam-powered monorail in Brooklyn on New York. It ran on a single load-bearing rail at ground level, but with a wooden overhead stabilising rail engaged by a pair of horizontally opposed wheels; the railway operated for only two years beginning in 1890. The Hotchkiss Bicycle Railroad was a monorail; the first example was built between Smithville and Mount Holly, New Jersey, in 1892. It closed in 1897. Other examples were built in Norfolk from 1895 to 1909, Great Yarmouth, Blackpool, UK from 1896. Early designs used a double-flanged single metal rail alternative to the double rail of conventional railways, both guiding and supporting the monorail car. A surviving suspended version is the oldest still in service system: the Wuppertal monorail in Germany. In the early 1900s, Gyro monorails with cars gyroscopically balanced on top of a single rail were tested, but never developed beyond the prototype stage.
The Ewing System, used in the Patiala State Monorail Trainways in Punjab, relies on a hybrid model with a load-bearing single rail and an external wheel for balance. One of the first systems put into practical use was that of French engineer Charles Lartigue, who built a line between Ballybunion and Listowel in Ireland, opened in 1888 and closed in 1924, it uses a load-bearing single rail and two lower, external rails for balance, the three carried on triangular supports. The first monorail locomotive was a 0-3-0 steam locomotive. A highspeed monorail using the Lartigue system was proposed in 1901 between Liverpool and Manchester. In 1910, the Brennan gyroscopic monorail was considered for use to a coal mine in Alaska. In June 1920, the French Patent Office published FR 503782, by Henri Coanda, on a'Transporteur Aérien' -Air Carrier. In the northern Mojave desert, the Epsom Salts Monorail was built in 1924, it ran for 28 miles from a connection on the Trona Railway, eastwar
Brønlundhus, on some maps Brønlundfjord, is a former research station and radio station located on the western shore of Jørgen Brønlund Fjord in southern Peary Land, in northern Greenland. It is named after Greenlandic Arctic researcher Jørgen Brønlund, or after the namesake fjord on which it is located, it is close to the mouth of Jørgen Brønlund Fjord. Brønlundhus was built in 1947–48 by the Danish Peary Land Expeditions on initiative of Eigil Knuth, through an air lift by PBY Catalina seaplanes from Zackenbergbasen, a station built for that purpose close to a trapper's hut at the site of present Zackenberg research station area 1000 km farther south. Brønlundhus was the first station in Greenland with all equipment transported by airlift; the seaplanes could land in the fjord only during the ice-free period from mid-July to end of August. Brønlundhus was used as a base for the first expedition 1948–50 when Peary Land was explored by scientists on dog sled; until the establishment of Alert in Canada in 1950, Brønlundhus was the northernmost station in the world, not counting historical depot huts of polar explorers including Peary's Cape Columbia Depot.
From 1963 to 1972 the station was used during summers as a base for smaller groups working in the area around the station. In 1972 a new station, Kap Harald Moltke, was built at Cape Harald Moltke, some ten kilometers east of Brønlundhus, on the opposite side of Jørgen Brønlund Fjord, where an old raised seabed provides a natural runway, making air access possible. In summer, traffic between the two neighboring stations is depending on ice conditions. Since the death of Eigil Knuth in 1996, the stations have been administered by the Peary Land Foundation. Today, Brønlundhus can be characterised as a museum, with a collection of artefacts from polar explorations. In 2001, a Nanok team found the station in reasonably good condition, performed minor repairs and exterior maintenance with paint and felt. List of research stations in the Arctic
The Department of Urban Development abbreviated as DoUD, is a department of Government of Uttar Pradesh responsible for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to the local bodies and urban development in Uttar Pradesh. The Ashutosh Tandon serves as the departmental cabinet minister, the Principal Secretary, an IAS officer, is the administrative head of the department; the Department is responsible for making and implementing laws and policies relating to Urban Development. The Department of Urban Development, through the Directorate of Local Bodies, is responsible for proper functioning of local bodies the Municipal Corporations, by providing financial assistance and other type of grants to local bodies. In addition the department is responsible for providing cities with proper sanitation and other civic amenities. Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam State Urban Development Agency Uttar Pradesh State Ganga River Conservation Authority Uttar Pradesh Urban Transport Directorate Directorate of Local Bodies 17 Municipal Corporations 199 Municipal Councils 438 Town Areas Ashutosh Tandon, is the Cabinet Minister responsible for Department of Urban Development while Girish Kumar Yadav is Minister of State in Department of Urban Development.
The department's administration is headed by the Principal Secretary, an IAS officer, assisted by six Special Secretaries, two Joint Secretaries, seven Deputy/Under Secretaries. The current Principal Secretary is Manoj Kumar Singh
The Ligier JS39 was a Formula One car used by the Ligier team during the 1993 and 1994 Formula One seasons. The engine was the Renault RS5 3.5 V10. The number 25 chassis was driven by experienced Briton Martin Brundle and the number 26 driven by Mark Blundell; the team did not employ a test driver. The main sponsor was French tobacco company Gitanes; the team retained passive suspension. The car was successful for the team, achieving 3 podium finishes, 23 constructor points. For 1994, the car was upgraded to'B' specification; the number 26 seat was occupied by Olivier Panis for the whole year, however the number 25 seat was taken by Éric Bernard, Johnny Herbert and Franck Lagorce. The team's test driver was Lagorce; the engine was a Renault RS6 3.5 V10. The team's main sponsor was again Gitanes; the car did not perform as well as in 1993 but was reliable, enabling Panis and Bernard to finish 2nd and 3rd in the German Grand Prix. The team scored. Technical specifications