The Parthenon is a former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC, it was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece considered the zenith of the Doric order, its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy and Western civilization, one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. To the Athenians who built it, the Parthenon and other Periclean monuments of the Acropolis were seen fundamentally as a celebration of Hellenic victory over the Persian invaders and as a thanksgiving to the gods for that victory; the Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon served a practical purpose as the city treasury.
For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which became the Athenian Empire. In the final decade of the 6th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. After the Ottoman conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment during a siege of the Acropolis; the resulting explosion damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. From 1800 to 1803, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles, with the alleged permission of the Turks of the Ottoman Empire. Since 1975 numerous large-scale restoration projects have been undertaken; the origin of the Parthenon's name is from the Greek word παρθενών, which referred to the "unmarried women's apartments" in a house and in the Parthenon's case seems to have been used at first only for a particular room of the temple. The Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon states that this room was the western cella of the Parthenon, as does J.
B. Bury. Jamauri D. Green holds that the parthenon was the room in which the peplos presented to Athena at the Panathenaic Festival was woven by the arrephoroi, a group of four young girls chosen to serve Athena each year. Christopher Pelling asserts that Athena Parthenos may have constituted a discrete cult of Athena, intimately connected with, but not identical to, that of Athena Polias. According to this theory, the name of the Parthenon means the "temple of the virgin goddess" and refers to the cult of Athena Parthenos, associated with the temple; the epithet parthénos meant "maiden, girl", but "virgin, unmarried woman" and was used for Artemis, the goddess of wild animals, the hunt, vegetation, for Athena, the goddess of strategy and tactics and practical reason. It has been suggested that the name of the temple alludes to the maidens, whose supreme sacrifice guaranteed the safety of the city. Parthénos has been applied to the Virgin Mary, Parthénos Maria, the Parthenon had been converted to a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary in the final decade of the 6th century.
The first instance in which Parthenon refers to the entire building is found in the writings of the 4th century BC orator Demosthenes. In 5th-century building accounts, the structure is called ho naos; the architects Iktinos and Callicrates are said to have called the building Hekatompedos in their lost treatise on Athenian architecture, Harpocration writes that the Parthenon used to be called Hekatompedos by some, not due to its size but because of its beauty and fine proportions and, in the 4th century and the building was referred to as the Hekatompedos or the Hekatompedon as well as the Parthenon. Because the Parthenon was dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, it has sometimes been referred to as the Temple of Minerva, the Roman name for Athena during the 19th century. Although the Parthenon is architecturally a temple and is called so, it is not one in the conventional sense of the word. A small shrine has been excavated within the building, on the site of an older sanctuary dedicated to Athena as a way to get closer to the goddess, but the Parthenon never hosted the cult of Athena Polias, patron of Athens: the cult image, bathed in the sea and to, presented the peplos, was an olivewood xoanon, located at an older altar on the northern side of the Acropolis.
The colossal statue of Athena by Phidias was not related to any cult and is not known to have inspired any religious fervour. It did not seem to have any priestess, cult name. According to Thucydides, Pericles once referred to the statue as a gold reserve, stressing that it "contained forty talents of pure gold and it was all removable"; the Athenian statesman thus implies that the metal, obtained from contemporary coinage, could be used again without any impiety. The Parthenon should be viewed as a grand setting for Phidias' votive statue rather than a cult site, it is said in many writings of the Greeks that there were many treasures stored inside the temple, such as Persian swords and small statue figures made of precious metals. Archaeologist Joan Breton Connelly has arg
The Tsubouchi Memorial Theatre Museum of Waseda University is a university museum devoted to the history of drama, with facilities used for cultural performances from all over the world. The museum was named for Tsubouchi Shōyō, a famous writer known for his work with theater and translation of the collected works of Shakespeare into Japanese, it is known as Enpaku in Japanese. The Waseda Theatre Museum formally opened in 1928, following the dreams of Professor Tsubouchi to build a museum dedicated to theatre arts, it commemorates all of Tsubouchi's accomplishments, among them a 40-volume translation of the works of Shakespeare that Tsubouchi finished in 1928, the year of his 70th birthday. Modelled after the Fortune Theatre of London, the museum approximates its inspiration in both exterior construction and interior design; the Waseda Theatre Museum functions as both a repository and exhibition space, housing nearly 37,000 items and 100,000 volumes. For example it has a large number of ukiyo-e prints depicting the popular kabuki play Chūshingura.
Media related to Tsubouchi Memorial Theatre Museum at Wikimedia Commons Waseda University | Enpaku
Wompatuck State Park is a state-owned, public recreation area of about 3,500 acres in size located in the town of Hingham with portions in the neighboring towns of Cohasset and Scituate, Massachusetts, in the United States. In addition to a large campground and an extensive trail system, the park is noted for the free spring water that can be obtained at Mt. Blue Spring, in operation since the mid-19th century; the park is managed by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation which protects forests of the northeastern coastal forests ecoregion. The land was the property of Indian chief Josiah Wompatuck, who deeded the land to English settlers in 1655; the park is built on the former Hingham Naval Ammunition Depot Annex, in use from 1941 until 1965. It contains over 100 decommissioned military bunkers, many of which have been backfilled, but some of which remain exposed, including one which housed parts of the Navy's first nuclear depth charge in the 1950s. Several old military buildings can be found on park property as well as an extensive network of abandoned railroad.
Most buildings are open to the elements. Whitney SpurA rail spur, the Whitney Spur connected the Ammunition Depot to the Old Colony Railroad's Greenbush Line. In 2003, the DCR sold the land for the Cohasset commuter rail station and parking lot to the MBTA in exchange for the construction of a rail trail on the former rail spur; the station opened with the rest of the Greenbush Line on October 31, 2007. The 1.5-mile Whitney Spur Rail Trail opened from the station to the park around the same time. However, a gate blocked access from the trail to the northwest section of the park, which still had several dangerous abandoned buildings. After years of requests, demolition of the buildings began in April 2014; the northwest section opened in November 2014 and the gate was removed. With the trail now serving as usable access to the park, 20 spaces in the station lot were dedicated for park users; the park's campground offers 262 campsites. Camping is open from mid-April until mid-October. A boat ramp allows access to Aaron River Reservoir for non-motorized boating.
Park trails include 12 miles of paved bicycle routes as well as trails for hiking, mountain biking, horseback riding, cross-country skiing. Upland game bird hunting is allowed in season in the South Field area. Wompatuck State Park Department of Conservation and Recreation Wompatuck State Park Map Department of Conservation and Recreation Friends of Wompatuck State Park