Gangaridai is a term used by the ancient Greco-Roman writers to describe a people or a geographical region of the ancient Indian subcontinent. Some of these writers state that Alexander the Great withdrew from the Indian subcontinent because of the strong war elephant force of the Gangaridai; the writers variously mention the Gangaridai as a distinct tribe, or a nation within a larger kingdom. A number of modern scholars locate Gangaridai in the Ganges Delta of the Bengal region, although alternative theories exist. Gange or Ganges, the capital of the Gangaridai, has been identified with several sites in the region, including Chandraketugarh and Wari-Bateshwar; the Greek writers use the names "Gandaridae", "Gandaritae", "Gandridae" to describe these people. The ancient Latin writers use the name "Gangaridae", a term that seems to have been coined by the 1st century poet Virgil; some modern etymologies of the word Gangaridai split it as "Gaṅgā-rāṣṭra", "Gaṅgā-rāḍha" or "Gaṅgā-hṛdaya". However, D. C.
Sircar believes that the word is the plural form of "Gangarid", means "Ganga people". Several ancient Greek writers mention Gangaridai, but their accounts are based on hearsay; the earliest surviving description of Gangaridai appears in Bibliotheca historica of the 1st century BCE writer Diodorus Siculus. This account is based on a now-lost work the writings of either Megasthenes or Hieronymus of Cardia. In Book 2 of Bibliotheca historica, Diodorus states that "Gandaridae" territory was located to the east of the Ganges river, 30 stades wide, he mentions that no foreign enemy had conquered Gandaridae, because it of its strong elephant force. He further states that Alexander the Great advanced up to Ganges after subjugating other Indians, but decided to retreat when he heard that the Gandaridae had 4,000 elephants. In Book 17 of Bibliotheca historica, Diodorus once again describes the "Gandaridae", states that Alexander had to retreat after his soldiers refused to take an expedition against the Gandaridae.
The book mentions that a nephew of Porus fled to the land of the Gandaridae, although C. Bradford Welles translates the name of this land as "Gandara". In Book 18 of Bibliotheca historica, Diodorus describes India as a large kingdom comprising several nations, the largest of, "Tyndaridae", he further states. He goes on to mention that Alexander did not campaign against this nation, because they had a large number of elephants; the Book 18 description is as follows: Diodorus' account of India in the Book 2 is based on Indica, a book written by the 4th century BCE writer Megasthenes, who visited India. Megasthenes' Indica is now lost, although it has been reconstructed from the writings of Diodorus and other writers. J. W. McCrindle attributed Diodorus' Book 2 passage about the Gangaridai to Megasthenes in his reconstruction of Indica. However, according to A. B. Bosworth, Diodorus' source for the information about the Gangaridai was Hieronymus of Cardia, a contemporary of Alexander and the main source of information for Diodorus' Book 18.
Bosworth points out. This suggests that Diodorus obtained the information about the Gandaridae from another source, appended it to Megasthenes' description of India in Book 2. Plutarch mentions the Gangaridai as "'Gandaritae" and as "Gandridae". Ptolemy, in his Geography, states that the Gangaridae occupied "all the region about the mouths of the Ganges", he names. This suggests. Based on the city's name, the Greek writers used the word "Gangaridai" to describe the local people; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea does not mention the Gangaridai, but attests the existence of a city that the Greco-Romans described as "Ganges": Dionysius Periegetes mentions "Gargaridae" located near the "gold-bearing Hypanis" river. "Gargaridae" is sometimes believed to be a variant of "Gangaridae", but another theory identifies it with Gandhari people. A. B. Bosworth dismisses Dionysius' account as "a farrago of nonsense", noting that he inaccurately describes the Hypanis river as flowing down into the Gangetic plain.
Gangaridai finds a mention in Greek mythology. In Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica, Datis, a chieftain, leader of the Gangaridae, in the army of Perses III, fought against Aeetes during the Colchian civil war. Colchis was situated on the east of the Black Sea. Aeetes was the famous king of Colchia against whom Jason and the Argonauts undertook their expedition in search of the "Golden Fleece". Perses III was king of the Taurian tribe; the Roman poet Virgil speaks of the valour of the Gangaridae in his Georgics. Quintus Curtius Rufus noted the two nations Gangaridae and Prasii: Pliny the Elder states: The ancient Greek writers provide vague information about the centre of the Gangaridai power; as a result, the historians have put forward various theories about its location. Pliny (1st ce
The Delhi Sultanate was a sultanate based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty; the sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols, enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent; the sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire and Mewar asserting independence, new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.
During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world. The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture, increased growth rates in India's population and economy, the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language; the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries. However, the Delhi Sultanate caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent. In 1526, the Sultanate was succeeded by the Mughal Empire; the context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes.
This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes, raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. Soon, Turks were becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves rose up to become rulers, conquered large parts of the Muslim world, establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan, before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent, it is part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.
By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia. Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a Turkic Mamluk military slave, who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030. Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab; the wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni. The raids did not extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms; the Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173. He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world. Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.
Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time. Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others. After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves, the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin, due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk dynasty. Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210. After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish. Iltutmish's power was precarious, a number of Muslim amirs challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power, his rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, this led to a series of wars.
Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He
Samatata was an ancient geopolitical micro-realm within the larger Bengal region in the eastern Indian subcontinent. The Greco-Roman account of Sounagoura is linked to the kingdom of Samatata, its territory corresponded to much of present-day eastern Bangladesh. The area covers the trans-Meghna part of the Bengal delta, it was a center of Buddhist civilization before the resurgence of Hinduism and Muslim conquest in the region. Archaeological evidence in the Wari-Bateshwar ruins punch-marked coins, indicate that Samatata was a province of the Mauryan Empire; the region attained a distinct Buddhist identity following the collapse of Mauryan rule. The Allahabad pillar inscriptions of the Indian emperor Samudragupta describe Samatata as a tributary state. Samatata gained prominence as an independent kingdom during the reigns of the Khadga dynasty and Chandra dynasty between the 7th and 9th centuries. During this period, the rulers of Samatata reigned over parts of Arakan and Assam. Chinese travelers provide an elaborate description of the kingdom during the 7th century.
Xuanzang visited the kingdom. Records of the Sena dynasty include mention of Samatata as a haven for Sena kings who escaped the Muslim conquest of western Bengal during the 13th century; the area was absorbed by the forces of the Delhi Sultanate. Samatata has been described by various similar names, including Samatat/Samata/Saknat/Sankat/Sankanat. On the basis of the evidence provided by inscriptions, Chinese writings, archaeological evidence, it can be deduced that Samatata covered the trans-Meghna territories, it included areas along the banks of its tributaries. It included the Bangladeshi Channel Islands of Sandwip, it included the hilly regions of Tripura, Bangladesh's Chittagong and Cox's Bazar districts. Samatata's erstwhile neighbors included the geopolitical divisions of Vanga and Kamarupa; the Roman geographer Ptolemy wrote about a trading post called Souanagoura in the eastern part of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The archaeologist Sufi Mostafizur Rahman believes the riverside citadel in the Wari-Bateshwar ruins was the city-state of Sounagoura.
According to Ptolemy, Sounagoura was located on the bank of the Brahmaputra River and was an "emporium", a term used by the Roman Empire to refer to a trading colony set up by Roman merchants. The Brahmaputra River flowed down from the Himalayas and to the east of Wari-Bateshwar before joining the Meghna River on its way to the Bay of Bengal. Ptolemy's account places Sounagoura near the old course of the Brahmaputra River; the Brahmaputra changed its course following an earthquake in 1783. Excavations in Wari-Bateshwar reveal an urban and monetary civilization since the pre-Mauryan period. Archaeologist and historian Dilip Kumar Chakrabarti considers Wari-Bateshwar to be a part of the trans-Meghna region. In a book edited by Patrick Olivelle, Chakrabarti states "It appears that Wari-Bateshwar belongs to the Samatata tract. Till now this is the only early historic site reported from this tract, but the fact that it existed as early as the mid-fifth century BCE in this part of Bangladesh shows the geographical unit of Samatata, although inscriptionally documented in the fourth century CE, has a much earlier antiquity which touches the Mahajanapada period.
Secondly, on the basis of the fact that Wari-Bateshwar is a fortified settlement, we argue that in addition to its character as a manufacturing and trading center, it was an administrative center and most to be the ancient capital of the Samatata region". Soon after the death of emperor Ashoka, the Mauryan Empire declined and the eastern part of Bengal became the state of Samatata; the rulers of the erstwhile state remain unknown. During the Gupta Empire, the Indian emperor Samudragupta recorded Samatata as a "frontier kingdom" which paid an annual tribute; this was recorded by Samudragupta's inscription on the Allahabad pillar, which states the following in lines 22-23. Samudragupta, whose formidable rule was propitiated with the payment of all tributes, execution of orders and visits for obeisance by such frontier rulers as those of Samataṭa, Ḍavāka, Kāmarūpa, Nēpāla, Kartṛipura, and, by the Mālavas, Ārjunāyanas, Yaudhēyas, Mādrakas, Ābhīras, Prārjunas, Sanakānīkas, Kākas and other nations Samatata's recorded independent dynasties are the Khadga dynasty and Chandra dynasty.
The Khadgas were from Vanga but conquered Samatata. A Chinese account of the Khadga king Rajabhata places the royal capital of Karmanta-vasaka in Samatata; the Chandras were an important Buddhist dynasty and ruled over Samatata and Arakan. The Chandras were powerful enough to withstand the Pala Empire to the northwest. Samatata was a flourishing center of Buddhism; as devout Tantric Buddhists, the Chandras established their religious and administrative center in the archaeological site of Mainamati. The Chandras were notable for seafaring networks; the ports of Samatata were linked to ports in present-day Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. The Chandras may have played a role in the spread of Mahayana Buddhism in Southeast Asia. Bronze sculptures may have been imported by Java from Samatata; the Srivijaya Empire's embassies to the Pala court ma
Partition of Bengal (1947)
The Partition of Bengal in 1947, part of the Partition of India, divided the British Indian province of Bengal based on the Radcliffe Line between India and Pakistan. Predominantly Hindu West Bengal became a state of India, predominantly Muslim East Bengal became a province of Pakistan. On 20 June 1947, the Bengal Legislative Assembly met to decide the future of the Bengal Presidency, on whether it would be a United Bengal within India or Pakistan. At the preliminary joint session, the assembly decided by 120 votes to 90 that it should remain united if it joined the new Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. A separate meeting of legislators from West Bengal decided by 58 votes to 21 that the province should be partitioned and that West Bengal should join the existing Constituent Assembly of India. In another separate meeting of legislators from East Bengal, it was decided by 106 votes to 35 that that province should not be partitioned and 107 votes to 34 that East Bengal should join Pakistan in the event of partition.
On 6 July 1947, the Sylhet referendum decided to sever Sylhet from Assam and merge it into East Bengal. The partition, with the power transferred to Pakistan and India on 14–15 August 1947, was done according to what has come to be known as the "3 June Plan" or "Mountbatten Plan". India's independence on 15 August 1947 ended over 150 years of British influence in the Indian subcontinent. East Bengal became the independent country of Bangladesh after the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. In 1905, the first partition in Bengal was implemented as an administrative preference, making governing the two provinces and East Bengal, easier. While the partition split the province between West Bengal, in which the majority was Hindu, the East, where the majority was Muslim, the 1905 partition left considerable minorities of Hindus in East Bengal and Muslims in West Bengal. While the Muslims were in favour of the partition, as they would have their own province, Hindus were not; this controversy led to increased violence and protest and in 1911, the two provinces were once again united.
However, the disagreements between Hindus and Muslims in Bengal which had sparked the Partition of Bengal in 1905 still remained and laws, including the Partition of Bengal in 1947, were implemented to fulfill the political needs of the parties involved. As per the plan, on 20 June 1947, The members of the Bengal Legislative Assembly cast three separate votes on the proposal to partition Bengal: In the joint session of the house, composed of all the members of the Assembly, the division of the joint session of the House stood at 126 votes against and 90 votes for joining the existing Constituent Assembly Then the members of the Muslim-majority areas of Bengal in a separate session passed a motion by 106–35 votes against partitioning Bengal and instead joining a new Constituent Assembly as a whole; this was followed by the separate meeting of the members of the non-Muslim-majority areas of Bengal who by a division of 58–21 voted for partition of the province. Under the Mountbatten Plan, a single majority vote in favour of partition by either notionally divided half of the Assembly would have decided the division of the province, hence the house proceedings on 20 June resulted in the decision to partition Bengal.
This set the stage for the creation of West Bengal as a province of the Union of India and East Bengal as a province of the Dominion of Pakistan. In accordance with the Mountbatten Plan, in a referendum held on 7 July, the electorate of Sylhet voted to join East Bengal. Further, the Boundary Commission headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe decided on the territorial demarcation between the two newly created provinces. Power was transferred to Pakistan and India on 14 and 15 August under the Indian Independence Act 1947. After it became apparent that the division of India on the basis of the Two-nation theory would certainly result in the partition of the Bengal province along religious lines, Bengal provincial Muslim League leader Suhrawardy came up with a new plan to create an independent Bengal state that would join neither Pakistan nor India and remain unpartitioned. Suhrawardy realised that if Bengal was partitioned, it would be economically disastrous for East Bengal as all coal mines, all jute mills but two and other industrial plants would go to the western part since these were in an overwhelmingly Hindu majority area.
Most important of all, Calcutta the largest city in India, an industrial and commercial hub and the largest port, would go to the western part. Suhrawardy floated his idea on 24 April 1947 at a press conference in Delhi. However, the plan directly ran counter to that of the Muslim League's, which demanded the creation of a separate Muslim homeland on the basis of the two-nation theory. Bengal provincial Muslim League leadership opinion was divided. Barddhaman's League leader Abul Hashim supported it. On the other hand, Nurul Amin and Mohammad Akram Khan opposed it, but Muhammad Ali Jinnah realised the validity of Suhrawardy's argument and gave his tacit support to the plan. After Jinnah's approval, Suhrawardy started gathering support for his plan. On the Congress side, only a handful of leaders agreed to the plan. Among them was the influential Bengal provincial congress leader Sarat Chandra Bose, the elder brother of Netaji and Kiran Shankar Roy; however most other BPCC leaders and Congress leadership including Nehru and Patel rejected the plan.
The Hindu nationalist party Hindu Mahasabha under the leadership of Shyama Prasad Mukherjee vehemently opposed it. Their opinion was that the plan is nothing but a ploy by Suhrawardy to stop the partition of the state so that the industrially developed western part includi
The Sur Empire was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Afghan origin who ruled a large territory in northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Sasaram in modern-day Bihar serving as its capital. The empire was founded by Sher Shah Suri, an ethnic Afghan of the tribal house of Sur, who supplanted the Mughal dynasty as rulers of North India during the reign of the ineffectual second Mughal Humayun. Sher Shah defeated badshah-i-Hind Humayun in the Battle of Chausa and again in the Battle of Bilgram; the Sur dynasty held control of nearly all the Mughal territories, from modern-day eastern Afghanistan in the west to Bengal in modern-day Bangladesh in the east. During the 17-year rule of the Sur dynasty, until the return of the Mughals to the throne, the region of the South Asia witnessed much economic development and administrative reforms. A systematised relationship was created between the people and the ruler, minimising corruption and the oppression of the public.
Their rule came to an end by a defeat. It was at the time of this bounty of Sultán Bahlol, that the grandfather of Sher Sháh, by name Ibráhím Khán Súr,* with his son Hasan Khán, the father of Sher Sháh, came to Hindu-stán from Afghánistán, from a place, called in the Afghán tongue "Shargarí,"* but in the Multán tongue "Rohrí." It is a ridge, a spur of the Sulaimán Mountains, about six or seven kos in length, situated on the banks of the Gumal. They entered into the service of Muhabbat Khán Súr, Dáúd Sáhú-khail, to whom Sultán Bahlol had given in jágír the parganas of Hariána and Bahkála, etc. in the Panjáb, they settled in the pargana of Bajwára. Sur Delhi Sultanate List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
Chandannagar or Chandernagore is a city and a municipal corporation of Hooghly district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is headquarter of Chandannagore subdivision, it is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority. It is a former French colony, located in the western bank of Hooghly River; the city has been able to maintain a unique identity different from all other cities and abide by her own characteristics. The name Chandannagar is derived from the shape of the bank of the river Hooghly, bent like a half moon, so it was chander nagar. From the river bank it looked like a moon-shaped necklace; some local people say. In some old documents the spelling of Chandannagar was Chandernagore which came from Chandra Nagar. To mention, Chandra is Bengali of Moon. One more reason behind the name is, in Chandernagore there is a temple of Goddess'Chandi'. So it may have come from there, but earlier people knew the place by the name Farasdanga or "France donmgi" as it was a French colony.
The name Pharasdanga appears in Bengali literature. Chandannagar came into being colonial times, proved conclusively by the fact that no mention of the town is found in medieval Bengali texts like Chandimangal and Manasamangal. Historians are of the opinion that the French created the town by amalgamating various smaller localities in the area; the three notable villages to be incorporated were Gondolpara to the South, Boro in the North and Khalisani to the West. The name "Chandernagor" can be first found in the letter dated 1696, intended for the officials of French East India Company, dispatched by Andre Boureau Deslandes and Palle, French officials posted in Chandernagore; the First Director of the French East India Company, Deslandes paid 40,000 coins to the Mughal subahdar in 1688 to gain control of the area and build a factory there. But the first Frenchman to possess any subsequent land holding in this area was Du Plessis who bought land of 13 Arpents at Boro Kishanganj, now located at North Chandannagar for Taka 401 in the year 1673-74.
The prosperity of Chandannagar as a French colony started soon after. At this time the Company establishment consisted of 1 Director, 5 members who formed a council, 15 merchants and shopkeepers, 2 notaries, 2 padres, 2 doctors and 1 Sutradhar; the army consisted of 130 foot soldiers, 20 among them were Indians. The Fort de Orleans was constructed in the year 1696-97 and was better defended than its French and British counterparts. After the initial success the French trade languished due to the lax policy of its Directors. In 1730 Joseph François Dupleix was appointed governor of the city, during whose administration more than two thousand brick houses were erected in the town and a considerable maritime trade was carried on, it attracted people from all over India who came and settled here for trade and commerce. The population of the city reached to be around a lakh at this time and the fledgling town of Calcutta was a poor cousin of Chandannagar. From Dupleix's time to 1756, Chandannagar was the main center for European commerce in Bengal.
The city had thriving centres of trade involving Opium, Silk, Rope, Sugar etc. The fine clothes of Chandannagar was imported to Europe. One of the premier men of the town who made it big at this time was Indranarayan Chaudhari, he had arrived at the end of the seventeenth century from Jessore as an orphan sheltered at his maternal grandfather's house. He secured a job at the Company out of his own industriousness and went on to gain a tremendous fortune being associated with the burgeoning trade of the Company; when the British seized his house after the sack of 1756, cash and jewelry worth 65 lakhs was secured from his house alone. Nandadulal Temple, a temple to Krishna established by him still houses the secret chamber in which he hid his immense fortune, recovered by Clive. Maharaj Krishna Chandra of Krishnanagar would come to him to lend money. In 1756 war broke out between France and Great Britain, Colonel Robert Clive of the British East India Company and Admiral Charles Watson of the British Navy bombarded and captured Chandannagar on 23 March 1757.
The town's fortifications and many houses were demolished thereafter, Chandannagar's importance as a commercial center was eclipsed by that of Calcutta situated down river. Chandernagore was restored to the French in 1763, but retaken by the British in 1794 in the Napoleonic Wars; the city was returned to France in 1816, along with a 3 sq mi enclave of surrounding territory. It was governed as part of French India until 1850, under the political control of the governor-general in Pondicherry. By 1900 the town's former commercial importance was gone, it was little more than a quiet suburb of Calcutta, with a population of 25,000, but it was noted with many elegant residences along the riverbank. The chief festival of French Chandernagore was the Fete National, commemorating the establishment of the French Republic. Like the other three French occupied colonies of India, Chandernagore was under Pondicherry. There was only one Governor for the entire French India, he lived in the principal city of Pondicherry, from time to time he would visit the colonies.
There was one Administrator under the Governor in each colony. Though there were courts and magistrates here, a separate judge used to come from Pondicherry for session trials. There was a High court in Pondicherry for filing an appeal; the Collectorates, the Education Department, the Housing Department etc. were all under the said depar
History of Bengal
The history of Bengal is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia. It includes modern-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley, located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta; the advancement of civilisation in Bengal dates back four millennia. The region was known to Romans as Gangaridai; the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers act as a geographic marker of the region, but connects the region to the broader Indian subcontinent. Bengal, at times, has played an important role in the history of the Indian subcontinent; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period. A thalassocracy and an entrepôt of the historic Silk Road, Ancient Bengal established colonies on Indian Ocean islands and in Southeast Asia.
The region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas. It was a bastion of regional kingdoms; the citadel of Gauda served as capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. This era saw the development of Bengali language, literature, music and architecture; the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent absorbed Bengal into the medieval Islamic and Persianate worlds. Between the 1204 and 1352, Bengal was a province of the Delhi Sultanate; this era saw the introduction of the taka as monetary currency, which has endured into the modern era. An independent Bengal Sultanate was formed in 1352 and ruled the region for two centuries, during which a distinct form of Islam based on Sufism and the Bengali language emerged; the ruling elite turned Bengal into the easternmost haven of Indo-Persian culture. The Sultans exerted influence in the Arakan region of Southeast Asia, where Buddhist kings copied the sultanate's governance and fashion. A relationship with Ming China flourished under the sultanate.
The Bengal Sultanate was notable for its Hindu aristocracy, including the rise of Raja Ganesha and his son Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah as usurpers. Hindus served in the royal administration as prime poets. Under the patronage of Sultans like Alauddin Hussain Shah, Bengali literature began replacing the strong influence of Sanskrit in the region. Hindu principalities included the Koch Kingdom, Kingdom of Mallabhum, Kingdom of Bhurshut and Kingdom of Tripura. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Isa Khan, a Muslim Rajput chief, who led the Baro Bhuiyans, dominated the Bengal delta. Following the decline of the sultanate, Bengal came under the suzerainty of the Mughal Empire, as its wealthiest province. Under the Mughals, Bengal Subah generated 50% of the empire's gross domestic product and 12% of the world's GDP, According to economic historian Indrajit Ray, it was globally prominent in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding, with the capital Dhaka having a population exceeding a million people and being more wealthy than all European empires.
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire led to quasi-independent states under the Nawabs of Bengal, subsequent Maratha expeditions in Bengal, the conquest by the British East India Company. The British took control of the region from the late 18th century; the company consolidated their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and Battle of Buxar in 1764 and by 1793 took complete control of the region. The plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain, with the capital amassed from Bengal used to invest in British industries such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and increase British wealth, while at the same time leading to deindustrialisation in Bengal. Kolkata served for many years as the capital of British controlled territories in India; the early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in the expansion of Western education, culminating in development of science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali renaissance.
A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal—a state of India—and East Bengal—a part of the newly created Dominion of Pakistan that became the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971. The exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang/Banga that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE. Other accounts speculate that the name is derived from Venga, which came from the Austric word "Bonga" meaning the Sun-god. According to the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Harivamsha, Vanga was one of the adopted sons of King Vali who founded the Vanga Kingdom, it was either under Kalinga Rules except few years under Pals. The earliest reference to "Vangala" has been traced in the Nesari plates of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala; the records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, use the term Vangaladesa.
The term Bangalah is one of the precursors to the modern terms Bengal an