1.
Parts per Billion
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Parts Per Billion is a 2014 romantic drama written and directed by Brian Horiuchi. Erik, a musician who lives off his familys considerable wealth, clashes with his girlfriend, Anna. At the same time, Len and Mia, a married couple, Len, a depressed and unemployed writer, struggles to find direction in his life. He confesses to his sister, a nurse named Sarah, that he has taken his wife, Mia, Mia, an accomplished lawyer, has just successfully represented Andy, a scientist of some renown, from accusations of selling trade secrets to a research facility in the 1970s. Anna, worried about visions that she has had recently of an apocalypse that involve a young girl, confides in Rick, Lens best friend. Andy, Eriks grandfather, insists that he take more money, misunderstanding Eriks motives, Andy accuses Erik of being too good to take his money, as it was made through the production of biological weapons. Although Andy admits that he knew that the research was likely unethical, his wife, Esther, brushes off his guilt, meanwhile, the situation in the Middle East worsens considerably. Biological weapons are at first rumored to have deployed, then proven. Although the United States urges calm, Europe suffers massive casualties as trade winds blow the toxins westward, Andy, aware of the worst-case scenarios, urges Sarah to take appropriate precautions when she attends to him and his wife. Sarah in turn alerts Len, who takes Mia into their basement, as panic spreads through the country following loss of contact with the East Coast, Rick attempts to purchase a survival kit. When he comes up short of money, he grabs one and begs to be given a chance for survival, Andy and Esther survive through the use of oxygen tanks. Esther, an optimist, believes that Erik and Anna have survived somehow, but Andy, flashbacks interspersed with Andys and Esthers argument show Erik and Anna playfully flirting, having sex, and celebrating the news that Anna is pregnant. The flashbacks end with the apparent deaths of both Anna and Erik as they lie in bed, Andy and Esther set out to the local hospital to recover more oxygen tanks, where they discover Sarahs body. Discouraged, Esther begins to lose the will to live, at the same time, Len and Mia debate whether they should commit suicide together. Len is hurt by Mias admission that she failed to discourage a coworker from falling in love with her, Mia mocks Lens Adam and Eve scenario where they rebuild civilization, but Len begs her to stay with him, Mia tearfully pauses on the basement stairs. In the final scene, the girl that Anna saw in her visions earlier is depicted finding Annas ring and showing it to her mother. However, conflicting shooting schedules with another film, The Twilight Saga, New Moon, on December 12,2012, AKA/Bow Street Films announced that Teresa Palmer, Penn Badgley, Hill Harper and Alexis Bledel had joined the cast. Shooting was scheduled to begin in Detroit and last all through Christmas, also announced as cast members were Gena Rowlands, Frank Langella, Josh Hartnett, Molly Haskell, and Jennifer Levine
2.
Science
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Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations, disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws, over the course of the 19th century, the word science became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other, for example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense and they were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal and empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides, although his work Peri Physeos is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides ἐὸν may refer to a system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. Physis may be identical to ἐὸν and he criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however. Aristotle later created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and he rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, while the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being, they did not argue for any other types of applied science
3.
Engineering
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The term Engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning cleverness and ingeniare, meaning to contrive, devise. Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the wedge, lever, wheel, each of these inventions is essentially consistent with the modern definition of engineering. The term engineering is derived from the engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engineer originally referred to a constructor of military engines. In this context, now obsolete, a referred to a military machine. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, the word engine itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep, as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC. Ancient Greece developed machines in both civilian and military domains, the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed, the first steam engine was built in 1698 by Thomas Savery. The development of this gave rise to the Industrial Revolution in the coming decades. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering, the fields then known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. The inventions of Thomas Newcomen and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to mechanical engineering. The development of specialized machines and machine tools during the revolution led to the rapid growth of mechanical engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the father of civil engineering. He was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and he was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime and his lighthouse remained in use until 1877 and was dismantled and partially rebuilt at Plymouth Hoe where it is known as Smeatons Tower. The United States census of 1850 listed the occupation of engineer for the first time with a count of 2,000, there were fewer than 50 engineering graduates in the U. S. before 1865. In 1870 there were a dozen U. S. mechanical engineering graduates, in 1890 there were 6,000 engineers in civil, mining, mechanical and electrical. There was no chair of applied mechanism and applied mechanics established at Cambridge until 1875, the theoretical work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of electronics
4.
Fraction (mathematics)
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A fraction represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fraction describes how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, eight-fifths, three-quarters. A common, vulgar, or simple fraction consists of an integer numerator displayed above a line, numerators and denominators are also used in fractions that are not common, including compound fractions, complex fractions, and mixed numerals. The numerator represents a number of parts, and the denominator. For example, in the fraction 3/4, the numerator,3, tells us that the fraction represents 3 equal parts, the picture to the right illustrates 34 or ¾ of a cake. Fractional numbers can also be written without using explicit numerators or denominators, by using decimals, percent signs, an integer such as the number 7 can be thought of as having an implicit denominator of one,7 equals 7/1. Other uses for fractions are to represent ratios and to represent division, thus the fraction ¾ is also used to represent the ratio 3,4 and the division 3 ÷4. The test for a number being a number is that it can be written in that form. In a fraction, the number of parts being described is the numerator. Informally, they may be distinguished by placement alone but in formal contexts they are separated by a fraction bar. The fraction bar may be horizontal, oblique, or diagonal and these marks are respectively known as the horizontal bar, the slash or stroke, the division slash, and the fraction slash. In typography, horizontal fractions are known as en or nut fractions and diagonal fractions as em fractions. The denominators of English fractions are expressed as ordinal numbers. When the denominator is 1, it may be expressed in terms of wholes but is commonly ignored. When the numerator is one, it may be omitted, a fraction may be expressed as a single composition, in which case it is hyphenated, or as a number of fractions with a numerator of one, in which case they are not. Fractions should always be hyphenated when used as adjectives, alternatively, a fraction may be described by reading it out as the numerator over the denominator, with the denominator expressed as a cardinal number. The term over is used even in the case of solidus fractions, Fractions with large denominators that are not powers of ten are often rendered in this fashion while those with denominators divisible by ten are typically read in the normal ordinal fashion. A simple fraction is a number written as a/b or a b
5.
Units of measurement
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A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same quantity. Any other value of quantity can be expressed as a simple multiple of the unit of measurement. For example, length is a physical quantity, the metre is a unit of length that represents a definite predetermined length. When we say 10 metres, we actually mean 10 times the definite predetermined length called metre, the definition, agreement, and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to this day. Different systems of units used to be very common, now there is a global standard, the International System of Units, the modern form of the metric system. In trade, weights and measures is often a subject of regulation, to ensure fairness. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures is tasked with ensuring worldwide uniformity of measurements, metrology is the science for developing nationally and internationally accepted units of weights and measures. In physics and metrology, units are standards for measurement of quantities that need clear definitions to be useful. Reproducibility of experimental results is central to the scientific method, a standard system of units facilitates this. Scientific systems of units are a refinement of the concept of weights, science, medicine, and engineering often use larger and smaller units of measurement than those used in everyday life and indicate them more precisely. The judicious selection of the units of measurement can aid researchers in problem solving, in the social sciences, there are no standard units of measurement and the theory and practice of measurement is studied in psychometrics and the theory of conjoint measurement. A unit of measurement is a quantity of a physical property. Units of measurement were among the earliest tools invented by humans, primitive societies needed rudimentary measures for many tasks, constructing dwellings of an appropriate size and shape, fashioning clothing, or bartering food or raw materials. Weights and measures are mentioned in the Bible and it is a commandment to be honest and have fair measures. As of the 21st Century, multiple unit systems are used all over the world such as the United States Customary System, the British Customary System, however, the United States is the only industrialized country that has not yet completely converted to the Metric System. The systematic effort to develop an acceptable system of units dates back to 1790 when the French National Assembly charged the French Academy of Sciences to come up such a unit system. After this treaty was signed, a General Conference of Weights, the CGPM produced the current SI system which was adopted in 1954 at the 10th conference of weights and measures. Currently, the United States is a society which uses both the SI system and the US Customary system
6.
Trillion (short scale)
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This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities. Mathematics – Writing, Approximately 10−183,800 is a rough first estimate of the probability that a monkey, however, taking punctuation, capitalization, and spacing into account, the actual probability is far lower, around 10−360,783. Computing, The number 1×10−6176 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 6. 5×10−4966 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 3. 6×10−4951 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a 80-bit x86 double-extended IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−398 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 4. 9×10−324 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−101 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a single-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Mathematics, The probability in a game of bridge of all four players getting a complete suit is approximately 4. 47×10−28. ISO, yocto- ISO, zepto- Mathematics, The probability of matching 20 numbers for 20 in a game of keno is approximately 2.83 × 10−19. ISO, atto- Mathematics, The probability of rolling snake eyes 10 times in a row on a pair of dice is about 2. 74×10−16. ISO, micro- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 649,739 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 72,192 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a four of a kind in poker are 4,164 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.4 × 10−4. ISO, milli- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a full house in poker are 693 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10−3. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 507.8 to 1 against, Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a straight in poker are 253.8 to 1 against, for a probability of 4 × 10−3. Physics, α =0.007297352570, the fine-structure constant, ISO, deci- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt only one pair in poker are about 5 to 2 against, for a probability of 0.42. Demography, The population of Monowi, a village in Nebraska. Mathematics, √2 ≈1.414213562373095489, the ratio of the diagonal of a square to its side length. Mathematics, φ ≈1.618033988749895848, the golden ratio Mathematics, the number system understood by most computers, human scale, There are 10 digits on a pair of human hands, and 10 toes on a pair of human feet. Mathematics, The number system used in life, the decimal system, has 10 digits,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
7.
Chemistry
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Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. Chemistry is sometimes called the science because it bridges other natural sciences, including physics. For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics, the history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world. The word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to a set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism. An alchemist was called a chemist in popular speech, and later the suffix -ry was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as chemistry, the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία and this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, which is in turn derived from the word Chemi or Kimi, which is the ancient name of Egypt in Egyptian. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning cast together, in retrospect, the definition of chemistry has changed over time, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. The term chymistry, in the view of noted scientist Robert Boyle in 1661, in 1837, Jean-Baptiste Dumas considered the word chemistry to refer to the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular forces. More recently, in 1998, Professor Raymond Chang broadened the definition of chemistry to mean the study of matter, early civilizations, such as the Egyptians Babylonians, Indians amassed practical knowledge concerning the arts of metallurgy, pottery and dyes, but didnt develop a systematic theory. Greek atomism dates back to 440 BC, arising in works by such as Democritus and Epicurus. In 50 BC, the Roman philosopher Lucretius expanded upon the theory in his book De rerum natura, unlike modern concepts of science, Greek atomism was purely philosophical in nature, with little concern for empirical observations and no concern for chemical experiments. Work, particularly the development of distillation, continued in the early Byzantine period with the most famous practitioner being the 4th century Greek-Egyptian Zosimos of Panopolis. He formulated Boyles law, rejected the four elements and proposed a mechanistic alternative of atoms. Before his work, though, many important discoveries had been made, the Scottish chemist Joseph Black and the Dutchman J. B. English scientist John Dalton proposed the theory of atoms, that all substances are composed of indivisible atoms of matter. Davy discovered nine new elements including the alkali metals by extracting them from their oxides with electric current, british William Prout first proposed ordering all the elements by their atomic weight as all atoms had a weight that was an exact multiple of the atomic weight of hydrogen. The inert gases, later called the noble gases were discovered by William Ramsay in collaboration with Lord Rayleigh at the end of the century, thereby filling in the basic structure of the table. Organic chemistry was developed by Justus von Liebig and others, following Friedrich Wöhlers synthesis of urea which proved that organisms were, in theory
8.
Gram
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The gram is a metric system unit of mass. Originally defined as the weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre. The only unit symbol for gram that is recognised by the International System of Units is g following the numeric value with a space, the SI does not support the use of abbreviations such as gr, gm or Gm. The word gramme was adopted by the French National Convention in its 1795 decree revising the system as replacing the gravet introduced in 1793. Its definition remained that of the weight of a centimetre of water. French gramme was taken from the Late Latin term gramma and this word, ultimately from Greek γράμμα letter had adopted a specialised meaning in Late Antiquity of one twenty-fourth part of an ounce, corresponding to about 1.14 grams. This use of the term is found in the carmen de ponderibus et mensuris composed around 400 AD, the gram was the fundamental unit of mass in the 19th-century centimetre–gram–second system of units. The gram is today the most widely used unit of measurement for non-liquid ingredients in cooking and grocery shopping worldwide. 1 gram =15.4323583529 grains 1 grain =0.06479891 grams 1 avoirdupois ounce =28.349523125 grams 1 troy ounce =31.1034768 grams 100 grams =3.527396195 ounces 1 gram =5 carats 1 gram =8. 1 gram is roughly equal to 1 small paper clip or pen cap, the Japanese 1 yen coin has a mass of one gram. Conversion of units Duella Gold gram Orders of magnitude Gram at Encyclopædia Britannica
9.
Physics
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Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. One of the most fundamental disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy, Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs, the United Nations named 2005 the World Year of Physics. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, the stars and planets were often a target of worship, believed to represent their gods. While the explanations for these phenomena were often unscientific and lacking in evidence, according to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy. The most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn Al-Haitham, in which he was not only the first to disprove the ancient Greek idea about vision, but also came up with a new theory. In the book, he was also the first to study the phenomenon of the pinhole camera, many later European scholars and fellow polymaths, from Robert Grosseteste and Leonardo da Vinci to René Descartes, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, were in his debt. Indeed, the influence of Ibn al-Haythams Optics ranks alongside that of Newtons work of the same title, the translation of The Book of Optics had a huge impact on Europe. From it, later European scholars were able to build the devices as what Ibn al-Haytham did. From this, such important things as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes, Physics became a separate science when early modern Europeans used experimental and quantitative methods to discover what are now considered to be the laws of physics. Newton also developed calculus, the study of change, which provided new mathematical methods for solving physical problems. The discovery of new laws in thermodynamics, chemistry, and electromagnetics resulted from greater research efforts during the Industrial Revolution as energy needs increased, however, inaccuracies in classical mechanics for very small objects and very high velocities led to the development of modern physics in the 20th century. Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory, both of these theories came about due to inaccuracies in classical mechanics in certain situations. Quantum mechanics would come to be pioneered by Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, from this early work, and work in related fields, the Standard Model of particle physics was derived. Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities, in many ways, physics stems from ancient Greek philosophy
10.
Metre
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The metre or meter, is the base unit of length in the International System of Units. The metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299792458 seconds, the metre was originally defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole. In 1799, it was redefined in terms of a metre bar. In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86. In 1983, the current definition was adopted, the imperial inch is defined as 0.0254 metres. One metre is about 3 3⁄8 inches longer than a yard, Metre is the standard spelling of the metric unit for length in nearly all English-speaking nations except the United States and the Philippines, which use meter. Measuring devices are spelled -meter in all variants of English, the suffix -meter has the same Greek origin as the unit of length. This range of uses is found in Latin, French, English. Thus calls for measurement and moderation. In 1668 the English cleric and philosopher John Wilkins proposed in an essay a decimal-based unit of length, as a result of the French Revolution, the French Academy of Sciences charged a commission with determining a single scale for all measures. In 1668, Wilkins proposed using Christopher Wrens suggestion of defining the metre using a pendulum with a length which produced a half-period of one second, christiaan Huygens had observed that length to be 38 Rijnland inches or 39.26 English inches. This is the equivalent of what is now known to be 997 mm, no official action was taken regarding this suggestion. In the 18th century, there were two approaches to the definition of the unit of length. One favoured Wilkins approach, to define the metre in terms of the length of a pendulum which produced a half-period of one second. The other approach was to define the metre as one ten-millionth of the length of a quadrant along the Earths meridian, that is, the distance from the Equator to the North Pole. This means that the quadrant would have defined as exactly 10000000 metres at that time. To establish a universally accepted foundation for the definition of the metre, more measurements of this meridian were needed. This portion of the meridian, assumed to be the length as the Paris meridian, was to serve as the basis for the length of the half meridian connecting the North Pole with the Equator
11.
Celsius
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Celsius, also known as centigrade, is a metric scale and unit of measurement for temperature. As an SI derived unit, it is used by most countries in the world and it is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius, who developed a similar temperature scale. The degree Celsius can refer to a temperature on the Celsius scale as well as a unit to indicate a temperature interval. Before being renamed to honour Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, and gradus, which means steps. The scale is based on 0° for the point of water. This scale is widely taught in schools today, by international agreement the unit degree Celsius and the Celsius scale are currently defined by two different temperatures, absolute zero, and the triple point of VSMOW. This definition also precisely relates the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale, absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being precisely 0 K and −273.15 °C. The temperature of the point of water is defined as precisely 273.16 K at 611.657 pascals pressure. This definition fixes the magnitude of both the degree Celsius and the kelvin as precisely 1 part in 273.16 of the difference between absolute zero and the point of water. Thus, it sets the magnitude of one degree Celsius and that of one kelvin as exactly the same, additionally, it establishes the difference between the two scales null points as being precisely 273.15 degrees. In his paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer, he recounted his experiments showing that the point of ice is essentially unaffected by pressure. He also determined with precision how the boiling point of water varied as a function of atmospheric pressure. He proposed that the point of his temperature scale, being the boiling point. This pressure is known as one standard atmosphere, the BIPMs 10th General Conference on Weights and Measures later defined one standard atmosphere to equal precisely 1013250dynes per square centimetre. On 19 May 1743 he published the design of a mercury thermometer, in 1744, coincident with the death of Anders Celsius, the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus reversed Celsiuss scale. In it, Linnaeus recounted the temperatures inside the orangery at the University of Uppsala Botanical Garden, since the 19th century, the scientific and thermometry communities worldwide referred to this scale as the centigrade scale. Temperatures on the scale were often reported simply as degrees or. More properly, what was defined as centigrade then would now be hectograde.2 gradians, for scientific use, Celsius is the term usually used, with centigrade otherwise continuing to be in common but decreasing use, especially in informal contexts in English-speaking countries
12.
Thermal expansion
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Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature. Temperature is a function of the average molecular kinetic energy of a substance. When a substance is heated, the energy of its molecules increases. Thus, the molecules begin vibrating/moving more and usually maintain an average separation. Materials which contract with increasing temperature are unusual, this effect is limited in size, the degree of expansion divided by the change in temperature is called the materials coefficient of thermal expansion and generally varies with temperature. If an equation of state is available, it can be used to predict the values of the expansion at all the required temperatures and pressures. A number of contract on heating within certain temperature ranges. For example, the coefficient of expansion of water drops to zero as it is cooled to 3. Also, fairly pure silicon has a coefficient of thermal expansion for temperatures between about 18 and 120 Kelvin. Unlike gases or liquids, solid materials tend to keep their shape when undergoing thermal expansion, in general, liquids expand slightly more than solids. The thermal expansion of glasses is higher compared to that of crystals, at the glass transition temperature, rearrangements that occur in an amorphous material lead to characteristic discontinuities of coefficient of thermal expansion and specific heat. These discontinuities allow detection of the transition temperature where a supercooled liquid transforms to a glass. Absorption or desorption of water can change the size of common materials. Common plastics exposed to water can, in the long term, the coefficient of thermal expansion describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature. Specifically, it measures the change in size per degree change in temperature at a constant pressure. Several types of coefficients have been developed, volumetric, area, which is used depends on the particular application and which dimensions are considered important. For solids, one might only be concerned with the change along a length, the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient is the most basic thermal expansion coefficient, and the most relevant for fluids. In general, substances expand or contract when their temperature changes, substances that expand at the same rate in every direction are called isotropic
13.
Standard deviation
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In statistics, the standard deviation is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values. The standard deviation of a variable, statistical population, data set. It is algebraically simpler, though in practice less robust, than the absolute deviation. A useful property of the deviation is that, unlike the variance. There are also other measures of deviation from the norm, including mean absolute deviation, in addition to expressing the variability of a population, the standard deviation is commonly used to measure confidence in statistical conclusions. For example, the margin of error in polling data is determined by calculating the standard deviation in the results if the same poll were to be conducted multiple times. This derivation of a deviation is often called the standard error of the estimate or standard error of the mean when referring to a mean. It is computed as the deviation of all the means that would be computed from that population if an infinite number of samples were drawn. It is very important to note that the deviation of a population. The reported margin of error of a poll is computed from the error of the mean and is typically about twice the standard deviation—the half-width of a 95 percent confidence interval. The standard deviation is also important in finance, where the standard deviation on the rate of return on an investment is a measure of the volatility of the investment. For a finite set of numbers, the deviation is found by taking the square root of the average of the squared deviations of the values from their average value. For example, the marks of a class of eight students are the eight values,2,4,4,4,5,5,7,9. These eight data points have the mean of 5,2 +4 +4 +4 +5 +5 +7 +98 =5 and this formula is valid only if the eight values with which we began form the complete population. If the values instead were a sample drawn from some large parent population. In that case the result would be called the standard deviation. Dividing by n −1 rather than by n gives an estimate of the variance of the larger parent population. This is known as Bessels correction, as a slightly more complicated real-life example, the average height for adult men in the United States is about 70 inches, with a standard deviation of around 3 inches
14.
Laser rangefinder
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A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder which uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object. Due to the speed of light, this technique is not appropriate for high precision sub-millimeter measurements. The pulse may be coded to reduce the chance that the rangefinder can be jammed and it is possible to use Doppler effect techniques to judge whether the object is moving towards or away from the rangefinder, and if so, how fast. The precision of the instrument is determined by the rise or fall time of the laser pulse, one that uses very sharp laser pulses and has a very fast detector can range an object to within a few millimeters. Some of the light might reflect off leaves or branches which are closer than the object, giving an early return. All these effects have to be taken into account, the distance between point A and B is given by D = c t 2 where c is the speed of light in the atmosphere and t is the amount of time for the round-trip between A and B. T = φ ω where φ is the delay made by the light traveling. Time of flight - this measures the time taken for a pulse to travel to the target. With the speed of light known, and a measurement of the time taken. Many pulses are fired sequentially and the response is most commonly used. This technique requires very accurate sub-nanosecond timing circuitry, multiple frequency phase-shift - this measures the phase shift of multiple frequencies on reflection then solves some simultaneous equations to give a final measure. Interferometry - the most accurate and most useful technique for measuring changes in distance rather than absolute distances, rangefinders provide an exact distance to targets located beyond the distance of point-blank shooting to snipers and artillery. They can also be used for military reconciliation and engineering, handheld military rangefinders operate at ranges of 2 km up to 25 km and are combined with binoculars or monoculars. When the rangefinder is equipped with a magnetic compass and inclinometer it is capable of providing magnetic azimuth, inclination. Some rangefinders can also measure a targets speed in relation to the observer, some rangefinders have cable or wireless interfaces to enable them to transfer their measurement data to other equipment like fire control computers. Some models also offer the possibility to use night vision modules. Most handheld rangefinders use standard or rechargeable batteries, the more powerful models of rangefinders measure distance up to 25 km and are normally installed either on a tripod or directly on a vehicle or gun platform. In the latter case the module is integrated with on-board thermal, night vision
15.
Accuracy and precision
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Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability. The two concepts are independent of other, so a particular set of data can be said to be either accurate, or precise. In the fields of science, engineering and statistics, the accuracy of a measurement system is the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to that quantitys true value. The precision of a measurement system, related to reproducibility and repeatability, is the degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same results. Although the two words precision and accuracy can be synonymous in colloquial use, they are contrasted in the context of the scientific method. A measurement system can be accurate but not precise, precise but not accurate, neither, for example, if an experiment contains a systematic error, then increasing the sample size generally increases precision but does not improve accuracy. The result would be a consistent yet inaccurate string of results from the flawed experiment, eliminating the systematic error improves accuracy but does not change precision. A measurement system is considered if it is both accurate and precise. Related terms include bias and error, the terminology is also applied to indirect measurements—that is, values obtained by a computational procedure from observed data. Statistical literature prefers to use the terms bias and variability instead of accuracy and precision, bias is the amount of inaccuracy and variability is the amount of imprecision. In military terms, accuracy refers primarily to the accuracy of fire, ideally a measurement device is both accurate and precise, with measurements all close to and tightly clustered around the true value. The accuracy and precision of a measurement process is established by repeatedly measuring some traceable reference standard. Such standards are defined in the International System of Units and maintained by national organizations such as the National Institute of Standards. This also applies when measurements are repeated and averaged, further, the central limit theorem shows that the probability distribution of the averaged measurements will be closer to a normal distribution than that of individual measurements. With regard to accuracy we can distinguish, the difference between the mean of the measurements and the value, the bias. Establishing and correcting for bias is necessary for calibration, the combined effect of that and precision. A common convention in science and engineering is to express accuracy and/or precision implicitly by means of significant figures, here, when not explicitly stated, the margin of error is understood to be one-half the value of the last significant place. For instance, a recording of 843.6 m, or 843.0 m, or 800.0 m would imply a margin of 0.05 m, while a recording of 8,436 m would imply a margin of error of 0.5 m
16.
Percentage
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In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100. It is often denoted using the percent sign, %, or the abbreviations pct. pct, a percentage is a dimensionless number. For example, 45% is equal to 45⁄100,45,100, percentages are often used to express a proportionate part of a total. If 50% of the number of students in the class are male. If there are 1000 students, then 500 of them are male, an increase of $0.15 on a price of $2.50 is an increase by a fraction of 0. 15/2.50 =0.06. Expressed as a percentage, this is a 6% increase, while many percentage values are between 0 and 100, there is no mathematical restriction and percentages may take on other values. For example, it is common to refer to 111% or −35%, especially for percent changes, in Ancient Rome, long before the existence of the decimal system, computations were often made in fractions which were multiples of 1⁄100. For example, Augustus levied a tax of 1⁄100 on goods sold at auction known as centesima rerum venalium, computation with these fractions was equivalent to computing percentages. Many of these texts applied these methods to profit and loss, interest rates, by the 17th century it was standard to quote interest rates in hundredths. The term per cent is derived from the Latin per centum, the sign for per cent evolved by gradual contraction of the Italian term per cento, meaning for a hundred. The per was often abbreviated as p. and eventually disappeared entirely, the cento was contracted to two circles separated by a horizontal line, from which the modern % symbol is derived. The percent value is computed by multiplying the value of the ratio by 100. For example, to find 50 apples as a percentage of 1250 apples, first compute the ratio 50⁄1250 =0.04, and then multiply by 100 to obtain 4%. The percent value can also be found by multiplying first, so in this example the 50 would be multiplied by 100 to give 5,000, and this result would be divided by 1250 to give 4%. To calculate a percentage of a percentage, convert both percentages to fractions of 100, or to decimals, and multiply them, for example, 50% of 40% is, 50⁄100 × 40⁄100 =0.50 ×0.40 =0.20 = 20⁄100 = 20%. It is not correct to divide by 100 and use the percent sign at the same time, whenever we talk about a percentage, it is important to specify what it is relative to, i. e. what is the total that corresponds to 100%. The following problem illustrates this point, in a certain college 60% of all students are female, and 10% of all students are computer science majors. If 5% of female students are computer science majors, what percentage of computer science majors are female and we are asked to compute the ratio of female computer science majors to all computer science majors
17.
Brass
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Brass is a metal alloy made of copper and zinc, the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. It is an alloy, atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. By comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin, however, bronze and brass may also include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium, manganese, and silicon. The term is applied to a variety of brasses. Modern practice in museums and archaeology increasingly avoids both terms for objects in favour of the all-embracing copper alloy. It is also used in zippers, Brass is often used in situations in which it is important that sparks not be struck, such as in fittings and tools used near flammable or explosive materials. Brass has higher malleability than bronze or zinc, the relatively low melting point of brass and its flow characteristics make it a relatively easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard, the density of brass is 8.4 to 8.73 grams per cubic centimetre. Today, almost 90% of all alloys are recycled. Because brass is not ferromagnetic, it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet, Brass scrap is collected and transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are heated and extruded into the form and size. The general softness of brass means that it can often be machined without the use of cutting fluid, aluminium makes brass stronger and more corrosion-resistant. Aluminium also causes a highly beneficial hard layer of oxide to be formed on the surface that is thin, transparent. Tin has an effect and finds its use especially in seawater applications. Combinations of iron, aluminium, silicon and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant, to enhance the machinability of brass, lead is often added in concentrations of around 2%. Since lead has a melting point than the other constituents of the brass. The pattern the globules form on the surface of the brass increases the available surface area which in turn affects the degree of leaching. In addition, cutting operations can smear the lead globules over the surface and these effects can lead to significant lead leaching from brasses of comparatively low lead content
18.
Inch
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The inch is a unit of length in the imperial and United States customary systems of measurement now formally equal to 1⁄36 yard but usually understood as 1⁄12 of a foot. Derived from the Roman uncia, inch is also used to translate related units in other measurement systems. The English word inch was a borrowing from Latin uncia not present in other Germanic languages. The vowel change from Latin /u/ to English /ɪ/ is known as umlaut, the consonant change from the Latin /k/ to English /tʃ/ or /ʃ/ is palatalisation. Both were features of Old English phonology, inch is cognate with ounce, whose separate pronunciation and spelling reflect its reborrowing in Middle English from Anglo-Norman unce and ounce. In many other European languages, the word for inch is the same as or derived from the word for thumb, the inch is a commonly used customary unit of length in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. It is also used in Japan for electronic parts, especially display screens, for example, three feet two inches can be written as 3′ 2″. Paragraph LXVII sets out the fine for wounds of various depths, one inch, one shilling, an Anglo-Saxon unit of length was the barleycorn. After 1066,1 inch was equal to 3 barleycorns, which continued to be its legal definition for several centuries, similar definitions are recorded in both English and Welsh medieval law tracts. One, dating from the first half of the 10th century, is contained in the Laws of Hywel Dda which superseded those of Dyfnwal, both definitions, as recorded in Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, are that three lengths of a barleycorn is the inch. However, the oldest surviving manuscripts date from the early 14th century, john Bouvier similarly recorded in his 1843 law dictionary that the barleycorn was the fundamental measure. He noted that this process would not perfectly recover the standard, before the adoption of the international yard and pound, various definitions were in use. In the United Kingdom and most countries of the British Commonwealth, the United States adopted the conversion factor 1 metre =39.37 inches by an act in 1866. In 1930, the British Standards Institution adopted an inch of exactly 25.4 mm, the American Standards Association followed suit in 1933. By 1935, industry in 16 countries had adopted the industrial inch as it came to be known, in 1946, the Commonwealth Science Congress recommended a yard of exactly 0.9144 metres for adoption throughout the British Commonwealth. This was adopted by Canada in 1951, the United States on 1 July 1959, Australia in 1961, effective 1 January 1964, and the United Kingdom in 1963, effective on 1 January 1964. The new standards gave an inch of exactly 25.4 mm,1.7 millionths of a longer than the old imperial inch and 2 millionths of an inch shorter than the old US inch. The United States retains the 1/39. 37-metre definition for survey purposes and this is approximately 1/8-inch in a mile
19.
Metering pump
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A metering pump moves a precise volume of liquid in a specified time period providing an accurate flow rate. Delivery of fluids in precise adjustable flow rates is sometimes called metering, the term metering pump is based on the application or use rather than the exact kind of pump used, although a couple types of pumps are far more suitable than most other types of pumps. Although metering pumps can pump water, they are used to pump chemicals, solutions. Many metering pumps are rated to be able to pump into a discharge pressure. They are typically made to meter at flow rates which are constant within a wide range of discharge pressure. Manufacturers provide each of their models of metering pumps with a discharge pressure rating against which each model is guaranteed to be able to pump against. An engineer, designer, or user should ensure that the pressure and temperature ratings and wetted pump materials are compatible for the application, most metering pumps have a pump head and a motor. The liquid being pumped goes through the head, entering through an inlet line. The motor is commonly an electric motor drives the pump head. Piston-driven metering pumps commonly work as follows, There is a piston, typically cylindrical, the inlet and outlet lines are joined to the piston chamber. There are two valves, often ball check valves, attached to the pump head, one at the inlet line. The inlet valve allows flow from the line to the piston chamber. The outlet valve allows flow from the chamber to the outlet line, the motor repeatedly moves the piston into and out of the piston chamber, causing the volume of the chamber to repeatedly become smaller and larger. When the piston moves out, a vacuum is created, low pressure in the chamber causes liquid to enter and fill the chamber through the inlet check valve, but higher pressure at the outlet causes the outlet valve to shut. Then when the piston moves in, it pressurizes the liquid in the chamber, high pressure in the chamber causes the inlet valve to shut and forces the outlet valve to open, forcing liquid out at the outlet. These alternating suction and discharge strokes are repeated over and over to meter the liquid, in back of the chamber, there is packing around the piston or a doughnut-shaped seal with a toroid-shaped sphincter-like spring inside compressing the seal around the piston. This holds the pressure when the piston slides in and out. The packing or seals can wear out after prolonged use and can be replaced, the metering rate can be adjusted by varying the strokelength by which the piston moves back and forth or varying the speed of the piston motion
20.
Volumetric flow rate
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In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate, is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time, usually represented by the symbol Q. In US customary units and imperial units, volumetric flow rate is expressed as ft3/s or gallons per minute. Volumetric flow rate should not be confused with volumetric flux, as defined by Darcys law and represented by the symbol q, with units of m3/, the integration of a flux over an area gives the volumetric flow rate. Since this is only the derivative of volume, a scalar quantity. Volumetric flow rate can also be defined by, Q = v ⋅ A where, v = flow velocity A = cross-sectional vector area/surface The above equation is true for flat. In general, including curved surfaces, the equation becomes a surface integral, the area required to calculate the volumetric flow rate is real or imaginary, flat or curved, either as a cross-sectional area or a surface. The vector area is a combination of the magnitude of the area through which the volume passes through, A, the reason for the dot product is as follows. The only volume flowing through the cross-section is the amount normal to the area and this amount is, Q = v A cos θ where θ is the angle between the unit normal n̂ and the velocity vector v of the substance elements. The amount passing through the cross-section is reduced by the factor cos θ, as θ increases less volume passes through. Substance which passes tangential to the area, that is perpendicular to the unit normal, when the mass flow rate is known, and the density can be assumed constant, this is an easy way to get Q. Q = m ˙ ρ Where, ṁ = mass flow rate, in internal combustion engines, the time area integral is considered over the range of valve opening. This has to be factored by the width of the valve throat, the answer is usually related to the cylinders swept volume. Air to cloth ratio Discharge Flow measurement Flowmeter Orifice plate Poiseuilles law Stokes flow Units of flow
21.
Gallon
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The gallon is a unit of measurement for liquid capacity in both the US customary units and the British imperial systems of measurement. Three significantly different sizes are in current use, the imperial gallon defined as 4, while there is no official symbol for the gallon, gal is in common use. The gallon currently has one definition in the system. Historically, there were many definitions and redefinitions, there were more than a few systems of liquid measurements in the pre-1884 United Kingdom. The imperial fluid ounce is defined as 1⁄160 of a gallon, there are four quarts in a gallon. The US gallon is legally defined as 231 cubic inches, which is exactly 3.785411784 liters, a US liquid gallon of water weighs about 8.34 pounds or 3.78 kilograms at 62 °F, making it about 16. 6% lighter than the imperial gallon. There are four quarts in a gallon, two pints in a quart and 16 US fluid ounces in a US pint, which makes the US fluid ounce equal to 1⁄128 of a US gallon. For example, the volume of products and alcoholic beverages are both referenced to 60 °F in government regulations. This dry measure is one-eighth of a US Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches, the US dry gallon is not used in commerce, and is not listed in the relevant statute, which jumps from the dry quart to the peck. The Imperial gallon is used in life in the United Kingdom. Gallons used in fuel economy expression in Canada are Imperial gallons, the gallon was removed from the list of legally defined primary units of measure catalogued in the EU directive 80/181/EEC, for trading and official purposes, with effect from 31 December 1994. Under the directive the gallon could still be used – but only as a supplementary or secondary unit, Ireland also passed legislation in response to the EU directive with the effective date being 31 December 1993. Though the gallon has ceased to be the legally defined primary unit, it can still be used in both the UK and Ireland as a supplementary unit. The Imperial gallon continues to be used as a unit of measure in Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Is. Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Myanmar, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines. Other than the United States, the US gallon is used in Liberia, Belize, Colombia, The Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Peru. The United Arab Emirates started selling gasoline by the litre in 2010, along with Guyana, the two former had used the Imperial gallon, and the latter the US gallon until they switched. Antigua and Barbuda plan to switch over to using litres by 2015
22.
Cubic metre
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The cubic metre or cubic meter is the SI derived unit of volume. It is the volume of a cube with one metre in length. An alternative name, which allowed a different usage with metric prefixes, was the stère, another alternative name, no longer widely used, was the kilolitre. A cubic metre of water at the temperature of maximum density and standard atmospheric pressure has a mass of 1000 kg. At 0 °C, the point of water, a cubic metre of water has slightly less mass,999.972 kilograms. It is sometimes abbreviated to cu m, m3, M3, m^3, m**3, CBM, abbreviated CBM and cbm in the freight business and MTQ in international trade. See Orders of magnitude for a comparison with other volumes
23.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy, is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei. This type of spectroscopy determines the physical and chemical properties of atoms or the molecules in which they are contained and it relies on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and can provide detailed information about the structure, dynamics, reaction state, and chemical environment of molecules. Suitable samples range from small compounds analyzed with 1-dimensional proton or carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy to large proteins or nucleic acids using 3 or 4-dimensional techniques. The impact of NMR spectroscopy on the sciences has been substantial because of the range of information, NMR spectra are unique, well-resolved, analytically tractable and often highly predictable for small molecules. Thus, in organic chemistry practice, NMR analysis is used to confirm the identity of a substance, different functional groups are obviously distinguishable, and identical functional groups with differing neighboring substituents still give distinguishable signals. NMR has largely replaced traditional wet chemistry tests such as reagents or typical chromatography for identification. A disadvantage is that a large amount, 2–50 mg, of a purified substance is required. Preferably, the sample should be dissolved in a solvent, because NMR analysis of solids requires a dedicated MAS machine, the timescale of NMR is relatively long, and thus it is not suitable for observing fast phenomena, producing only an averaged spectrum. NMR spectrometers are relatively expensive, universities usually have them, modern NMR spectrometers have a very strong, large and expensive liquid helium-cooled superconducting magnet, because resolution directly depends on magnetic field strength. There are even benchtop NMR spectrometers, the Purcell group at Harvard University and the Bloch group at Stanford University independently developed NMR spectroscopy in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Edward Mills Purcell and Felix Bloch shared the 1952 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discoveries, when placed in a magnetic field, NMR active nuclei absorb electromagnetic radiation at a frequency characteristic of the isotope. The resonant frequency, energy of the absorption, and the intensity of the signal are proportional to the strength of the magnetic field, for example, in a 21 Tesla magnetic field, protons resonate at 900 MHz. It is common to refer to a 21 T magnet as a 900 MHz magnet, spinning the sample is necessary to average out diffusional motion. Whereas, measurements of diffusion constants are done the sample stationary and spinning off, the vast majority of nuclei in a solution would belong to the solvent, and most regular solvents are hydrocarbons and would contain NMR-reactive protons. The most used deuterated solvent is deuterochloroform, although deuterium oxide and deuterated DMSO are used for hydrophilic analytes, the chemical shifts are slightly different in different solvents, depending on electronic solvation effects. NMR spectra are often calibrated against the known solvent residual proton peak instead of added tetramethylsilane, to detect the very small frequency shifts due to nuclear magnetic resonance, the applied magnetic field must be constant throughout the sample volume. High resolution NMR spectrometers use shims to adjust the homogeneity of the field to parts per billion in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. In order to detect and compensate for inhomogeneity and drift in the magnetic field, in modern NMR spectrometers shimming is adjusted automatically, though in some cases the operator has to optimize the shim parameters manually to obtain the best possible resolution
24.
Chemical shift
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In nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the chemical shift is the resonant frequency of a nucleus relative to a standard in a magnetic field. Often the position and number of shifts are diagnostic of the structure of a molecule. Chemical shifts are used to describe signals in other forms of spectroscopy such as photoemission spectroscopy. Some atomic nuclei possess a magnetic moment, which rise to different energy levels. The total magnetic field experienced by a nucleus includes local magnetic fields induced by currents of electrons in the molecular orbitals, the electron distribution of the same type of nucleus usually varies according to the local geometry, and with it the local magnetic field at each nucleus. This is reflected in the energy levels. The variations of magnetic resonance frequencies of the same kind of nucleus. The size of the shift is given with respect to a reference frequency or reference sample. Since the numerator is usually expressed in hertz, and the denominator in megahertz, the detected frequencies for 1H, 13C, and 29Si nuclei are usually referenced against TMS or DSS, which by the definition above have a chemical shift of zero if chosen as the reference. Other standard materials are used for setting the chemical shift for other nuclei, although the absolute resonance frequency depends on the applied magnetic field, the chemical shift is independent of external magnetic field strength. On the other hand, the resolution of NMR will increase with applied magnetic field, the electrons around a nucleus will circulate in a magnetic field and create a secondary induced magnetic field. This field opposes the field as stipulated by Lenzs law and atoms with higher induced fields are therefore called shielded. The chemical milieu of an atom can influence its electron density through the polar effect, electron-donating alkyl groups, for example, lead to increased shielding while electron-withdrawing substituents such as nitro groups lead to deshielding of the nucleus. Not only substituents cause local induced fields, bonding electrons can also lead to shielding and deshielding effects. A striking example of this are the pi bonds in benzene, circular current through the hyperconjugated system causes a shielding effect at the molecules center and a deshielding effect at its edges. Trends in chemical shift are explained based on the degree of shielding or deshielding, nuclei are found to resonate in a wide range to the left of the internal standard. In real molecules protons are surrounded by a cloud of charge due to adjacent bonds, in an applied magnetic field electrons circulate and produce an induced field which opposes the applied field. The effective field at the nucleus will be B = B0 − Bi, the nucleus is said to be experiencing a diamagnetic shielding
25.
100 (number)
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100 or one hundred is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. In medieval contexts, it may be described as the hundred or five score in order to differentiate the English. The standard SI prefix for a hundred is hecto-,100 is the basis of percentages, with 100% being a full amount. 100 is the sum of the first nine prime numbers, as well as the sum of pairs of prime numbers e. g.3 +97,11 +89,17 +83,29 +71,41 +59. 100 is the sum of the cubes of the first four integers and this is related by Nicomachuss theorem to the fact that 100 also equals the square of the sum of the first four integers,100 =102 =2. 26 +62 =100, thus 100 is a Leyland number and it is divisible by the number of primes below it,25 in this case. It can not be expressed as the difference between any integer and the total of coprimes below it, making it a noncototient and it can be expressed as a sum of some of its divisors, making it a semiperfect number. 100 is a Harshad number in base 10, and also in base 4, there are exactly 100 prime numbers whose digits are in strictly ascending order. 100 is the smallest number whose common logarithm is a prime number,100 senators are in the U. S One hundred is the atomic number of fermium, an actinide. On the Celsius scale,100 degrees is the temperature of pure water at sea level. The Kármán line lies at an altitude of 100 kilometres above the Earths sea level and is used to define the boundary between Earths atmosphere and outer space. There are 100 blasts of the Shofar heard in the service of Rosh Hashana, a religious Jew is expected to utter at least 100 blessings daily. In Hindu Religion - Mythology Book Mahabharata - Dhritarashtra had 100 sons known as kauravas, the United States Senate has 100 Senators. Most of the currencies are divided into 100 subunits, for example, one euro is one hundred cents. The 100 Euro banknotes feature a picture of a Rococo gateway on the obverse, the U. S. hundred-dollar bill has Benjamin Franklins portrait, the Benjamin is the largest U. S. bill in print. American savings bonds of $100 have Thomas Jeffersons portrait, while American $100 treasury bonds have Andrew Jacksons portrait, One hundred is also, The number of years in a century. The number of pounds in an American short hundredweight, in Greece, India, Israel and Nepal,100 is the police telephone number. In Belgium,100 is the ambulance and firefighter telephone number, in United Kingdom,100 is the operator telephone number
26.
Per mille
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A per mille, also spelled per mil, per mill, permil, permill, or permille is a sign indicating parts per thousand. Per mil should not be confused with parts per million, the sign is written ‰, which looks like a percent sign with an extra zero in the divisor. It is included in the General Punctuation block of Unicode characters and it is accessible in Windows using ALT+0137. The term is common in other European languages where it is used in contexts, such as blood alcohol content. Examples of common use include, Legal limits of blood-alcohol content for driving a vehicle in some countries. Seawater salinity, for example, the salinity is 35‰
27.
Finance
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Finance is a field that deals with the study of investments. It includes the dynamics of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty, Finance can also be defined as the science of money management. Finance aims to price assets based on their level and their expected rate of return. Finance can be broken into three different sub-categories, public finance, corporate finance and personal finance. g, health and property insurance, investing and saving for retirement. Personal finance may also involve paying for a loan, or debt obligations, net worth is a persons balance sheet, calculated by adding up all assets under that persons control, minus all liabilities of the household, at one point in time. Household cash flow totals up all the sources of income within a year. From this analysis, the financial planner can determine to what degree, adequate protection, the analysis of how to protect a household from unforeseen risks. These risks can be divided into the following, liability, property, death, disability, health, some of these risks may be self-insurable, while most will require the purchase of an insurance contract. Determining how much insurance to get, at the most cost effective terms requires knowledge of the market for personal insurance, business owners, professionals, athletes and entertainers require specialized insurance professionals to adequately protect themselves. Since insurance also enjoys some tax benefits, utilizing insurance investment products may be a piece of the overall investment planning. Tax planning, typically the income tax is the single largest expense in a household, managing taxes is not a question of if you will pay taxes, but when and how much. Government gives many incentives in the form of tax deductions and credits, most modern governments use a progressive tax. Typically, as ones income grows, a marginal rate of tax must be paid. Understanding how to take advantage of the tax breaks when planning ones personal finances can make a significant impact in which it can later save you money in the long term. Investment and accumulation goals, planning how to accumulate enough money - for large purchases, major reasons to accumulate assets include, purchasing a house or car, starting a business, paying for education expenses, and saving for retirement. Achieving these goals requires projecting what they will cost, and when you need to withdraw funds that will be necessary to be able to achieve these goals, a major risk to the household in achieving their accumulation goal is the rate of price increases over time, or inflation. Using net present value calculators, the planner will suggest a combination of asset earmarking. In order to overcome the rate of inflation, the investment portfolio has to get a higher rate of return, managing these portfolio risks is most often accomplished using asset allocation, which seeks to diversify investment risk and opportunity
28.
1,000,000
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One million or one thousand thousand is the natural number following 999,999 and preceding 1,000,001. The word is derived from the early Italian millione, from mille, thousand and it is commonly abbreviated as m or M, further MM, mm, or mn in financial contexts. In scientific notation, it is written as 1×106 or 106, physical quantities can also be expressed using the SI prefix mega, when dealing with SI units, for example,1 megawatt equals 1,000,000 watts. The meaning of the word million is common to the scale and long scale numbering systems, unlike the larger numbers. Information, Not counting spaces, the text printed on 136 pages of an Encyclopædia Britannica, length, There are one million millimeters in a kilometer, and roughly a million sixteenths of an inch in a mile. A typical car tire might rotate a million times in a 1, 200-mile trip, fingers, If the width of a human finger is 2.2 cm, then a million fingers lined up would cover a distance of 22 km. If a person walks at a speed of 4 km/h, it would take approximately five. A city lot 70 by 100 feet is about a million square inches, volume, The cube root of one million is only one hundred, so a million objects or cubic units is contained in a cube only a hundred objects or linear units on a side. A million grains of salt or granulated sugar occupies only about 64 ml. One million cubic inches would be the volume of a room only 8 1⁄3 feet long by 8 1⁄3 feet wide by 8 1⁄3 feet high. Mass, A million cubic millimeters of water would have a volume of one litre, a million millilitres or cubic centimetres of water has a mass of a million grams or one tonne. Weight, A million 80-milligram honey bees would weigh the same as an 80 kg person, landscape, A pyramidal hill 600 feet wide at the base and 100 feet high would weigh about a million tons. Computer, A display resolution of 1,280 by 800 pixels contains 1,024,000 pixels, money, A USD bill of any denomination weighs 1 gram. There are 454 grams in a pound, one million $1 bills would weigh 2,204.62 pounds, or just over 1 ton. Time, A million seconds is 11.57 days, in Indian English and Pakistani English, it is also expressed as 10 lakh or 10 Lac. Lakh is derived from laksh for 100,000 in Sanskrit
29.
Rangefinder
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A rangefinder is a device that measures distance from the observer to a target, in a process called ranging. Active methods use unilateral transmission and passive reflection, Active rangefinding methods include laser, radar, sonar, lidar and ultrasonic rangefinding. Other devices measure distance using trigonometry, older methodologies that use a set of known information, usually distances or target sizes, to make the measurement, have been in regular use since the 18th century. Special ranging makes use of actively synchronized transmission and travel time measurements and this principle is used with SatNav, the Satellite Navigation class of systems. In conjunction with a model of the Globe surface a certain location on the Globe may be determined with high accuracy. Ranging methods without accurate time synchronization of the receiver are called pseudorange, with other systems ranging is obtained from passive radiation measurements only, hence the noise or radiation signature of the object is generating the signal that is computed for range. Ranging is the term merely applying for distance metering with moving objects, combining several metering results in a time sequence leads to tracking and tracing. Commonly used term for residing terrestrial objects is surveying, applications include surveying, navigation, to assist focusing in photography, choosing a golf club according to distance, and correcting aim of a projectile weapon for distance. Laser rangefinders are used for many today, including golf. People can use this technology not only to measure the yardage of a particular shot, the technology makes it very simple to obtain a yardage. In a typical rangefinder, one aims the reticle at the flagstick, there has been debate over whether they should be allowed in tournaments. While their use is banned on the level, they are becoming widely used on the amateur level. Rangefinders may be used by users of firearms over long distances, the laser rangefinder displays a luminous dot that may alert a target. Rangefinders are used for surveying in forestry, special devices with anti-leaf filters are used. Since the 1990s, rangefinders have been used in virtual reality systems to detect operator movements, fiske Dazzle camouflage Range-finder painting The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. Further considerations of defocus rangefinders Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control 27, pp. 297–316 Ward, A. Jones, A and Hopper, A. A New Location Technique for the Active Office IEEE Personal Communications 4, pp. 42–47 Werb, J. and Lanzi, designing a positioning system for finding things arid people indoors IEEE Spectrum 35, pp. 71–78 Range-Finding in the Army
30.
1,000,000,000
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1,000,000,000 is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. One billion can also be written as b or bn, in scientific notation, it is written as 1 ×109. The SI prefix giga indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit, one billion years may be called eon in astronomy and geology. Previously in British English, the word billion referred exclusively to a million millions, however, this is no longer as common as earlier, and the word has been used to mean one thousand million for some time. The alternative term one thousand million is used in the U. K. or countries such as Spain that uses one thousand million as one million million constitutes a billion. The worded figure, as opposed to the figure is used to differentiate between one thousand million or one billion. The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000, whereas milliard is seldom used in English, in the South Asian numbering system, it is known as 100 crore or 1 Arab. 1000000007 – smallest prime number with 10 digits,1023456789 – smallest pandigital number in base 10. 1026753849 – smallest pandigital square that includes 0,1073741824 –2301073807359 – 14th Kynea number. 1162261467 –3191220703125 –513 1232922769- 35113^2 Centered hexagonal number,1234567890 – pandigital number with the digits in order. 1882341361 – The least prime whose reversal is both square and triangular,1977326743 –7112147483647 – 8th Mersenne prime and the largest signed 32-bit integer. 2147483648 –2312176782336 –6122214502422 – 6th primary pseudoperfect number,2357947691 –1192971215073 – 11th Fibonacci prime. 3405691582 – hexadecimal CAFEBABE, used as a placeholder in programming,3405697037 – hexadecimal CAFED00D, used as a placeholder in programming. 3735928559 – hexadecimal DEADBEEF, used as a placeholder in programming,3486784401 –3204294836223 – 16th Carol number. 4294967291 – Largest prime 32-bit unsigned integer,4294967295 – Maximum 32-bit unsigned integer, perfect totient number, product of the five prime Fermat numbers. 4294967296 –2324294967297 – the first composite Fermat number,6103515625 –5146210001000 – only self-descriptive number in base 10. 6975757441 –1786983776800 – 15th colossally abundant number, 15th superior highly composite number 7645370045 – 27th Pell number,8589934592 –2339043402501 – 25th Motzkin number. 9814072356 – largest square pandigital number, largest pandigital pure power,9876543210 – largest number without redundant digits
31.
Orders of magnitude (numbers)
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This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities. Mathematics – Writing, Approximately 10−183,800 is a rough first estimate of the probability that a monkey, however, taking punctuation, capitalization, and spacing into account, the actual probability is far lower, around 10−360,783. Computing, The number 1×10−6176 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 6. 5×10−4966 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 3. 6×10−4951 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a 80-bit x86 double-extended IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−398 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 4. 9×10−324 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−101 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a single-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Mathematics, The probability in a game of bridge of all four players getting a complete suit is approximately 4. 47×10−28. ISO, yocto- ISO, zepto- Mathematics, The probability of matching 20 numbers for 20 in a game of keno is approximately 2.83 × 10−19. ISO, atto- Mathematics, The probability of rolling snake eyes 10 times in a row on a pair of dice is about 2. 74×10−16. ISO, micro- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 649,739 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 72,192 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a four of a kind in poker are 4,164 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.4 × 10−4. ISO, milli- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a full house in poker are 693 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10−3. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 507.8 to 1 against, Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a straight in poker are 253.8 to 1 against, for a probability of 4 × 10−3. Physics, α =0.007297352570, the fine-structure constant, ISO, deci- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt only one pair in poker are about 5 to 2 against, for a probability of 0.42. Demography, The population of Monowi, a village in Nebraska. Mathematics, √2 ≈1.414213562373095489, the ratio of the diagonal of a square to its side length. Mathematics, φ ≈1.618033988749895848, the golden ratio Mathematics, the number system understood by most computers, human scale, There are 10 digits on a pair of human hands, and 10 toes on a pair of human feet. Mathematics, The number system used in life, the decimal system, has 10 digits,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
32.
Age of the Earth
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The age of the Earth is 4.54 ±0.05 billion years. This dating is based on evidence from radiometric age-dating of meteorite material and is consistent with the ages of the oldest-known terrestrial. Following the development of radiometric age-dating in the early 20th century, the oldest such minerals analyzed to date—small crystals of zircon from the Jack Hills of Western Australia—are at least 4.404 billion years old. Comparing the mass and luminosity of the Sun to those of other stars and it is hypothesised that the accretion of Earth began soon after the formation of the calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions and the meteorites. It is also difficult to determine the age of the oldest rocks on Earth, exposed at the surface. Studies of strata, the layering of rocks and earth, gave naturalists an appreciation that Earth may have been many changes during its existence. These layers often contained fossilized remains of creatures, leading some to interpret a progression of organisms from layer to layer. Nicolas Steno in the 17th century was one of the first naturalists to appreciate the connection between fossil remains and strata and his observations led him to formulate important stratigraphic concepts. In the 1790s, William Smith hypothesized that if two layers of rock at widely differing locations contained similar fossils, then it was plausible that the layers were the same age. William Smiths nephew and student, John Phillips, later calculated by means that Earth was about 96 million years old. In the mid-18th century, the naturalist Mikhail Lomonosov suggested that Earth had been created separately from, and several hundred years before. In 1779 the Comte du Buffon tried to obtain a value for the age of Earth using an experiment, He created a globe that resembled Earth in composition. This led him to estimate that Earth was about 75,000 years old, other naturalists used these hypotheses to construct a history of Earth, though their timelines were inexact as they did not know how long it took to lay down stratigraphic layers. This was a challenge to the view, which saw the history of Earth as static. Many naturalists were influenced by Lyell to become uniformitarians who believed that changes were constant, in 1862, the physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin published calculations that fixed the age of Earth at between 20 million and 400 million years. He assumed that Earth had formed as a completely molten object, geologists such as Charles Lyell had trouble accepting such a short age for Earth. For biologists, even 100 million years seemed much too short to be plausible, in Darwins theory of evolution, the process of random heritable variation with cumulative selection requires great durations of time. In a lecture in 1869, Darwins great advocate, Thomas H. Huxley, attacked Thomsons calculations and their values were consistent with Thomsons calculations
33.
International Bureau of Weights and Measures
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The organisation is usually referred to by its French initialism, BIPM. The BIPM reports to the International Committee for Weights and Measures and these organizations are also commonly referred to by their French initialisms. The BIPM was created on 20 May 1875, following the signing of the Metre Convention, under the authority of the Metric Convention, the BIPM helps to ensure uniformity of SI weights and measures around the world. It does so through a series of committees, whose members are the national metrology laboratories of the Conventions member states. The BIPM carries out measurement-related research and it takes part in and organises international comparisons of national measurement standards and performs calibrations for member states. The BIPM has an important role in maintaining accurate worldwide time of day and it combines, analyses, and averages the official atomic time standards of member nations around the world to create a single, official Coordinated Universal Time. The BIPM is also the keeper of the prototype of the kilogram. Metrologia Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements International Organization for Standardization National Institute of Standards and Technology Official website
34.
France
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France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
35.
International System of Units
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The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, the system also establishes a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system was published in 1960 as the result of an initiative began in 1948. It is based on the system of units rather than any variant of the centimetre-gram-second system. The motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the CGS systems, the International System of Units has been adopted by most developed countries, however, the adoption has not been universal in all English-speaking countries. The metric system was first implemented during the French Revolution with just the metre and kilogram as standards of length, in the 1830s Carl Friedrich Gauss laid the foundations for a coherent system based on length, mass, and time. In the 1860s a group working under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science formulated the requirement for a coherent system of units with base units and derived units. Meanwhile, in 1875, the Treaty of the Metre passed responsibility for verification of the kilogram, in 1921, the Treaty was extended to include all physical quantities including electrical units originally defined in 1893. The units associated with these quantities were the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, in 1971, a seventh base quantity, amount of substance represented by the mole, was added to the definition of SI. On 11 July 1792, the proposed the names metre, are, litre and grave for the units of length, area, capacity. The committee also proposed that multiples and submultiples of these units were to be denoted by decimal-based prefixes such as centi for a hundredth, on 10 December 1799, the law by which the metric system was to be definitively adopted in France was passed. Prior to this, the strength of the magnetic field had only been described in relative terms. The technique used by Gauss was to equate the torque induced on a magnet of known mass by the earth’s magnetic field with the torque induced on an equivalent system under gravity. The resultant calculations enabled him to assign dimensions based on mass, length, a French-inspired initiative for international cooperation in metrology led to the signing in 1875 of the Metre Convention. Initially the convention only covered standards for the metre and the kilogram, one of each was selected at random to become the International prototype metre and International prototype kilogram that replaced the mètre des Archives and kilogramme des Archives respectively. Each member state was entitled to one of each of the prototypes to serve as the national prototype for that country. Initially its prime purpose was a periodic recalibration of national prototype metres. The official language of the Metre Convention is French and the version of all official documents published by or on behalf of the CGPM is the French-language version
36.
International Organization for Standardization
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The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary and it is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and as of March 2017 works in 162 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic, ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 162 member countries. It is the worlds largest developer of international standards and facilitates world trade by providing common standards between nations. Nearly twenty thousand standards have been set covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety, use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality. The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste, by enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis. The standards also serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, the three official languages of the ISO are English, French, and Russian. The name of the organization in French is Organisation internationale de normalisation, according to the ISO, as its name in different languages would have different abbreviations, the organization adopted ISO as its abbreviated name in reference to the Greek word isos. However, during the meetings of the new organization, this Greek word was not invoked. Both the name ISO and the logo are registered trademarks, the organization today known as ISO began in 1926 as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations. ISO is an organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISOs strategic objectives, the organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva. A Council with a membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance. The Technical Management Board is responsible for over 250 technical committees, ISO has formed joint committees with the International Electrotechnical Commission to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies. Information technology ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 was created in 1987 to evelop, maintain, ISO has three membership categories, Member bodies are national bodies considered the most representative standards body in each country. These are the members of ISO that have voting rights. Correspondent members are countries that do not have their own standards organization and these members are informed about ISOs work, but do not participate in standards promulgation. Subscriber members are countries with small economies and they pay reduced membership fees, but can follow the development of standards
37.
Long and short scales
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Thus, billion means a million millions, trillion means a million billions, and so on. Short scale Every new term greater than million is one thousand times larger than the previous term, thus, billion means a thousand millions, trillion means a thousand billions, and so on. For whole numbers less than a million the two scales are identical. From a thousand million up the two scales diverge, using the words for different numbers, this can cause misunderstanding. Countries where the scale is currently used include most countries in continental Europe and most French-speaking, Spanish-speaking. The short scale is now used in most English-speaking and Arabic-speaking countries, in Brazil, in former Soviet Union, number names are rendered in the language of the country, but are similar everywhere due to shared etymology. Some languages, particularly in East Asia and South Asia, have large number naming systems that are different from both the long and short scales, for example the Indian numbering system. After several decades of increasing informal British usage of the scale, in 1974 the government of the UK adopted it. With very few exceptions, the British usage and American usage are now identical, the first recorded use of the terms short scale and long scale was by the French mathematician Geneviève Guitel in 1975. At and above a million the same names are used to refer to numbers differing by a factor of an integer power of 1,000. Each scale has a justification to explain the use of each such differing numerical name. The short-scale logic is based on powers of one thousand, whereas the long-scale logic is based on powers of one million, in both scales, the prefix bi- refers to 2 and tri- refers to 3, etc. However only in the scale do the prefixes beyond one million indicate the actual power or exponent. In the short scale, the prefixes refer to one less than the exponent, the word, million, derives from the Old French, milion, from the earlier Old Italian, milione, an intensification of the Latin word, mille, a thousand. That is, a million is a big thousand, much as a great gross is a dozen gross or 12×144 =1728, the word, milliard, or its translation, is found in many European languages and is used in those languages for 109. However, it is unknown in American English, which uses billion, and not used in British English, which preferred to use thousand million before the current usage of billion. The financial term, yard, which derives from milliard, is used on financial markets, as, unlike the term, billion, it is internationally unambiguous and phonetically distinct from million. Likewise, many long scale use the word billiard for one thousand long scale billions