Gulfport is the second-largest city in Mississippi after the state capital, Jackson. Along with Biloxi, Gulfport is the other county seat of Harrison County and the larger of the two principal cities of the Gulfport-Biloxi, Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula, Mississippi Combined Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the city of Gulfport had a total population of 67,793. It is home to the US Navy Atlantic Fleet Seabees; this area was occupied by indigenous cultures for thousands of years, culminating in the historic Choctaw encountered by European explorers. Along the Gulf Coast, French colonists founded nearby Biloxi, Mobile in the 18th century, well before the area was acquired from France by the United States in 1803 in the Louisiana Purchase. By the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the United States completed treaties to extinguish Choctaw and other tribal land claims and removed them to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. In that period, the other four of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Southeast were removed, to make way for white settlers to take over the lands and develop them for agriculture cotton.
An early settlement near this location, known as Mississippi City, appeared on a map of Mississippi from 1855. Mississippi City was the county seat of Harrison County from 1841 to 1902, but is now a suburb in east Gulfport. Gulfport was incorporated on July 28, 1898; the city was founded by William H. Hardy, president of the Gulf and Ship Island Railroad that connected inland lumber mills to the coast, he was joined by Joseph T. Jones, who took over the G&SIRR, dredged the harbor in Gulfport, opened the shipping channel to the sea. In 1902, the harbor was completed and the Port of Gulfport became a working seaport, it now accounts for millions of dollars in annual sales and tax revenue for the state of Mississippi. In 1910, the U. S. Post Office and Customhouse was built here; this Gulfport Post office was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. In March 1916, Mayor George M. Foote announced that the Andrew Carnegie foundation was going to aid in construction of a Carnegie Library in Gulfport.
The city had agreed to providing matching funds for the construction as well as committing to provide operating funds. In the 20th century, the city developed as an important port; the city's location on the coast made it vulnerable to hurricanes and it weathered several. But on August 17, 1969, Gulfport and the Mississippi Gulf Coast were hit by Hurricane Camille. Measured by central pressure, Camille was the second-strongest hurricane to make U. S. land fall in recorded history. The area of total destruction in Harrison County was 68 square miles; the total estimated cost of damage was $1.42 billion. Camille was the second-most expensive hurricane in the United States, up to that point; the storm directly killed 143 people in Alabama and Louisiana. In December 1993, the City annexed 33 square miles north of Gulfport, making it the second-largest city in Mississippi. On August 29, 2005, Gulfport was hit by the strong eastern side of Hurricane Katrina. Much of the city was flooded or destroyed in one day by the strong, hurricane-force winds, which lasted more than 16 hours, a storm surge exceeding 28 feet in some sections.
Hurricane Katrina damaged more than 40 Mississippi libraries, gutting the Gulfport Public Library, first floor, breaking windows on the second floor, beyond repair. It required total reconstruction. Although Katrina's damage was far more widespread, it was not the fiercest hurricane to hit Gulfport. Katrina, a Category 3 storm, was dwarfed by Hurricane Camille, a Category 5 storm, which had hit Gulfport and neighboring communities on August 17, 1969 with 175 mph sustained winds compared to Katrina's 120 mph sustained winds; the Sun Herald newspaper in Biloxi-Gulfport, under the executive editor Stanley R. Tiner, won the 2006 Pulitzer Prize in journalism for its Katrina coverage; the local ABC television affiliate, WLOX, won the Peabody Award for its Hurricane Katrina coverage. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 64.2 sq mi, of which 56.9 sq mi is land and 7.3 sq mi is water. Gulfport Formation, here named in Harrison Co. southeastern MS, described as barrier ridge composed of white, medium- to fine-grained sand, yellow-orange near surface.
Thickness ranges form 5.0 to 9.5 m. Overlies Biloxi Formation. Age is late Pleistocene. Gulfport Formation is limited to a 1- to 3-km-wide discontinuous barrier ridge belt that borders the Gulf mainland shore. Overlies Prairie Formation landward and Biloxi Formation near shore. Grades upward from poorly to moderately sorted shoreface sands to foreshore sand and dunes. Fig. 1 shows unit extending from Gulfport, MS, eastward to the mouth of the Ochlockonee River, Franklin Co. FL. Deposited during the Sangamonian. Gulfport has a humid subtropical climate, moderated by the Gulf of Mexico. Winters are short and warm, cold spells do occur, but last long. Snow flurries are rare with no notable accumulation occurring most years. Summers are long and humid, though the city's proximity to the Gulf prevents extreme summer highs, as seen farther inland. Gulfport is subject to extreme weather, most notably tropical storm activity through the Gulf of Mexico. According to the census of 2010, there were 67,793 people residing in the city.
The population density was 1,191.4 people per square mile. The city had
Bayou La Batre, Alabama
Bayou La Batre is a town in Mobile County, United States. It is included in the Mobile metropolitan statistical area. At the 2000 census, the population was 2,313. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 2,558. Bayou La Batre is a fishing village with a seafood-processing harbor for fishing boats and shrimp boats; the local Chamber of Commerce has described the city as the "Seafood Capital of Alabama" for packaging seafood from hundreds of fishing boats. Bayou La Batre was the first permanent settlement on the south Mobile County mainland and was founded in 1786, when French-born Joseph Bouzage was awarded a 1,259-acre Spanish land grant on the West Bank of the bayou; the modern City of Bayou La Batre was incorporated in 1955. Bayou La Batre was featured in the book upon which it is based. In April 2005, Disney Studios launched a secretly built pirate ship, the Black Pearl, out of Bayou La Batre for filming sequels to Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl.
Bayou La Batre's seafood industry serves as a centerpiece for the History channel's reality documentary series Big Shrimpin'. On August 29, 2005, the area was devastated by Hurricane Katrina, which produced the largest storm surge recorded in the area, reaching nearly 16 ft and pushing many shrimp boats and the cargo ship M/V Caribbean Clipper onto shore; as part of the French settlement of the Gulf Coast, the bayou was called "Riviere D'Erbane" and acquired the present name from the French-maintained battery of artillery on the west bank. Bayou La Batre was the first permanent settlement on the south Mobile County mainland and was founded in 1786, when Joseph Bouzage moved into the area and was awarded a 1,259-acre Spanish land grant on the bayou's west bank. Born in Poitiers, Joseph Bouzage came to the Gulf Coast circa 1760, married Catherine Louise Baudreau on June 5, 1762, was the father of seven children, including one son, Jean Baptiste. On August 29, 2005, the area was devastated by Hurricane Katrina, with a local storm surge of nearly 16-foot and higher waves that engulfed Bayou La Batre and pushed over 23 shrimp boats and the cargo ship M/V Caribbean Clipper onto shore.
The captain rode out Katrina on the 179-foot cargo ship, owned by Caribbean Shipping Inc. and the ship was returned to sea six months using a large crane. On September 7th, the Hurricane Katrina Update for libraries affected by the storm indicated that the Bayou La Batre Public Library had been destroyed. Students from the Alba Middle School documented the destruction through a series of photos that were exhibited at various venues in Alabama and the Chicago, Illinois region; some of these were published in a book titled Eyes of the Storm: A Community Survives after Katrina. Following the hurricane a group of high school students from Sierra High School in Truckee, California adopted the town of Bayou La Batre, they sent $15,000, 15 students to help rebuild homes. Students gathered donations, sold raffle tickets, filled their school's gym with supplies from bedding and clothes to basic household items; the school set up a pen pal program with the students of the nearby school in Bayou La Batre.
In October 2005, seven weeks after Hurricane Katrina, Bayou La Batre was adopted by the City of Santa Monica, California to assist in clean-up activities. The Santa Monica City Council approved loaning Bayou La Batre 18 vehicles, including six pickups, two trucks with large cranes, utility vehicles with smaller cranes, a dump truck, street sweepers, a riding lawnmower, six chainsaws; the equipment was used to help remove fishing boats from downtown. Bayou La Batre is a center for shipbuilding; the shipyards are owned and operated by local families such as Gazzier Marine Services, Horizon Shipbuilding, Steiner Ship Yard, Rodriguez Boat Builders, Master Boat Builders, Williams Fabrication, Landry Boat Works. People from all over the world including the United States, South America, Africa have boats built in Bayou La Batre frequently. In 2005, Steiner Ship Yard was asked by Walt Disney Studios to build the Black Pearl. Crews sailed the ship out of the bayou to the Caribbean for the filming of sequels to Disney's 2003 film "Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl".
Another ship, the FV Cornelia Marie from the Deadliest Catch series, was built in Bayou La Batre in 1989. Bayou La Batre is located at 30°24′12″N 88°14′53″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.2 square miles,of which 4.0 square miles is land, 0.2 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bayou La Batre has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the 2010 Census, Bayou La Batre had a population of 2,558. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 60.3% white, 12.3% black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 22.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from some other race, 3.2% from two or more races and 2.8% Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,313 people, 769 households, 599 families residing in the city. T
Etymology is the study of the history of words. By extension, the term "the etymology" means the origin of the particular word and for place names, there is a specific term, toponymy. For Greek—with a long written history—etymologists make use of texts, texts about the language, to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods and when they entered the language. Etymologists apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary. In this way, word roots have been found that can be traced all the way back to the origin of, for instance, the Indo-European language family. Though etymological research grew from the philological tradition, much current etymological research is done on language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian.
The word etymology derives from the Greek word ἐτυμολογία, itself from ἔτυμον, meaning "true sense", the suffix -logia, denoting "the study of". In linguistics, the term etymon refers to a word or morpheme from which a word derives. For example, the Latin word candidus, which means "white", is the etymon of English candid. Etymologists apply a number of methods to study the origins of words, some of which are: Philological research. Changes in the form and meaning of the word can be traced with the aid of older texts, if such are available. Making use of dialectological data; the form or meaning of the word might show variations between dialects, which may yield clues about its earlier history. The comparative method. By a systematic comparison of related languages, etymologists may be able to detect which words derive from their common ancestor language and which were instead borrowed from another language; the study of semantic change. Etymologists must make hypotheses about changes in the meaning of particular words.
Such hypotheses are tested against the general knowledge of semantic shifts. For example, the assumption of a particular change of meaning may be substantiated by showing that the same type of change has occurred in other languages as well. Etymological theory recognizes that words originate through a limited number of basic mechanisms, the most important of which are language change, borrowing. While the origin of newly emerged words is more or less transparent, it tends to become obscured through time due to sound change or semantic change. Due to sound change, it is not obvious that the English word set is related to the word sit, it is less obvious that bless is related to blood. Semantic change may occur. For example, the English word bead meant "prayer", it acquired its modern meaning through the practice of counting the recitation of prayers by using beads. English derives from Old English, a West Germanic variety, although its current vocabulary includes words from many languages; the Old English roots may be seen in the similarity of numbers in English and German seven/sieben, eight/acht, nine/neun, ten/zehn.
Pronouns are cognate: I/mine/me and ich/mein/mich. However, language change has eroded many grammatical elements, such as the noun case system, simplified in modern English, certain elements of vocabulary, some of which are borrowed from French. Although many of the words in the English lexicon come from Romance languages, most of the common words used in English are of Germanic origin; when the Normans conquered England in 1066, they brought their Norman language with them. During the Anglo-Norman period, which united insular and continental territories, the ruling class spoke Anglo-Norman, while the peasants spoke the vernacular English of the time. Anglo-Norman was the conduit for the introduction of French into England, aided by the circulation of Langue d'oïl literature from France; this led to many paired words of English origin. For example, beef is related, through borrowing, to modern French bœuf, veal to veau, pork to porc, poultry to poulet. All these words and English, refer to the meat rather than to the animal.
Words that refer to farm animals, on the other hand, tend to be cognates of words in other Germanic languages. For example, swine/Schwein, cow/Kuh, calf/Kalb, sheep/Schaf; the variant usage has been explained by the proposition that it was the Norman rulers who ate meat and the Anglo-Saxons who farmed the animals. This explanation has been disputed. English has proved accommodating to words from many languages. Scientific terminology, for example, relies on words of Latin and Greek origin, but there are a great many non-scientific examples. Spanish has contributed many words in the southwestern United States. Examples include buckaroo, rodeo and states' names such as Colorado and Florida. Albino, lingo and coconut from Portuguese. Modern French has contributed café, naive and many more. Smorgasbord, slalom
The Sioux known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects; the modern Sioux consist of two major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota and Lakota. The Santee Dakota reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas and northern Iowa; the Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota, collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, reside in the Minnesota River area. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota; the actual Nakota are the Stoney of Western Canada and Montana. The Lakota called Teton, are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture. Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Montana in the United States; the Sioux people refer to the Great Sioux Nation as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, meaning "Seven Council Fires").
Each fire is a symbol of an oyate. Today the seven nations that comprise the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ are the Thítȟuŋwaŋ, Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute, Sisíthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, they are referred to as the Lakota or Dakota as based upon dialect differences. In any of the dialects, Lakota or Dakota translates to mean "friend" or "ally" referring to the alliances between the bands; the name "Sioux" was adopted in English by the 1760s from French. It is abbreviated from Nadouessioux, first attested by Jean Nicolet in 1640; the name is sometimes said to be derived from an Ojibwe exonym for the Sioux meaning "little snakes". The spelling in -x is due to the French plural marker; the Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake. An alternative explanation is derivation from an exonym na·towe·ssiw, from a verb *-a·towe· meaning "to speak a foreign language"; the current Ojibwe term for the Sioux and related groups is Bwaanag, meaning "roasters".
This refers to the style of cooking the Sioux used in the past. In recent times, some of the tribes have formally or informally reclaimed traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is known as the Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, the Oglala use the name Oglála Lakȟóta Oyáte, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST; the alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper. The Sioux comprise three related language groups: Eastern Dakota Santee Sisseton Western Dakota Yankton Yanktonai Lakota The earlier linguistic three-way division of the Sioux language identified Lakota and Nakota as dialects of a single language, where Lakota = Teton, Dakota = Santee-Sisseton and Nakota = Yankton-Yanktonai. However, the latest studies show that Yankton-Yanktonai never used the autonym Nakhóta, but pronounced their name the same as the Santee; these studies identify Assiniboine and Stoney as two separate languages, with Sioux being the third language. Sioux has three similar dialects: Western Dakota and Eastern Dakota.
Assiniboine and Stoney speakers refer to themselves as Nakhóda. The term Dakota has been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc; this was because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived. The Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, further branched into bands; the earliest known European record of the Sioux identified them in Minnesota and Wisconsin. After the introduction of the horse in the early 18th century, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Central Canada to the Platte River, from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the Powder River country; the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in North America: in the Dakotas, Minnesota and Montana in the United States. Today, many Sioux live outside their reservations.
The Santee migrated north and westward from the Southeastern United States, first into Ohio to Minnesota. Some came up from area of South Carolina; the Santee River was named after them, some of their ancestors' ancient earthwork mounds have survived along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a Woodland people who thrived on hunting and farming. Migrations of Ojibwe from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward; the US gave the name "Dakota Territory"
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville was a soldier, ship captain, colonial administrator, knight of the order of Saint-Louis, privateer, member of Compagnies Franches de la Marine and founder of the French colony of La Louisiane of New France. He was born in Montreal of French colonist parents. Pierre Le Moyne was born in July 1661 at Fort Ville-Marie, now Montreal, Canada, the third son of Charles le Moyne de Longueuil et de Châteauguay, a native of Dieppe or of Longueuil near Dieppe, Normandy in France and lord of Longueuil in Canada, of Catherine Thierry from Rouen, he is known as Sieur d'Iberville or Sieur d'Iberville et d'Ardillières. He had eleven brothers. One, Jacques Le Moyne de Sainte-Hélène, led French and Indian forces in the Schenectady massacre in present-day New York's Mohawk Valley. Charles le Moyne de Longueuil, Baron de Longueuil, was governor of Montreal. Another, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne Bienville, founded New Orleans. Jacques and Paul LeMoyne were with him on James Bay, Joseph LeMoyne was with him in Louisiana.
Le Moyne d'Iberville was raised Catholic under the Jesuit order. Parish records indicate that, at the age of 12, he received the religious sacrament of First Communion. D'Iberville received his formal education at a Sulpician seminary, where his academic knowledge was embedded with religion. Destined for the priesthood, he chose a life of adventure. At the age of 12, he became a cabin boy on his uncle's ship trading to Acadia. A few years he was in the fur trade at Sault Ste. Marie in Canada, where he would have learned something of canoe travel in the wilderness, he became quartermaster on one of his father's ships. The Hudson's Bay Company was founded in 1670; this company threatened further expansion into French territory. In 1682, the Compagnie du Nord was founded to compete with the English on the Bay. In 1686, the aggressive Governor General Denonville decided to drive out the English though the two countries were at peace. Under the command of Pierre de Troyes, Chevalier de Troyes, d'Iberville his brothers Paul and Jacques led the Canadian woodsmen on a 1686 expedition to Hudson Bay.
He played a heroic part in the capture of the fort at Moose Factory. At Fort-Rupert, he killed at least one unarmed sailor; as a result, the French seized all three English posts on James Bay, leaving the English only York Factory, far to the northwest and inaccessible by land. De Troyes left in August 1686; the following summer, when no supplies arrived, d'Iberville left 12 men at the forts and went first south to Quebec and to France. In France, he lobbied for the Compagnie and obtained command of Soleil D'Afrique and returned to James Bay in the summer of 1688. There he captured three HBC ships. Returning to Quebec, he was caught up in King William's War and sent south to attack the British colonies. In July 1690, he left Quebec with three ships in the hope of capturing York Factory. Finding himself outgunned by a larger English ship, he fled south and captured the new HBC base at Fort Severn. In 1692 and 1693, he again planned to attack York Factory, but both times the needed ships were diverted.
It was 1694. His work was undone when the English recaptured Fort Albany in 1693 and York Factory in 1695. 1695 and 1696 were spent in coastal raiding. In 1697 he captured York Factory a second time after winning his most heroic battle, it was too late in the season to capture Fort Albany, so he left Hudson Bay, never to return. York Factory remained French until 1713. In 1690, he was second in command to his brother Jacques in a raid south to New York that culminated in the Schenectady Massacre. In 1692, he convoyed supply ships from France and harassed English coastal settlements, taking three prizes. In 1694, he captured York Factory for the first time. In the spring of 1696, he sailed from France with three ships. Sending one to Quebec, he led the other two to the aid of the governor of Acadia, Joseph Robineau de Villebon, whom the English were blockading at the mouth of the Saint John River, he drove the other two away. He went 200 miles west and captured the most northerly settlement in New England, Pemaquid.
He sailed east to Placentia, the French capital of Newfoundland, began the Avalon Peninsula Campaign on 1 November. On this expedition he captured St. John ruined most of the English fishing villages. During four months of raids, Iberville was responsible for the destruction of 36 settlements; the Newfoundland campaign was one of the cruelest and most destructive of Iberville's career. Before he could consolidate his hold on Newfoundland, he was diverted north to capture York Factory for a second time during the summer of 1697. Soon after his departure, the English arrived in Newfoundland with 2,000 troops and restored their position. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Ryswick in September 1697. In 1682, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to travel from the Great Lakes down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico; the French began dreaming of building a great empire by linking the Saint Lawrence and Mississippi basins, thereby bottling up the English on the Atlantic coast.
This presented diplomatic problems. Pontchartrain, the minister for naval affairs and colonies, gave Iberville the task of locating the mouth of the Mississippi River, which
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol