Pascal Lissouba is the first democratically elected President of the Republic of the Congo and served from August 31, 1992 to October 15, 1997. He was overthrown by the current President Denis Sassou Nguesso in the 1997 civil war, he was born to Banzabi parents. He attended primary school in Boko, he began his secondary studies in Brazzaville and gained his education at the Lycée Félix Faure in Nice, where he obtained a baccalaureate. He studied Agronomy at the École Supérieure d'Agriculture in Tunis and a diploma in agricultural engineering in 1956; the University of Paris. He received a doctoral degree in Biology from the University of Paris, he was a fellow trainee at the National Center for Scientific Research in Paris and at ORSTOM. In June 1961, he worked as a researcher at ORSTOM, he was appointed lecturer in vegetal biology, by a French Ministry of National Education decree on 3 November 1961. He was a civil servant, working as a managing director in the Department of Agriculture, having returned in 1962.
But his abilities brought him to become Minister of Agriculture, Livestock and Forestry on 16 August 1963 until 1966 and Prime Minister under President Alphonse Massamba-Débat. He was appointed as Minister of State for Planning for Agriculture, before being sacked by the government. Afterwards, he became a genetics professor at the University of Brazzaville and director of the Ecole Supérieure des Sciences in 1970; when Massamba-Débat was overthrown in 1968 Lissouba remained in government under Marien Ngouabi and although he was suspended from political activity from 1969 to 1971 he was on the Central Committee of the Congolese Workers Party in 1973. In 1977, he was arrested, he was sentenced to life imprisonment and hard labour in 1977. He was released in 1979 but had to live in exile in France from 1979 to 1990. In France, he was a professor of genetics at the University of Paris and worked for UNESCO in Paris and Nairobi; when President Denis Sassou Nguesso was forced to move the Congo towards democracy in 1991, Lissouba returned in February 1992 and was elected President in the August 1992 elections.
He secured 36% of the vote as head of the left-wing Pan-African Union for Social Democracy. In the run-off with second-placed Bernard Kolelas, Lissouba got 61% of the vote. Conflict soon broke out however. A coalition of opposition groups and their militias accused Lissouba of rigging the elections. Widespread civil war was averted when Gabon and the Organisation of African Unity intervened, but sporadic fighting continued until January 1995. Fighting broke out again in June 1997 when Lissouba engaged militias loyal to former President Col. Denis Sassou Nguesso of the Congolese Labor Party in Brazzaville, accusing the former president of an attempted coup. Sassou Nguesso, was able to escape and stage a counterattack, thus began a 4-month civil war that destroyed or damaged much of the capital. In early October 1997, Angolan troops invaded Congo on the side of Sassou. Most of Brazzaville fell to rebel and Angolan forces on October 14, 1997, Lissouba fled. Sassou Nguesso proclaimed himself President on October 25, 1997, but militia forces loyal to Lissouba continued a guerrilla war.
The vital Congo-Ocean Railway from the coastal city of Pointe-Noire was cut, Brazzaville was damaged before a cease-fire was agreed to in December 1999. Following his overthrow, Lissouba lived in exile in London, he intended to return to the Congo for the 2002 elections, but in December 2001 he was tried in absentia in Brazzaville, convicted to 30 years forced labor for treason and corruption, related to a $150 million oil deal with the American company Occidental Petroleum. Since 2004, he has been living in Paris in exile, he was first married to Annette Chantegreil to Jocelyne Rosdam, a French national and the father of eleven children. His eldest daughter, Mireille Lissouba, was his chief of staff from 1993 to 1996, while his younger daughter, Danielle Bineka is a university professor and writer, both exiled in Canada, his mother, Marie Bouanga died in 1996. Republic of the Congo Civil War Pan-African Union for Social Democracy
The Lost Choices is a 2015 British drama film written and produced by Jamie Thomson. The film is set on the Kent coast, in which two boys are subjected to different forms of abuse, the consequences of which are played out some twenty years later; the film was shot in Ramsgate, Kent during Summer 2011 over a 3-week period on a microbudget and picked up by Metrodome Distribution and released on September 14, 2015. Due to budget constraints, the film contained a large portion of untrained actors from the local area, involved a small crew of 6 and used locations of families and friends; the main cast included Lou Murrall, James Kenward, Anna Brook, Callum Pease, Levi Hart, Mark Wingett and Gabriel Thomson. The film cuts between three separate stories; the first is of young George. An overweight boy, bullied by his peers and neglected at home, he projects the abuse. George is an avid collector of rocker records, he tries to befriend the bully, Alex, at school by enticing him to look at his record collection in which Alex seems interested.
Alex is a tormented child from an abusive background. George decides to take his father's record collection in to school to show Alex for which he is ridiculed. Alex proceeds to smash all of the records. George's father has left home and the records are the only memory George has so he vows to get revenge; the second story is. The adult version of George, "G", is violent. After threatening a customer at work, he is fired from his job and decides to move back to his hometown, where he was schooled, with his cousin and uncle. However, he ends up in an altercation in a pub with the result that he is imprisoned for violent assault; the third story is of adult Charlie, George's younger brother. Charlie is the confident, drug-taking husband of Tasha, pregnant with their first child, they decide to settle down. However Charlie continues to live a hedonistic life which concerns his best friend Mike. After we have been introduced to these three stories, the characters start to merge. We discover that young George, distraught his bully would destroy his records, attacks his bully, Alex, at school which subjects George to a years of abuse at the hands of Alex.
G, released from prison tries to rehabilitate back into society and although hard at first, is helped back onto the straight and narrow by his mentor Chris. G meets a heroin user who he forms a relationship with. Charlie who has now spiralled out of control rekindles with some old friends only to discover that G is in town; the turn in the film is that G is not young George grown up, but Alex the bully instead. We learn that young George took his life at a young age due to the bullying of Alex. Once Charlie knows of Alex being present in the same neighbourhood, he goes to confront him. After a long and emotional confrontation, we discover that Alex himself was sexually abused by his father, to which Charlie accepts and walks away. However, once his wife Tasha loses their baby, he vents his anger out on Alex and puts him in hospital with severe head injuries. In remorse, he realises what he has done and decides to quit the drugs and embrace a healthy life with Tasha, he visits Alex in hospital, who has decided to name his baby, "George".
Charlie forgives him and walks away. Lou Murrall as G James Kenward as Charlie Anna Brook as Tasha Callum Pease as George Levi Hart as Alex Joe Ransom as Mike Lewis Saunderson as Jimmy Gabriel Thomson as Adam Mark Wingett as Dave Archie Cotton as young Charlie The Lost Choices was picked up by Metrodome Distribution for UK release on 15 September 2015
Turbulent diffusion is the transport of mass, heat, or momentum within a system due to random and chaotic time dependent motions. It occurs when turbulent fluid systems reach critical conditions in response to shear flow, which results from a combination of steep concentration gradients, density gradients, high velocities, it occurs much more than molecular diffusion and is therefore important for problems concerning mixing and transport in systems dealing with combustion, dissolved oxygen, solutions in industry. In these fields, turbulent diffusion acts as an excellent process for reducing the concentrations of a species in a fluid or environment, in cases where this is needed for rapid mixing during processing, or rapid pollutant or contaminant reduction for safety. However, it has been difficult to develop a concrete and functional model that can be applied to the diffusion of a species in all turbulent systems due to the inability to characterize both an instantaneous and predicted fluid velocity simultaneously.
In turbulent flow, this is a result of several characteristics such as unpredictability, rapid diffusivity, high levels of fluctuating vorticity, dissipation of kinetic energy. Atmospheric dispersion, or diffusion, studies. There are many factors included in this modeling process, such as which level of atmosphere the mixing is taking place, the stability of the environment and what type of contaminant and source is being mixed; the Eulerian and Lagrangian models have both been used to simulate atmospheric diffusion, are important for a proper understanding of how pollutants react and mix in different environments. Both of these models take into account both vertical and horizontal wind, but additionally integrate Fickian diffusion theory to account for turbulence. While these methods have to use ideal conditions and make numerous assumptions, at this point in time, it is difficult to better calculate the effects of turbulent diffusion on pollutants. Fickian diffusion theory and further advancements in research on atmospheric diffusion can be applied to model the effects that current emission rates of pollutants from various sources have on the atmosphere.
Using planar laser-induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry processes, there has been on-going research on the effects of turbulent diffusion in flames. Main areas of study include combustion systems in gas burners used for power generation and chemical reactions in jet diffusion flames involving methane and nitrogen. Additionally, double-pulse Rayleigh temperature imaging has been used to correlate extinction and ignition sites with changes in temperature and the mixing of chemicals in flames; the Eulerian approach to turbulent diffusion focuses on an infinitesimal volume at a specific space and time in a fixed frame of reference, at which physical properties such as mass and temperature are measured. The model is useful because Eulerian statistics are measurable and offer great application to chemical reactions. To molecular models, it must satisfy the same principles as the continuity equation below, where the advection of an element or species is balanced by its diffusion, generation by reaction, addition from other sources or points, the Navier–Stokes equations.
∂ c i ∂ t + ∂ ∂ x j = D i ∂ 2 c i ∂ x j ∂ x j + R i + S i i = 1, 2... N Where c i = species concentration of interest, u j = velocity t= time, x j = direction, D i = molecular diffusion constant, R i = rate of c i generated reaction, S i = rate of c i generated by source. Note that c i is concentration per unit volume, is not mixing ratio in a background fluid. If we consider an inert species with no sources and assume molecular diffusion to be negligible, only the advection terms on the left hand side of the equation survive; the solution to this model seems trivial at first, however we have ignored the random component of the velocity plus the average velocity in uj= ū + uj’, associated with turbulent behavior. In turn, the concentration solution for the Eulerian model must have a random component cj= c+ cj’; this results in a closure problem of i