Susan B. Anthony Day
Susan B. Anthony Day is a commemorative holiday to celebrate the birth of Susan B. Anthony and women's suffrage in the United States; the holiday is February 15—Anthony's birthday. The idea of honoring Susan B. Anthony with a holiday has only been around since 2011 when Representative Carolyn Maloney introduced the Susan B. Anthony Birthday Act, H. R.#655. Today, only the U. S. state of Florida has the holiday enacted with state offices closed. In the state of Wisconsin, Susan B. Anthony Day is an established state holiday, enacted into law April 15, 1976, from the 1975 Laws of Wisconsin, Chapter 307, section 20. In West Virginia, this day is celebrated on Election Day on years; this holiday is not celebrated at a national level. In 1985, The Seattle Times reported on a campaign to establish the holiday as one celebrated nationally; the U. S. state of California has made this day a legal holiday as of 2014. In 2004, New York governor George Pataki signed legislation. On February 11, 2011, Representative Carolyn Maloney of New York introduced the "Susan B.
Anthony Birthday Act" to the 112th session of Congress to honor the birthday as a U. S. national holiday on the third Monday of February. The bill was not enacted and its current status is "dead". Susan B. Anthony is known for her leadership in the long campaign for women's right to vote in the United States and abroad, she indicated her interest as early as 1852, when she attended the National Women’s Rights Convention in Syracuse, New York. She was a vigorous opponent of slavery. In 1863, during the American Civil War and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Women's Loyal National League, the first national women's political organization in the U. S, it collected nearly 400,000 signatures on petitions to abolish slavery in the largest petition drive in the nation's history up to that time. By the end of the Civil War," according to historian Ann D. Gordon, "Susan B. Anthony occupied new political territory, she was emerging on the national scene as a female leader, something new in American history, she did so as a single woman in a culture that perceived the spinster as anomalous and unguarded...
By the 1880s, she was among the senior political figures in the United States."After the Civil War, Anthony worked for women's suffrage, the legal right of women to vote. This right was established over the course of several decades, first in various states and localities, sometimes on a limited basis, it was established nationally in 1920 with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, introduced in Congress in 1878 by Senator Aaron A. Sargent, a friend of Anthony's; the amendment was popularly known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment in recognition of her leadership in achieving its passage, she died in 1906. Public holidays in the United States Rosa Parks Day National Girls and Women in Sports Day International Women's Day, Harriet Tubman Day Helen Keller Day Women's Equality Day Martin Luther King Jr. Day Malcolm X Day Cesar Chavez Day Harvey Milk Day Susan B. Anthony Day Merriam Webster definition of Susan B. Anthony Day Susan B. Anthony had her Day yesterday Celebrating Women's History Feb. 15th is Susan B.
Anthony Day On this day in History - Prof. Boerner's Explorations President's Day Open Thread Wisconsin Public Schools Observance Day
Lincoln's Birthday is a legal, public holiday in some U. S. states, observed on the anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's birth on February 12, 1809 in Hodgenville, Kentucky. Connecticut, Indiana, California and New York observe the holiday. In other states, Lincoln's birthday is not celebrated separately, as a stand-alone holiday. Instead Lincoln's Birthday is combined with a celebration of President George Washington's birthday and celebrated either as Washington's Birthday or as Presidents' Day on the third Monday in February, concurrent with the federal holiday; the earliest known observance of Lincoln's birthday occurred in Buffalo, New York, in either 1873 or 1874. Julius Francis, a Buffalo druggist, made it his life's mission to honor the slain president, he petitioned Congress to establish Lincoln's birthday as a legal holiday. The day is marked by traditional wreath-laying ceremonies at Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site in Hodgenville, at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.
C. The latter has been the site of a ceremony since the Memorial was dedicated. Since that event in 1922, observances continue to be organized by the Lincoln Birthday National Commemorative Committee and by the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. A wreath is laid on behalf of the President of the United States, a custom carried out at the grave sites of all deceased U. S. presidents on their birthdays. Lincoln's tomb is in Illinois. On February 12, 2009, the annual wreath-laying ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial commemorated Lincoln's 200th birthday in grand fashion. An extended ceremony, organized by the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission and with help from MOLLUS, featured musical performances from four-time Grammy-nominated singer Michael Feinstein and the U. S. Marine Corps Band; the morning celebration featured remarks by Illinois Sen. Dick Durbin; as part of Lincoln's birthday bicentennial, the U. S. Mint released four new Lincoln cents; the commemorative coins have new designs on the reverse showing stages of his life.
The first went into circulation on September 12, 2009. The standard portrait of Lincoln's head remains on the front; the new designs include a log cabin representing his birthplace, Lincoln as a young man reading while sitting on a log that he was taking a break from splitting, Lincoln as a state legislator in front of the Illinois Capitol, the built dome of the U. S. Capitol. New Jersey stopped observing the holiday on May 23, 2005 with the enactment of the Public Employee Pension and Benefits Reform Act of 2008. Black History Month has its origin in 19th-century celebrations of Lincoln's Birthday by African-American communities in the United States. By the early 20th century, black communities were annually celebrating Lincoln's birthday in conjunction with the birthday of former slave and abolitionist Frederick Douglass on February 14; the precursor to Black History Month was created in 1926 when historian Carter G. Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History announced that the second week of February would be "Negro History Week" to coincide with the traditional Black commemorations of both men's birthdays.
By the 1970s, "Negro History Week" had become "Black History Month". Black History Month has expanded further to Canada, where it is celebrated in February, to the United Kingdom, which celebrates it in October. Lincoln's Birthday was never a U. S. Federal Government holiday; the third Monday in February remains only "Washington's Birthday" in federal law. However, many state governments have renamed their Washington's Birthday state holiday as "Presidents' Day", "Washington and Lincoln Day", or other such designations which explicitly or implicitly celebrate Lincoln's birthday. Regardless of the official name and purpose and commemorations on or about the third Monday include honoring Lincoln. In Connecticut and Illinois, while Washington's Birthday is a federal holiday, Lincoln's Birthday is still a state holiday, falling on February 12 regardless of the day of the week. California still lists Lincoln's Birthday as a holiday, but as of 2009 no longer gives State employees a paid holiday on February 12.
In the following states, the third Monday in February is an official state holiday and known as: Using "president" Presidents' Day in Hawaii, New Mexico, North Dakota, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas and Washington President's Day in Alaska, Maryland, Nebraska, New Hampshire, West Virginia and Wyoming Presidents Day in Michigan, New Jersey and Oregon Washington's Birthday/President's Day in Maine Lincoln/Washington/Presidents' Day in ArizonaWashington and Lincoln Washington and Lincoln Day in Utah Washington–Lincoln Day in Colorado and Ohio Washington's and Lincoln's Birthday in Indiana Lincoln's and Washington's Birthday in Montana Washington's and Lincoln's Birthday in MinnesotaWashington alone George Washington Day in VirginiaWashington and another person George Washington/Thomas Jefferson Birthday in Alabama George Washington's Birthday and Daisy Gatson Bates Day in ArkansasUnspecified "The third Monday in February" in California. Several states honor presidents with official state holidays that do not fall on the third Monday of February.
In New Mexico, Presidents' Day, at least as a state-government
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter. The feast commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, an event mentioned in each of the four canonical Gospels. In most liturgical churches Palm Sunday is celebrated by the blessing and distribution of palm branches or the branches of other native trees representing the palm branches the crowd scattered in front of Christ as he rode into Jerusalem; the difficulty of procuring palms in unfavorable climates led to their substitution with branches of native trees, including box, olive and yew. The Sunday was named after these substitute trees, as in Yew Sunday, or by the general term Branch Sunday. In the accounts of the four canonical Gospels, Christ's triumphal entry into Jerusalem takes place a week before his resurrection. Only the Gospel of John shows a timeline of the event, dated six days before the Passover. Before this, Jesus talked to two of his disciples, taking to himself the ancient Greek word of Lord, written with a capital letter in the original text, as a proper noun.
The raising of Lazarus is mentioned only in the previous chapter. The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches which follows the Byzantine Rite, commemorate it on Lazarus Saturday, following the text of the Gospel. In fact, the Jewish calendar dates begin at sundown of the night beforehand, conclude at nightfall. Christian theologians believe that the symbolism is captured prophetically in the Old Testament: Zechariah 9:9 "The Coming of Zion's King – See, your king comes to you and victorious, lowly and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey", quoted in the Gospels, it suggests. According to the Gospels, Jesus Christ rode a donkey into Jerusalem, the celebrating people there laid down their cloaks and small branches of trees in front of him, singing part of Psalm 118: 25–26 – Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord. We bless you from the house of the Lord; the symbolism of the donkey may refer to the Eastern tradition that it is an animal of peace, unlike the horse, the animal of war.
A king would have ridden a horse when he was bent on war and ridden a donkey to symbolize his arrival in peace. Jesus' entry to Jerusalem would have thus symbolized his entry as the Prince of Peace, not as a war-waging king, thus there have been two different meanings: an historical meaning happening according to the Gospels, a secondary meaning in the symbolism. In Luke 19:41 as Jesus approaches Jerusalem, he looks at the city and weeps over it, foretelling his coming Passion and the suffering that awaits the city in the events of the destruction of the Second Temple. In many lands in the ancient Near East, it was customary to cover in some way the path of someone thought worthy of the highest honour; the Hebrew Bible reports that son of Jehoshaphat, was treated this way. Both the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John report. In the synoptics the people are described as laying their garments and cut rushes on the street, whereas John specifies fronds of palm. In Jewish tradition, the palm is one of the Four Species carried for Sukkot, as prescribed for rejoicing at Leviticus 23:40.
In the Greco-Roman culture of the Roman Empire, which influenced Christian tradition, the palm branch was a symbol of triumph and victory. It became the most common attribute of Victoria. For contemporary Roman observers, the procession would have evoked the Roman triumph, when the triumphator laid down his arms and wore the toga, the civilian garment of peace that might be ornamented with emblems of the palm. Although the Epistles of Paul refer to Jesus as "triumphing", the entry into Jerusalem may not have been pictured as a triumphal procession in this sense before the 13th century. In ancient Egyptian religion, the palm was carried in funeral processions and represented eternal life; the palm branch was used as a symbol of Christian martyrs and their spiritual victory or triumph over death. In Revelation 7:9, the white-clad multitude stand before Lamb holding palm branches. Palm Sunday, or the "Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem" as it may be called in Orthodox Churches, is one of the Twelve Great Feasts of the liturgical year.
The day before Palm Sunday, Lazarus Saturday, believers prepare palm fronds by knotting them into crosses in preparation for the procession on Sunday. The hangings and vestments in the church are changed to a festive color – most green; the Troparion of the Feast indicates that the resurrection of Lazarus is a prefiguration of Jesus's own Resurrection: In the Russian Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Catholic Church, Ruthenian Catholic Church, Polish and Austrian Roman Catholics, various other Eastern European peoples, the custom developed of using pussy willow instead of palm fronds because the latter are not available that far north. There is no canonical requirement as to what kind of branches must be used, so some Orthodox believers use olive branches. Whatever the kind, these branches are blessed and distributed together with candles either during the All-Night Vigil on the Eve of the Feast, or before the Divine Liturgy on Sunday morning; the Great Entrance of the Divine Liturgy commemorates the "Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem", so the meaningfulness of this moment is punctuated on Palm Sunday as everyone stands, holding their branches and lit candles.
The faithful take these bran
Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is a holiday in some countries. Easter Monday in the Western Christian liturgical calendar is the second day of Eastertide and analogously in the Byzantine Rite is the second day of Bright Week. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and Byzantine Rite Catholic Churches, this day is called "Bright Monday" or "Renewal Monday"; the services, as in the rest of Bright Week, are quite different from during the rest of the year and are similar to the services on Pascha and include an outdoor procession after the Divine Liturgy. When the calendar date of the feast day of a major saint, e.g. St. George or the patron saint of a church or one's name day, falls during Holy Week or on Easter Sunday, the saint's day is celebrated on Easter Monday. Easter Monday is an official holiday in the following countries. Nations on this list indicated as "Eastern Christian" observe Easter according to the Julian Calendar reckoning used in Eastern Christianity, which differs most years from the Gregorian Calendar reckoning used in Western Christianity.
The post-Easter festivities involved a week of secular celebration, but in many places this was reduced to one day in the 19th century. Events include egg rolling competitions and, in predominantly Roman Catholic countries, dousing other people with water which traditionally had been blessed with holy water the day before at Easter Sunday Mass and carried home to bless the house and food. In Australia, Easter Monday is a public holiday. People enjoy outdoor sporting events, such as the Oakbank Easter Racing Carnival in South Australia, Australian Three Peaks Race in Tasmania and the Stawell Gift in Victoria. In Austria and Southern Germany, there is the traditional "Emmausgang", commemorating the walk of the disciples to Emmaus, to which Jesus followed them without being recognized. In Egypt, the ancient festival of Sham El Nessim is celebrated on the Coptic Easter Monday, though the festival dates back to Pharonic times, it is an Egyptian national holiday. Traditional activities include painting eggs, taking meals outdoors, eating feseekh.
In the Republic of Ireland it is a day of remembrance for the men and women who died in the Easter Rising which began on Easter Monday 1916. Until 1966, there was a parade of veterans, past the headquarters of the Irish Republican Army at the General Post Office on O'Connell Street, a reading of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic. Śmigus-dyngus is the name for Easter Monday in the diaspora. In the Czech Republic it is called velikonoční pondělí. In Slovakia veľkonočný pondelok called Šibačka/Polievačka or Oblievačka. In Hungary húsvéthétfő. All countries practice a unique custom on this day. In Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic traditionally, early in the morning boys awake girls by pouring a bucket of water on their head and striking them about the legs with long thin twigs or switches made from willow, birch or decorated tree branches. Another related custom, unique to Poland, is that of sprinkling bowls of ashes on people or houses, celebrated a few weeks earlier at the "półpoście".
This custom is forgotten, but still practiced in the area around the borders of Mazuria and Masovia. In Germany, people hold Easter egg races. For Roman Catholics, Easter Monday is a Holy Day of Obligation in Germany. In the United States, Easter Monday is not a federal holiday, is not observed. So, the day remains informally observed in some areas such as the state of North Dakota, some cities in New York and Indiana. Easter Monday was a public holiday in North Carolina from 1935 to 1987. Texas and Maryland schools have two holidays on Good Friday and Easter Monday. In some states and districts, public schools and universities are closed on Easter Monday part of spring break. Traditionally Polish areas of the country such as Chicago, more Cleveland, observe Easter Monday as Dyngus Day. Dyngus Day celebrations are popular in Buffalo, New York. Another important custom is the White House Easter egg roll; the world's largest organized Dyngus Day celebration occurs in New York. In Buffalo's eastern suburbs and the city's Historic Polonia District, Dyngus Day is celebrated with a high level of enthusiasm.
Although Dyngus Day was celebrated in traditional Polish neighborhoods of Buffalo dating back to the 1870s, modern Dyngus Day in Buffalo had its start with the Chopin Singing Society. Judge Ann T. Mikoll and her late husband Theodore V. Mikoll held the first party at the Society's clubrooms in the Buffalo Central Terminal; the Society left the East Side in the 1980s and moved to new clubrooms in nearby Cheektowaga, where the festival attracted a new generation of revelers. In recent years, the focus of Buffalo's Dyngus Day celebration has returned to the Historic Polonia District in the form of large parties at the Buffalo Central Terminal, St. Stanislaus - Bishop & Martyr Church, the Adam Mickiewicz Library and Dramatic Circle, at many family-owned Polish taverns; the World's First Dingus Day Parade, inaugurated in 2006, makes its way through the Polonia District from the Broadway Market to Buffalo Central Terminal. In 2008, the parade attracted more than 25,000 people. In 2012, it was reported
Eastertide or Paschaltide is a festal season in the liturgical year of Christianity that focuses on celebrating the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. It begins on Easter Sunday, which initiates Easter Week in Western Christianity, Bright Week in Eastern Christianity. There are several Eastertide customs across the Christian world, including sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, decorating Easter eggs, a symbol of the empty tomb; the Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches throughout Eastertide. Other Eastertide customs include egg hunting, eating special Easter foods and watching Easter parades. Eastertide is the period of fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost Sunday, it is celebrated as a single joyful feast, indeed as the "great Lord's Day". Each Sunday of the season is treated as a Sunday of Easter, after the Sunday of the Resurrection, they are named Second Sunday of Easter, Third Sunday of Easter, etc. up to the Seventh Sunday of Easter, while the whole fifty-day period concludes with Pentecost Sunday.
Easter Sunday and Pentecost correspond to pre-existing Jewish feasts: The first day of Pesach and the holiday of Shavu'ot. In the Jewish tradition, the 49 days between these holidays are known as Counting of the Omer ; the first eight days are celebrated as solemnities of the Lord. Since 2000 the Second Sunday of Easter is called Divine Mercy Sunday; the name "Low Sunday" for this Sunday, once common in English, is now used. The solemnity of the Ascension of the Lord is celebrated on the fortieth day of Eastertide, except in countries where it is not a Holy Day of Obligation. In such countries it is celebrated on the following Sunday; the nine days from that feast until the Saturday before Pentecost are days of preparation for the Holy Spirit the Paraclete, which inspired the form of prayer called a novena. Before the 1969 revision of the calendar, the Sundays were called First Sunday after Easter, Second Sunday after Easter, etc; the Sunday preceding the feast of the Ascension of the Lord was sometimes, though not called Rogation Sunday, when the Ascension had an octave, the following Sunday was called Sunday within the Octave of the Ascension, but when this octave was abolished in 1955, it was called Sunday after the Ascension.
Pentecost was followed by an octave. When the Anglican and Lutheran churches implemented their own calendar and lectionary reforms in 1976, they adopted the same shortened definition of the Easter season as the Roman Catholic Church had promulgated six years earlier. In the Church of England, the Easter season begins with the Easter Vigil and ends after Evening Prayer on the Day of Pentecost; some Anglican provinces continue to label the Sundays between Easter and the Ascension "Sundays After Easter" rather than "Sundays of Easter". Paschal Tide is a season of joy; the colour for the Office de tempore is white. On Sundays the "Asperges" is replaced by the "Vidi Aquam" which recalls the solemn baptism of Easter eve. There is no feast day from Easter until Ascension; the Armenians during this period do away with the abstinence on Fridays. Prayers are said standing, not kneeling. Instead of the "Angelus" the "Regina Caeli" is recited. From Easter to Ascension many churches, about the tenth century, said only one Nocturn at Matins.
Pope Gregory VII limited this privilege of Pentecost. Some dioceses in Germany however, retained it far into the nineteenth century for 40 days after Easter. In every Nocturn the three psalms are said under one antiphon; the Alleluia appears as an independent antiphon. Instead of the "suffragia sanctorum" in the semidouble and ferial Offices, a commemoration of the Holy Cross is used; the iambic hymns have a special Easter doxology. The feasts of the holy Apostles and martyrs have their own commune from Easter to Pentecost. At Mass the Alleluia is added to the Introit and Communion. Paschal Tide was the period during which every member of the faithful who has attained the year of discretion was bound by the positive law of the Church to receive Holy Communion. During the early Middle Ages from the time of the Synod of Agde, it was customary to receive Holy Communion at least three times a year—Christmas and Pentecost. A positive precept was confirmed by the Council of Trent. According to these decrees the faithful of either sex, after coming to the age of discretion, must receive at least at Easter the Sacrament of the Eucharist.
Otherwise during life they are to be prevented from entering the church and when dead are to be denied Christian burial. The paschal precept is to be fulfilled in one's parish church. Although the precept of the Fourth Lateran to confess to the parish priest fell into disuse and permission was given to confess anywhere, the precept of
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti