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Pastry is a dough of flour and shortening that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are described as bakers' confectionery; the word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, milk, shortening, baking powder, eggs. Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called pastries. Common pastry dishes include pies, quiches and pasties; the French word pâtisserie is used in English for the same foods. The French word pastisserie referred to anything, such as a meat pie, made in dough and not a luxurious or sweet product; this meaning still persisted in the nineteenth century, though by the term more referred to the sweet and ornate confections implied today. Pastry can refer to the pastry dough, from which such baked products are made. Pastry dough is used as a base for baked products. Pastry is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture. A good pastry is firm enough to support the weight of the filling.

When making a shortcrust pastry, care must be taken to blend the fat and flour before adding any liquid. This ensures that the flour granules are adequately coated with fat and less to develop gluten. On the other hand, overmixing results in long gluten strands that toughen the pastry. In other types of pastry such as Danish pastry and croissants, the characteristic flaky texture is achieved by rolling out a dough similar to that for yeast bread, spreading it with butter, folding it to produce many thin layers. Shortcrust pastry Shortcrust pastry is most common pastry, it is made with flour, butter and water to bind the dough. This is used in tarts, it is the pastry, used most in making a quiche. The process of making pastry includes mixing of the fat and flour, adding water, rolling out the paste; the fat is mixed with the flour first by rubbing with fingers or a pastry blender, which inhibits gluten formation by coating the gluten strands in fat and results in a short, tender pastry. A related type is the sweetened sweetcrust pastry known as pâte sucrée, in which sugar and egg yolks have been added to bind the pastry.

Flaky pastry Flaky pastry is a simple pastry. It bakes into a buttery pastry; the "puff" is obtained by the shard-like layers of fat, most butter or shortening, creating layers which expand in the heat of the oven when baked. Puff pastry Puff pastry has "puff" when baked. Puff pastry is made using flour, butter and water; the pastry rises up due to the water and fats expanding. Puff pastries come out of the oven light and tender. Choux pastry Choux pastry is a light pastry, filled with cream. Unlike other types of pastry, choux is in fact closer to a dough before being cooked which gives it the ability to be piped into various shapes such as the éclair and profiterole, its name originates from the French choux, meaning cabbage, owing to its rough cabbage-like shape after cooking. Choux begins as a mixture of milk or water and butter which are heated together until the butter melts, to which flour is added to form a dough. Eggs are beaten into the dough to further enrich it; this high percentage of water causes the pastry to expand into a hollow pastry.

The water in the dough turns to steam in the oven and causes the pastry to rise. Once the choux dough has expanded, it is taken out of the oven; the pastry is placed back in the oven to dry out and become crisp. The pastry is filled with various flavors of cream and is topped with chocolate. Choux pastries can be filled with ingredients such as cheese, tuna, or chicken to be used as appetizers. Phyllo Phyllo is a paper-thin pastry dough, used in many layers; the phyllo is wrapped around a filling and brushed with butter before baking. These pastries are delicate and flaky. Hot water crust pastry Hot water crust pastry is used for savoury pies, such as pork pies, game pies and, more steak and kidney pies. Hot water crust is traditionally used for making hand-raised pies; the usual ingredients are hot water and flour, the pastry is made by heating water, melting the fat in this, bringing to the boil, mixing with the flour. This can be done by kneading on a pastry board. Either way, the result is a hot and rather sticky paste that can be used for hand-raising: shaping by hand, sometimes using a dish or bowl as an inner mould.

As the crust cools, its shape is retained, it is filled and covered with a crust, ready for baking. Hand-raised hot water crust pastry does not produce a neat and uniform finish, as there will be sagging during the cooking of the filled pie, accepted as the mark of a hand-made pie. Pastry: A type of food used in dishes such as pies or strudel. Pastry bag or piping bag: A disposable or reusable bag, cone-shaped, used to make an stream of dough, frosting, or flavored substance to form a structure, decorate a baked item, or fill a pastry with a custard, jelly, or other filling. Pastry board: A square or oblong board, preferably marble but wood, on which pastry is rolled out. Pastry brake: Opposed and co

Charles Clerke

Captain Charles Clerke was an officer in the Royal Navy who sailed on four voyages of exploration, three with Captain James Cook. When Cook was killed during his 3rd expedition to the Pacific, Clerke took command but died in the voyage from tuberculosis. Clerke started studying at the Royal Naval Academy in Portsmouth when he was 13. During the Seven Years' War he served aboard HMS Bellona, he was in the mizzen-top of HMS Bellona when the mast was shot away in 1761 and he became the only survivor of those who fell overboard. In June 1764 he joined Captain John Byron, aboard HMS Dolphin, on Byron's expedition to explore the Pacific; the Dolphin returned in May 1766. Its circumnavigation of 22 months was the shortest up to that point. Upon his return Clerke published an account of encountering Patagonian giants, a hoax which the Dictionary of Canadian Biography attributed to his high spirits. Clerke's last three voyages were all under the command of Captain James Cook, he started the first voyage aboard HM Bark Endeavour as a master's mate.

Cook promoted him to acting lieutenant in 1771, he was confirmed in that rank on 31 July 1771. He was HMS Resolution's second lieutenant on Cook's second voyage. While ashore between Cook's 2nd and 3rd voyages Clerke agreed to serve time in the King's Bench debtor's prison for a debt one of his brothers, Sir John Clerke had incurred. While in debtor's prison he was infected with the tuberculosis that killed him. For Cook's third expedition, Clerke was placed in command of HMS Discovery, receiving this command on 26 August 1775; when Cook was killed in a skirmish with Hawaiians on 14 February 1779, Clerke took command of the expedition and of HMS Resolution. He continued the expedition's exploration of the Northern Pacific coast, searching for a navigable Northwest Passage; the expedition proceeded to the Pacific coast of Siberia. Lieutenant James King, one of his subordinates, wrote that Clerke's illness had reduced him to skeletal thinness. On 10 August 1779, Clerke wrote in a letter to Sir Joseph Banks that, "The disorder I was attacked with in the King's bench prison has proved consumptive, with which I have battled with various although without one single days health since I took leave of you... it has now so far got the better of me that I am not able to turn myself in bed, so that my stay in this world must be of short duration."

Clerke died from tuberculosis on his 38th birthday en route to Kamchatka from the Bering Strait. He was buried in Kamchatka on 29 August 1779. Clerke's second in command, Lieutenant John Gore took command of the expedition as captain of Resolution, appointing King as captain of Discovery; the expedition sailed via China and the Sunda Strait to Cape Town, returning to England in August 1780. In 1913, the British Admiralty erected a small obelisk in Clerke's honour at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, with an inscription in English. European and American voyages of scientific exploration HMS Discovery, Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia biography last will and testament Charles Clerke. Letter to Joseph Banks 13 May 1772. State Library of New South Wales, Sydney. Charles Clerke. 01 Letter to Joseph Banks July 1776. State Library of New South Wales, Sydney. Charles Clerke. 02 Letter to Joseph Banks July 1776. State Library of New South Wales, Sydney. Charles Clerke. Letter to Joseph Banks 31 July 1775.

State Library of New South Wales, Sydney. Charles Clerke. Letter to Joseph Banks 10 August 1779. State Library of New South Wales, Sydney. More information on Charles Clerke from the New Zealand Electronic Text Centre Copy of log on board His Majesty's sloop Discovery, 28 March 1776 - 5 July 1778, kept by Captain Charles Clerke, State Library of New South Wales, A 559

Sangerhausen (district)

Sangerhausen was a district in the south of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Neighboring districts were Quedlinburg, Mansfelder Land, Merseburg-Querfurt, the districts Kyffhäuserkreis and Nordhausen in Thuringia. Sangerhausen was merged on July 1, 2007 with Mansfelder Land into the new district Mansfeld-Südharz as part of a reform; the district was created on October 1, 1816, after Sachsen-Weißenfels became part of Prussia in 1815. In 1945 the Amt Allstedt was added to the district, in 1952 some municipalities were removed from the district, which decreased the area from 773 to 689 km². In the communal reform of 1994 the district remained unchanged; the highest elevation of the district is the Großer Auerberg near Stolberg with 579 m above sea level, the lowest elevation with 119.8 m is near Curtsgehofenmühle southwest of Allstedt


Unees-Bees is a 1980 Hindi-language Indian film directed by Swaroop Kumar, starring Mithun Chakraborty, Rakesh Roshan, Yogeeta Bali, Rita Bhaduri, Sujit Kumar, Kader Khan and Jeevan. Mithun Chakraborty as Jai Yogeeta Bali as Annu Rita Bhaduri as Aarti Jeevan as Madan Rakesh Roshan as Dev Ranjeeta as Kamal Sujit Kumar as Ajit Kader Khan as Yakub Khan Mohan Sherry Ranjeet as Mr. Singh Jayshree T. Urmila Bhatt Bharat Bhushan as Bansi Udit Narayan sang his first Bollywood song "Mil Gaya Mil Gaya" with Mohammad Rafi The film was a hit and twenty sixth highest grossing movie of 1980. Singer Udit Narayan's first Bollywood movie as a playback singer. Http:// Unees-Bees on IMDb

Furious (album)

Furious is the only album by the supergroup Soopa Villainz released in 2005. The album peaked at #9 on the Billboard "Top Independent Albums" chart, #42 on the "Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums" chart and #92 on the Billboard 200. Planned to be recorded and released in 2003; the project was put on hold due to solo releases from Joseph Bruce, releasing his debut solo EP Wizard of the Hood, Esham was preparing to release an album titled Repentance. The Project was put on the backburner until 2004 when rumors were debunked at the 2004 Gathering of the Juggalos about name changes and added members like Tech N9ne and Layzie Bone were debunked by Bruce and Smith themselves. In late 2004 Lavel was seen onstage with Bruce's brother Jumpsteady's hypeman during a 2005 tour sporting a hatchet man charm; when asked it was revealed. Recording of the album lasted 4 months and it would turn out to be a true tour-de-force for Esham as he was working on material for an unreleased solo album titled "Club Evil"; the entire album is a concept album based upon a story of the 4 members coming from another planet to take over the world.

The album was released on August 16, 2005. The album peaked at #9 on the Billboard "Top Independent Albums" chart, #42 on the "Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums" chart and #92 on the Billboard 200

Benjamin Russell (artist)

Benjamin Russell was an American artist best known for his accurate watercolors of whaling ships working in New England. Born to a wealthy family in New Bedford, Russell started drawing and painting in his late 30s, after a few years spent working as a cooper aboard a whaling ship. Russell's depiction of perspective and depth are stiff and flat, his images "were appreciated more for their accurate representation than their artistic value." However, most of his work is to scale, resembling control drawings, Russell watercolours were some of the better views of the mid-19th-century American whaling industry, until photography became available in the 1850s. Russell began making lithographs in 1848, began teaching art in Rhode Island, after the American Civil War ended in 1865. Robert L. Carothers and John L. Marsh; the Whale and the Panorama. Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 319–328. Kevin J. Avery. "Whaling Voyage Round the World": Russell and Purrington's Moving Panorama and Herman Melville's "Mighty Book."

American Art Journal, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 50–78. Forbes, Allan. Whale Ships and Whaling Scenes as Portrayed by Benjamin Russell New Bedford Whaling Museum biography