Pat Cadigan is an American science fiction author, whose work is most identified with the cyberpunk movement. Her novels and short stories all share a common theme of exploring the relationship between the human mind and technology. Cadigan was born in Schenectady, New York, grew up in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, she was educated at the University of Massachusetts Amherst in theater and the University of Kansas, where she studied science fiction and science fiction writing under author and editor Prof. James Gunn. Cadigan met her first husband Rufus Cadigan while in college; that same year Cadigan joined the convention committee for MidAmeriCon, the 34th World Science Fiction Convention being held in Kansas City, over the 1976 Labor Day weekend. Following Reamy's death in 1977, Cadigan went to work as a writer for Kansas City's Hallmark Cards. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, she edited the small press fantasy and science fiction magazines Chacal and Shayol with her second husband, Arnie Fenner.
Cadigan sold her first professional science fiction story in 1980. She emigrated to London in the UK with her son Rob Fenner in 1996, where she is married to her third husband, Christopher Fowler, she became a UK citizen in late 2014. Cadigan's first novel, introduces what becomes the common theme to all her works: her stories blur the line between reality and perception by making the human mind a real, explorable place, her second novel, expands upon the same theme. While her stories include many of the gritty, unvarnished characteristics of the cyberpunk genre, she further specializes in this exploration of the speculative relationship between technology and the perceptions of the human mind. Cadigan has won a number of awards; these include a 2013 Hugo Award for "The Girl-Thing Who Went Out for Sushi" in the Best Novelette category, presented at LoneStarCon 3, the 71st World Science Fiction Convention, held in San Antonio, Texas over the 2013 Labor Day weekend, the Arthur C. Clarke Award both in 1992 and 1995 for her novels Synners and Fools.
Robert A. Heinlein in part dedicated his 1982 novel Friday to Cadigan after becoming her friend, following her being the guest liaison to him for the 34th Worldcon in Kansas City. In the 1960s Cadigan and a childhood girlfriend "invented a whole secret life in which we were twins from the planet Venus", she told National Public Radio; the Beatles "came to us for advice about their songs and how to deal with fame and other important matters," Cadigan says. "On occasion, they would ask us to use our developed shape-shifting ability to become them, finish recording sessions and concert tours when they were too tired to go on themselves." The Venusian twins had other superpowers, that they would sometimes use to help out Superman, Wonder Woman and other heroes, she said. In 2013, Cadigan announced. Mindplayers, /.
Lectionary 316, designated by siglum ℓ 316 is a Greek manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 8th century; the manuscript has survived in a fragmentary condition. The original codex contained lessons from the Gospel of John and Luke, on 23 fragment parchment leaves; some leaves at the codex were lost. The leaves are measured, it is a palimpsest, the upper text is in Syriac. It is from the 10th century; the text is written in two columns per page, 31 lines per page. The codex contains Gospel lessons in the Byzantine Church order. Scrivener and Gregory dated the manuscript to the 7th century, it is presently assigned by the INTF to the 8th century. It was brought from the monastery of Maria Deipara in Egypt; the manuscript was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Gregory. Gregory saw it in 1883; the upper text of palimpsest was described by William Hatch. The codex is housed at the British Library in London; the fragment is not cited in critical editions of the Greek New Testament.
List of New Testament lectionaries Biblical manuscript Textual criticism Lectionary 317 Gregory, Caspar René. Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. P. 414. "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 27 March 2013
American singer Bette Midler has released 13 studio albums, four soundtrack albums, five live albums, one spoken word album, seven greatest hits compilations, four video albums, 39 official singles, nine promotional singles, 11 music videos. Midler released her debut single Do You Want to Dance in 1972, which peaked at #17 on the Billboard Hot 100, her first album was released the same year, it managed to sell over 1 million copies in United States being certified platinum by RIAA. After that she released 10 studio albums with Warner Records, the most successful is Some People's Lives, which received gold and platinum certifications in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. After nearly three decades of erratic record sales, Midler was dropped from the Warner Music Group in 2001. Following a reported long-standing feud with Barry Manilow, the two joined forces after many years in 2003 to record Bette Midler Sings the Rosemary Clooney Songbook. Now signed to Columbia Records, the album was an instant success, being certified gold by RIAA.
One of the Clooney Songbook selections, "This Ole House", became Midler's first Christian radio single shipped by Rick Hendrix and his positive music movement. The album was nominated for a Grammy the following year. After that she released two more albums with Columbia Records, in 2014 returned to Warner to release her fourteenth studio album, It's the Girls!. As of 2010, Midler has sold over 30 million records worldwide. NotesA ^. In Canada, the set became the 60th most selling album in 1990, while in 1991 it scored at number #36 on the End-of-Year chart. NotesB ^ Beaches was classified as the 8th best selling album on the Australian End-of-Year Chart for 1989. C ^ While the Billboard magazine reports Gypsy charted the highest at number #175 in USA, according to AllMusic the soundtrack peaked at #183 on Billboard 200. NotesF ^ Experience the Divine: Greatest Hits was classified as the 28th best selling album on the Australian End-of-Year Chart for 1993 and the 43rd for the year of 1994, respectively.
G ^ Her 2008 greatest hits set was titled Jackpot! The Best Bette in the USA. NotesH ^ Promotional release of "Do You Want to Dance" was issued in Germany as double A-side single, along with song "Daytime Hustler". I ^ "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy" was released in Germany and Netherlands as a double A-side SP, along with "Chapel of Love". J ^ The single "Friends" was issued in UK only as a promotional single. K ^ "In the Mood" as a double A-side single with "Drinking Again", only in Netherlands. L ^ While in USA "Strangers in the Night" was released as a A/A-single altogether with "Old Cape Cod", in France the single was issued with French-sung track "Samedi et Vendredi. M ^ "Samedi et vendredi" was issued on single only in Italy. N ^ In some countries, such as e.g. Canada and France, the song was promoted under title "Day Break". O ^ "Buckets of Rain" released on the 1976's album Songs for the New Depression, was issued on in UK to support the import compilation The Best Bette. P ^ "Hang on in There Baby" was issued in USA only as a promotional single, along with "My Knight in Black Leather" as double A-side release.
Q ^ "My Knight in Black Leather" was released only in Scandinavian region and Australia. R ^ In French-speaking regions, "The Rose" was released as a double A-side SP with track "Stay with Me". In Canada, "The Rose" became the 9th most selling in 1980. S ^ "Wind Beneath My Wings" scored at number #3 on the Canadian Retail Singles and at #4 on Irish Singles Chart. Within End-of-Year charts, the title became the 11th best selling single of 1989 in Australia and the 31st in Canada, respectively. T ^ "I Know You by Heart" was released as a single only in Australia. U ^ "From a Distance" reached number #3 in Ireland. On the Canadian End-of-Year charts for 1990, the track was classified as the 15th most successful amongst Adult Contemporary songs and the 61st most selling in general, respectively. V ^ "Every Road Leads Back to You" was classified as the 73rd from the Top 100 Adult Contemporary tracks of 1992 in Canada. W ^ "To Deserve You" charted at number #14 in Japan, while on the US Dance End-of-Year chart it was classified at #45.
NotesW ^ In Harmony: A Sesame Street Record charted at number #156 on the Billboard Hot 100 in USA, the compilation received a Grammy Award for Best Album for Children in 1981. NotesX ^ Diva Las Vegas topped the Australian Music DVD chart in October 1997, was classified as the 19th most selling DVD in 2005 in Australia. List of number-one hits List of number-one dance hits List of artists who reached number one on the Hot 100 List of artists who reached number one on the U. S. Dance chart List of artists who reached number one on the Australian singles chart List of Top 25 albums for 1989 in Australia General"Bette Midler - Chart History > Albums > Compilations > Songs". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. Retrieved 2012-08-08. "Bette Midler - Awards > Billboard Albums > Billboard Singles > Grammy awards". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2012-08-08. "Bette Midler - Discography > Albums > Singles & EPs > Compilations > Videos". Discogs. Zink Media. Retrieved 2012-08-08. Specific BetteMidler.com > Discography > I Sing
Epic theatre is a theatrical movement arising in the early to mid-20th century from the theories and practice of a number of theatre practitioners who responded to the political climate of the time through the creation of a new political theatre. Epic theatre is not meant to refer to the scale or the scope of the work, but rather to the form that it takes. Epic theatre emphasizes the audience's perspective and reaction to the piece through a variety of techniques that deliberately cause them to individually engage in a different way; the purpose of epic theatre is not to encourage an audience to suspend their disbelief, but rather to force them to see their world as it is. Erwin Piscator Vladimir Mayakovsky Vsevolod Meyerhold Bertolt Brecht The term "epic theatre" comes from Erwin Piscator who coined it during his first year as director of Berlin's Volksbühne. Piscator aimed to encourage playwrights to address issues related to "contemporary existence." This new subject matter would be staged by means of documentary effects, audience interaction, strategies to cultivate an objective response.
Epic theatre incorporates a mode of acting. One of Brecht's most-important aesthetic innovations prioritised function over the sterile dichotomical opposition between form and content. Epic theatre and its many forms is a response to Richard Wagner's idea of "Gesamtkunstwerk", or "total artwork", which intends each piece of art is composed of each other art form. Since epic theatre is so focused on the specific relationship between form and content, these two ideas contradict each other, despite the fact that Brecht was influenced by Wagner. Brecht discussed the priorities and approach of epic theatre in his work "A Short Organum for the Theatre". Although many of the concepts and practices involved in Brechtian epic theatre had been around for years centuries, Brecht unified them, developed the approach, popularised it. Near the end of his career, Brecht preferred the term "dialectical theatre" to describe the kind of theatre he pioneered. From his perspective, the term "epic theatre" had become too formal a concept to be of use anymore.
According to Manfred Wekwerth, one of Brecht's directors at the Berliner Ensemble at the time, the term refers to the "'dialecticising' of events" that this approach to theatre-making produces. Epic theatre is distinct from other forms of theatre the early naturalistic approach and "psychological realism" developed by Konstantin Stanislavski. Like Stanislavski, Brecht disliked the shallow spectacle, manipulative plots, heightened emotion of melodrama. Brecht's own social and political focus was distinct, from surrealism and the Theatre of Cruelty, as developed in the writings and dramaturgy of Antonin Artaud, who sought to affect audiences viscerally, psychologically and irrationally. While both produced'shock' in the audience, epic theatre practices would include a subsequent moment of understanding and comprehension. While not invented by Brecht, the Verfremdungseffekt, known in English as the "estrangement effect" or the "alienation effect", was made popular by Brecht and is one of the most significant characteristics of epic theatre.
Some of the ways the Verfremdungseffekt can be achieved is by having actors play multiple characters, rearrange the set in full view of the audience, "break the fourth wall" by speaking to the audience. The use of a narrator in The Caucasian Chalk Circle is another example of Verfremdungseffekt at work. Lighting can be used to emulate the effect. For example, flooding the theatre with bright lights and placing lighting equipment on stage can encourage the audience to acknowledge that the production is a production instead of reality; as with the principle of dramatic construction involved in the epic form of spoken drama amalgamated or what Brecht calls "non-Aristotelian drama", the epic approach to play production utilizes a montage technique of fragmentation and contradiction, interruptions. While the French playwright Jean Genet articulates a different world view in his dramas from that found in Brecht's, in a letter to the director Roger Blin on the most appropriate approach to staging his The Screens in 1966, he advises an epic approach to its production: Each scene, each section within a scene, must be perfected and played as rigorously and with as much discipline as if it were a short play, complete in itself.
Without any smudges. And without there being the slightest suggestion that another scene, or section within a scene, is to follow those that have gone before. Historicisation is employed in order to draw connections from a historical event to a similar current event; this can be seen in the plays Mother Courage and Her Children and The Good Person of Szechwan, both written by Brecht, which comment on a current social or political issue using historical contexts. Brecht, advised treating each element of a play independently, like a music hall turn, able to stand on its own. Common production techniques in epic theatre include a simplified, non-realistic scenic design offset against a selective realism in costuming and props, as well as announcements or visual captions that interrupt and summarize the action. Brecht used comedy to distance his audiences from the depicted events and was influenced by musicals and fairground performers, putting music and song in his plays. Acting in epic theatre requires actors to play characters believably
The 1932 United States presidential election in Florida was held on November 8, 1932, as part of the concurrent United States presidential election held in all forty-eight contemporary states. Florida voters chose seven electors, or representatives to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Since the disfranchisement of blacks at the beginning of the 1890s, Florida had been a one-party state ruled by the Democratic Party; the disfranchisement of blacks and poor whites by poll taxes in 1889 had left the Republican Party – between 1872 and 1888 dependent upon black votes – extinct. With the single exception of William Howard Taft's win in Calhoun County in 1908 the Democratic Party won every county in Florida in every presidential election from 1892 until 1916. Only twice – and never for more than one term – did any Republican serve in either house of the state legislature between 1896 and 1928. Despite this Democratic dominance and the restrictions on the franchise of the poorer classes due to the poll tax, significant socialist movements were to develop and persist in Tampa and to a lesser extent over other parts of the state against the powerful Ku Klux Klan.
There was a powerful Prohibitionist movements in older North Florida, which saw the Prohibition Party win the governorship for one term under the notorious anti-Catholic minister Sidney J. Catts; the 1920, aided by a growing "Presidential Republican" vote from migrants from the northern states in southern Florida, saw the GOP increase its vote totals above those from traditional Unionists in Texas, Alabama or Georgia. In 1928, Florida the western Panhandle pineywoods, turned away from the Democratic Party due to the nomination of Catholic Al Smith, with the result that Herbert Hoover became the first Republican to win a statewide election since the end of Reconstruction; the influence of the Great Depression reserved the Republican trend in Florida Presidential elections of the 1920s. Absent the religious issue that controlled the 1928 election, Florida resumed typical "Solid South" voting behaviour, although the urban Republican trend of the 1920s was not wholly reversed, as seen in Hoover gaining over forty percent of the ballots in the growing urban counties of Orange and Pinellas.
Franklin D. Roosevelt won against Herbert Hoover by 137,137 votes or by 49.64% and received all 7 of the electoral votes
Education in Kansas is governed at the primary and secondary school level by the Kansas State Board of Education. The state's public colleges and universities are supervised by the Kansas Board of Regents; the Kansas Board of Regents supervises thirty-seven public institutions. It authorizes numerous private and out-of-state institutions to operate in the state. In Fall 2009 the state's six public universities reported a combined enrollment of 93,307 students, of which more than a quarter were non-resident students and more than a seventh were off-campus enrollments. Among the state-funded universities, the University of Kansas is the largest in terms of enrollment, with 26,826 at its Lawrence campus, KU Edwards Campus in Overland Park, Public Management Center in Topeka; the total university enrollment, which includes KU Medical Center, was 30,004. About 31% were non-resident students. Kansas State University has the second largest enrollment, with 23,581 students at its Manhattan and Salina campuses and Veterinary Medical Center.
About 19% were non-resident students. Wichita State University ranks third largest with 14,823 students. WSU has lost nearly 3,000 students. Fort Hays State University, Pittsburg State University, Emporia State University are smaller public universities with total enrollments of 11,308, 7277, 6314, respectively. FHSU has the fastest growing enrollment in Kansas with most of it coming from non-resident and off-campus enrollment; the composition of FHSU's enrollment includes 35% non-resident students and 44% off-campus enrollments. PSU has a quarter of enrollment from non-residents. For more on the universities and colleges in Kansas, see the complete list; the first colleges in Kansas were chartered by acts of the Kansas Territorial legislature, signed by Territorial Governor James W. Denver, on February 9–12, 1858. Among the ten institutes of higher learning chartered at that time, three survive in some form. Among those chartered on February 9 were Highland University and Blue Mont Central College.
Baker University, chartered on February 12, 1858, has been operating continuously since that time and is now recognized as the oldest continuously-operating college in Kansas. All of the colleges founded in 1858 were private institutions; the first public institute of higher learning in the state was Kansas State University, established by the state legislature on February 16, 1863. The state's universities were among the first public universities in the country to be coeducational. Kansas State became the second coeducational public institution of higher education when it opened in 1863; the University of Kansas was among the earliest to offer mixed-sex education, in 1869. Both KU and Kansas State were open to students of all races from their inception. Statewide elections for the Kansas Board of Education are held every four years; the landmark 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, in which the United States Supreme Court ruled segregation in public schools unconstitutional, was brought as a legal challenge to a Kansas law permitting racial segregation in primary and secondary schools in Kansas towns with a population over 15,000.
In 1951, a class action suit was filed against the Board of Education of the City of Topeka, Kansas in the United States District Court for the District of Kansas. The plaintiffs were thirteen Topeka parents on behalf of their 20 children; the suit called for the school district to reverse its policy of racial segregation. The Topeka Board of Education operated separate elementary schools under an 1879 Kansas law, which permitted districts to maintain separate elementary school facilities for black and white students in 12 communities with populations over 15,000; the plaintiffs had been recruited by the leadership of the Topeka NAACP. Notable among the Topeka NAACP leaders were the chairman McKinley Burnett; the named plaintiff, Oliver L. Brown, was a parent, a welder in the shops of the Santa Fe Railroad, an assistant pastor at his local church, an African American, he was convinced to join the lawsuit by a childhood friend. Brown's daughter Linda, a third grader, had to walk six blocks to her school bus stop to ride to Monroe Elementary, her segregated black school one mile away, while Sumner Elementary, a white school, was seven blocks from her house.
In 1999, the Kansas Board of Education ruled that instruction at the primary and secondary levels about evolution, the age of the earth, the origin of the universe was permitted, but not mandatory, that those topics would not appear on state standardized tests. However, two years following a change in its elected membership, the Board reversed this decision on February 14, 2001, ruling that instruction of all those topics was mandatory and that they would appear on standardized tests. Following another change in membership, on August 9, 2005, the Board of Education approved a draft of science curriculum standards that mandated equal time for evolution and intelligent design. On November 8, 2005 the Board of Education voted 6–4 to allow science students in public schools to hear materials critical of evolution in biology classes, allowing teaching of Intelligent design to be taught in classes; the board, in order to accommodate the teaching of Intelligent Design in biology class, went so