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Patanjali

Patañjali was a sage in India, thought to be the author of a number of Sanskrit works. The greatest of these are a classical yoga text. There is doubt as to whether the sage Patañjali is the author of all the works attributed to him as there are a number of known historical authors of the same name. A great deal of scholarship has been devoted over the last century to the issue of the historicity or identity of this author or these authors. Amongst the more important authors called Patañjali are: The author of the Mahābhāṣya, an ancient treatise on Sanskrit grammar and linguistics, based on the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini; this Patañjali's life is dated to mid 2nd century BCE by both Indian scholars. This text was titled as a bhasya or "commentary" on Kātyāyana-Pāṇini's work by Patanjali, but is so revered in the Indian traditions that it is known as Maha-bhasya or "Great commentary". So vigorous, well reasoned and vast is his text, that this Patanjali has been the authority as the last grammarian of classical Sanskrit for 2,000 years, with Pāṇini and Kātyāyana preceding him.

Their ideas on structure and philosophy of language have influenced scholars of other Indian religions such as Buddhism and Jainism. The compiler of the Yoga sūtras, a text on Yoga theory and practice, a notable scholar of Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, he is variously estimated to have lived between 2nd century BCE to 4th century CE, with more scholars accepting dates between 2nd and 4th century CE. The Yogasutras is one of the most important texts in the Indian tradition and the foundation of classical Yoga, it is the Indian Yoga text, most translated in its medieval era into forty Indian languages. The author of a medical text called Patanjalatantra, he is cited and this text is quoted in many medieval health sciences-related texts, Patanjali is called a medical authority in a number of Sanskrit texts such as Yogaratnakara, Yogaratnasamuccaya and Padarthavijnana. There is a fourth Hindu scholar named Patanjali, who lived in 8th-century CE and wrote a commentary on Charaka Samhita and this text is called Carakavarttika.

According to some modern era Indian scholars such as P. V. Sharma, the two medical scholars named Patanjali may be the same person, but different person from the Patanjali who wrote the Sanskrit grammar classic Mahabhasya. Patanjali is one of the 18 siddhars in the Tamil siddha tradition. Patanjali continues to be honoured with invocations and shrines in some forms of modern postural yoga, such as Iyengar Yoga and Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga. According to Monier Monier-Williams, the word "Patañjali" is a compound name from "patta" and "añj" or "añjali". Louis Renou was among the many scholars who have suggested that the Patañjali who wrote on Yoga was a different person than the Patanjali who wrote a commentary on Panini's grammar. In 1914, James Wood proposed. In 1922, Surendranath Dasgupta presented a series of arguments to tentatively propose that the famed Grammar text and the Yoga text author may be identical; the view that these were two different authors is accepted, but some Western scholars consider them as a single entity.

Some in the Indian tradition have held that one Patañjali wrote treatises on grammar and yoga. This has been memorialised in a verse by Bhoja at the start of his commentary on the Yogasutras called Rājamārttanda, the following verse found in Shivarama's 18th-century text: योगेन चित्तस्य पदेन वाचां मलं शरीरस्य च वैद्यकेन। योपाकरोत्तं प्रवरं मुनीनां पतञ्जलिं प्राञ्जलिरानतोस्मि॥ English translation: I bow with my hands together to the eminent sage Patañjali, who removed the impurities of the mind through yoga, of speech through grammar, of the body through medicine; this tradition is discussed by Meulenbeld who traces this "relatively late" idea back to Bhoja, influenced by a verse by Bhartṛhari that speaks of an expert in yoga and grammar who, however, is not named. No known Sanskrit text prior to the 10th century states that the one and the same Patanjali was behind all the three treatises; the sage Patañjali is said to have attained Samadhi through yogic meditation at the Brahmapureeswarar Temple located at Tirupattur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Jeeva Samadhi of sage Patanjali, now an enclosed meditation hall, can be seen near the Brahma's shrine within Brahmapureeswarar Temple complex. In the grammatical tradition, Patañjali is believed to have lived in the second century BCE, he wrote a Mahabhasya on Panini's sutras, in a form that quoted the commentary of Kātyāyana's vārttikas. This is a major influential work on linguistics; the dating of Patanjali and his Mahabhasya is established by a combination of evidence, those from the Maurya Empire period, the historical events mentioned in the examples he used to explain his ideas, the chronology of ancient classical Sanskrit texts that respect his teachings, the mention of his text or his name in ancient Indian literature. Of the three ancient grammarians, the chronological dating of Patanjali to mid 2nd century BCE is considered as "reasonably accurate" by mainstream scholarship; the text influenced Buddhist grammatical literature, as well as memoirs of travellers to India. For example, the Chinese pilgrim I-tsing mentions that the Mahabhasya is studied in India and advanced scholars learn it in three years.

In the Yoga tradition, Patañjali is a revered name. This Patañjali's oeuvre comprises the sutras about Yoga and the commentary integral to the sutras, called the Bhāṣya; some consider the sutras and the Bhaṣya to

1952 German Grand Prix

The 1952 German Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 3 August 1952 at the Nürburgring Nordschleife. It was race 6 of 8 in the 1952 World Championship of Drivers, in which each Grand Prix was run to Formula Two rules rather than the Formula One regulations used; the 18-lap race was won by Ferrari driver Alberto Ascari. His teammates Giuseppe Farina and Rudi Fischer finished in third places; the Maserati factory team appeared with their new car, the A6GCM, driven by Felice Bonetto. Racing A6GCMs were the Escuderia Bandeirantes drivers Bianco and Cantoni. Ferrari once again entered the successful trio of Alberto Ascari, Nino Farina and Piero Taruffi, while there were privateer Ferrari entries for Rudi Fischer and Rudolf Schoeller of Ecurie Espadon, Roger Laurent of Ecurie Francorchamps, Piero Carini of Scuderia Marzotto. Jean Behra returned to action for the Gordini team, he replaced Prince Bira, was partnered by teammates Robert Manzon and Maurice Trintignant. HWM entered three cars, with regular Peter Collins joined by the Belgian pairing of Paul Frère and Johnny Claes, while Australian Tony Gaze drove a privateer HWM.

Bill Aston drove an Aston Butterworth, the field was completed by a plethora of privateer German cars. Ferrari were once again fastest in qualifying, with Ascari and Farina being joined on the front row of the grid by the Gordinis of Trintignant and Manzon; the remaining works Ferrari driver, started from the second row, alongside the Ecurie Espadon-entered Ferrari of Fischer and Paul Pietsch in a Veritas. Bonetto's works Maserati made the third row, along with the Gordini of Jean Behra, a pair of local entrants: Hans Klenk's Veritas, Willi Heeks in an AFM; the race turned out to be rather a processional event, with Ascari leading Farina all the way in the first 16 laps. Two laps from home, he had to dive into the pits for oil, emerging 10 seconds behind Farina-which he rattled off on the next lap, catching Farina just a mile from home to win by several seconds after an otherwise dull race. Piero Taruffi had been running in third behind his teammates, but he lost the position to Rudi Fischer towards the end of the race when he encountered problems due to his suspension breaking.

Fischer's podium and Taruffi's fourth place-finish ensured that it was a Ferrari 1-2-3-4. Manzon, running in fourth for much of the first half of the race, between Taruffi and Fischer, was forced to retire when a wheel fell off his car; this meant that his teammate Behra was left to take the final points in fifth position in his Gordini, ahead of Roger Laurent's Ferrari. Felice Bonetto, of the factory Maserati team, was disqualified for receiving a push start after his first lap spin. Ascari, who had taken his fourth consecutive victory, along with a fourth consecutive fastest lap, had now scored the maximum of 36 points for the season, as only a driver's four best results counted; as a result, he clinched the world championship, making him the first driver to win the championship with two races left to go. The date was 3 August, the earliest anyone would claim the Championship until Jim Clark seized the crown on 1 August in 1965 at the Nürburgring. Ascari's teammates and Farina, remained in second and third in the Drivers' Championship, while Swiss driver Fischer's second podium of the season raised him up to fourth in the standings.

Only the lap times from the 7 best placed drivers are known. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship

David Lomax

David Walter Lomax is a New Zealand rugby league coach and former player who represented New Zealand. He is the brother of another international, John Lomax. Lomax grew up playing rugby league for the Wainuiomata Lions in the Wellington Rugby League competition and represented Wellington at a provincial level. During the 1992 season he lined up alongside three of his brothers. All four brothers played for the Lions that year in their 25-18 national club grand final win over the Northcote Tigers, he represented the New Zealand Māori side in 1993. He joined the Canberra Raiders about the same time as his brother John; however he could not break into the first grade team at Canberra and soon found himself moving around, spending seasons at the Western Reds and Paris Saint-Germain before settling at the Newcastle Knights where he played 29 matches. He moved again, joining the merged Huddersfield-Sheffield side before retiring. During the 1993 season, Lomax made the New Zealand national rugby league team, playing in two test matches.

He coached the Central Falcons in the Bartercard Cup, making sporadic appearances for the side off the bench. In 2006 he was the coach of the New Zealand Residents side that competed in the Trans Tasman Quadrangular Series. In 2007 he was appointed coach of the Junior Kiwis, he applied for the New Zealand national rugby league team coaching job in mid-2007 and was shortlisted however the job went to Gary Kemble. Lomax relocated to Wellington where he coached the Te Aroha Eels in 2008 and 2009 before taking over the Porirua Vikings. Lomax is coaching Wellington in the 2012 National Competition