East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent to the north and east, Surrey to the north west and West Sussex to the west, to the south by the English Channel. East Sussex is part of the historic county of Sussex, which has its roots in the ancient kingdom of the South Saxons, who established themselves there in the 5th century AD, after the departure of the Romans. Archaeological remains are plentiful in the upland areas; the area's position on the coast has meant that there were many invaders, including the Romans and the Normans. Earlier industries have included fishing, iron-making, the wool trade, all of which have declined, or been lost completely. Sussex is traditionally sub-divided into six rapes. From the 12th century the three eastern rapes together and the three western rapes together had separate quarter sessions, with the county town of the three eastern rapes being Lewes; this situation was formalised by Parliament in 1865, the two parts were made into administrative counties, each with distinct elected county councils in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888.
In East Sussex there were three self-administered county boroughs: Brighton and Hastings. In 1974 East Sussex was made a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county, the three county boroughs became districts within the county. At the same time the western boundary was altered, so that the Mid Sussex region was transferred to the county of West Sussex. In 1997, Brighton and Hove became a self-administered unitary authority. East Sussex is divided into five local government districts. Three are larger, districts: Lewes. Eastbourne and Hastings are urban areas; the rural districts are further subdivided into civil parishes. From a geological point of view East Sussex is part of southern anticline of the Weald: the South Downs, a range of moderate chalk hills which run across the southern part of the county from west to east and mirrored in Kent by the North Downs. To the north lie parallel valleys and ridges, the highest of, the Weald itself; the sandstones and clays meet the sea at Hastings. The area contains significant reserves of shale oil, totalling 4.4 billion barrels of oil in the Wealden basin according to a 2014 study, which Business and Energy Minister Michael Fallon said "will bring jobs and business opportunities" and help with UK energy self-sufficiency.
Fracking in the area is required to achieve these objectives, opposed by environmental groups. East Sussex, like most counties by the south coast, has an annual average total of around 1,750 hours of sunshine per year; this is much higher than the UK's average of about 1,340 hours of sunshine a year. The relief of the county reflects the geology; the chalk uplands of the South Downs occupies the coastal strip between Eastbourne. There are two river gaps: Cuckmere; the Seven Sisters, where the Downs meet the sea, are the remnants of dry valleys cut into the chalk. To the east of Beachy Head lie the marshlands of the Pevensey Levels flooded by the sea but now enclosed within a deposited beach. At Bexhill the land begins to rise again where the clays of the Weald meet the sea. Further east are the Pett Levels, more marshland, beyond, the estuary of the River Rother. On the far side of the estuary are the dunes of Camber Sands; the highest point of the Downs within the county is Ditchling Beacon, at 814 feet: it is termed a Marilyn.
The Weald occupies the northern borderlands of the county. Between the Downs and Weald is a narrow stretch of lower lying land; the High Weald is wooded in contrast to the South Downs. Part of the Weald is the Ashdown Forest; the location of settlements in East Sussex has been determined both by its history and its geography. The original towns and villages tended to be where its economy lay: fishing along the coast and agriculture and iron mining on the Weald. Industry today tends to be geared towards tourism, along the coastal strip. Here towns such as Bexhill-on-Sea and Hastings lie. Newhaven and Rye are ports, although the latter is of historical importance. Peacehaven and Seaford are more dormitory towns than anything else. Away from the coast lie former market towns such as Hailsham and Uckfield. Lewes, the County town of East Sussex; this is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
The Seven Sisters Park is part of the South Downs National Park. Beachy Head is one of the most famed local attractions, along with the flats along Normans Bay. Apart from the physical landmarks such as the Downs and the Weald, East Sussex has a great many landmarks of historical interest. There are castles at Bodiam, Herstmonceux and Pevensey. Battle Abbey, built to commemorate the Battle of Hastings.
The A27 is a major road in England. It runs from its junction with the A36 at Whiteparish in the county of Wiltshire, it parallels the south coast in Hampshire passes through West Sussex and terminates at Pevensey in East Sussex. It is one of the westernmost Zone 2 roads in the UK. Between Portsmouth and Lewes, it is one of the busiest trunk roads in the UK. For longer distance movement along the south coast, the M25 in combination with the M2, M20, M23 / A23, A3 / A3 and M3 has provided an attractive alternative to the actual south coast route of A259, A27 and M27. In 2002 an offpeak journey between Margate and Southampton via the M25 took 2 hours 30 minutes, via the coastal route using the A259, A27 and M27 took 3 hours 50 minutes; the reason why the coastal route is so much slower than the M25 alternative is due to a series of bottlenecks on the A27. These include Chichester, Arundel and Polegate; the British government announced, in its 2013 spending review, that it would go ahead with improvements to the Chichester bypass.
The Highways Agency said that the proposals would be subject to public consultation in July 2015. The preferred route would be announced in September 2015 and the plan would be to start construction in February 2018 with a completion date of December 2019; however the timescales were revised. There was a six-week public consultation period during Spring 2016; the proposed construction would commence in March 2019 with a completion date of March 2021. After five options were published and two dropped the government cancelled the whole project on 28 February 2017, citing lack of support from local authorities as the main reason. A proposed scheme to bypass Lancing and Sompting was dropped in 1988. A proposed scheme to bypass Arundel was dropped in 2003, although the junction at the end of the dual carriageway has been made into an underpass. However, the scheme was re-launched in Spring 2018 when Highways England announced their preferred route, choosing a "a modified version of Option 5A". Although the document claims 48% of respondents support this option, there are worries that the new road may damage ancient woodland in the South Downs National Park.
At Worthing, where the possibility of a bypass has been discussed since 1967 getting as far as passing the inspector's report at a public inquiry, the plan was dropped in 1996 following rising costs. Arundel and Worthing are both areas of known traffic congestion during times of peak usage. A bridge over the level crossing at Beddingham was completed on 22 August 2008; the original proposal called for a dual carriageway standard link with a bridge over the crossing. However, the actual project involved improving the original single carriageway road by providing two lanes westbound and one lane eastbound between the Southerham and Beddingham roundabouts. Despite the limited improvements to the A27, it is still quicker to travel from Southampton to Margate via the M25 route compared to the coast route of A259, A27 and M27; because of all the delays along its route, according to West Sussex County Council, the A27 is the most unreliable all purpose trunk road in England. Further, it is considered by businesses on the coast to cost money and inhibit economic performance due to its unreliability and frequent congestion.
Highways England commissioned a report by "Transport Focus" to undertake road user priorities. The South Central route, the A27, was one of the lower rated routes with 50% of users experiencing problems. Out of a list of strategic routes across the whole of England only two were rated worst than the South Central route, these were the M25 to Solent route and the London Orbital and M23 to Gatwick. Further Highways England identified the A27 between Lancing and the A24. One accident victim was Actor Desmond Llewelyn, who portrayed Q in a large portion of the James Bond film series and was fatally injured in a car accident on the A27 in 1999, at Firle, on the A23 to Polegate section. There are several sections of the A27 that fall inside the Highways Agency nationwide top 250 collision rankings: A27 between Shoreham-by-Sea and Southwick – ranking 123 A27/A23 junction Brighton – ranking 158 A27 near the junction with the A2025 near Lancing – ranking 158 A27 Chichester By-Pass east of the city – ranking 202 At the Shoreham Airshow on 22 August 2015, a Hawker Hunter crashed into the A27, striking several vehicles and killing eleven people.
The road was closed for eight days and did not reopen until 16 September 2015. The road starts at its junction with the A36 at Whiteparish, it runs through Romsey, Chilworth, at which point it follows a Roman Road, West End and Bursledon. It closely parallels the south coast and travels on via Fareham, Havant, Arundel, Lancing, Shoreham-by-Sea, Brighton, Falmer and Polegate where it terminates at Pevensey in East Sussex. A section of the A27 running from the eastern end of the M27 to the end of the road at Pevensey forms part of, what was known as, the South Coast Trunk Road. Much of the road has been improved to dual carriageway standard, with the westernmost section of the trunk portion having as much as four lanes plus a hard shoulder in each direction, on a motorway alignment with grade-separated junctions; this is a reflection that the M27 was once proposed to run as far as Chichester. The road runs east from Portsmouth to Havant on to the Warblington/ Emsworth exit. Be
South East England
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, East Sussex, the Isle of Wight, Oxfordshire and West Sussex; as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km2, is the most populous with a total population of over eight and a half million; the headquarters of the region's governmental bodies are in Guildford, the region contains seven cities: Brighton and Hove, Chichester, Portsmouth and Winchester, though other major settlements include Reading and Milton Keynes. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to South East England becoming an economic hub, with the largest economy in the country outside the capital, it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UK's second-busiest airport, its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe.
The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs and the Chiltern Hills as well as two national parks: the New Forest and the South Downs. The River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley, it is the location of a number of internationally known places of interest, such as HMS Victory in Portsmouth, Cliveden in Buckinghamshire, Thorpe Park and RHS Wisley in Surrey, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, Windsor Castle in Berkshire, Leeds Castle, the White Cliffs of Dover and Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, Brighton Pier and Hammerwood Park in East Sussex, Wakehurst Place in West Sussex. The region has many universities. South East England is host to various sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and The Derby, sporting venues include Wentworth Golf Club and Brands Hatch; some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney and part of the cycling road race in the Surrey Hills.
At Eartham Pit, Boxgrove near Halnaker in West Sussex in December 1993, the oldest human remains in the UK – a tibia bone and a pair of lower incisor teeth – were found. An Acheulean hand axe was found. Bones of a Megalosaurus were found at a slate quarry at Stonesfield in Oxfordshire and named in 1824: it is now at Oxford University Museum of Natural History. In 1822 an Iguanodon was found at Whitemans Green near West Sussex; the Meonhill Vineyard, near Old Winchester Hill in east Hampshire on the South Downs south of West Meon on the A32, was the site of where the Romano-British grew Roman grapes. The Ridgeway runs through Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire and is Britain's oldest road; the post office at Shipton-under-Wychwood in Oxfordshire, in the Cotswolds, is the oldest still in use in England, built in 1845. The first British Grand Prix was held in 1926 at Brooklands, the world's first purpose-built motor circuit built in 1907 by Sir Hugh F. Locke-King, the land owner. Much of the Battle of Britain was fought in this region in Kent.
RAF Bomber Command was based at High Wycombe. RAF Medmenham at Danesfield House, west of Marlow in Buckinghamshire, was important for aerial reconnaissance. Operation Corona, based at RAF Kingsdown, was implemented to confuse German night fighters with native German-speakers, coordinated by the RAF Y Service. Bletchley Park in north Buckinghamshire was the principal Allied centre for codebreaking; the Colossus computer, arguably the world's first, began working on Lorentz codes on 5 February 1944, with Colossus 2 working from June 1944. The site was chosen, among other reasons, because it is at the junction of the Varsity Line and the West Coast Main Line; the Harwell computer, now at the National Museum of Computing at Bletchley, was built in 1949 and is believed to be the oldest working digital computer in the world. John Wallis of Kent, introduced the symbol for infinity, the standard notation for powers of numbers in 1656. Thomas Bayes was an important statistician from Tunbridge Wells. Sir David N. Payne at the University of Southampton's Optoelectronics Research Centre invented the erbium-doped fibre amplifier, a type of optical amplifier, in the mid-1980s, which became essential for the internet.
Henry Moseley at Oxford in 1913 discovered his Moseley's law of X-ray spectra of chemical elements that enabled him to be the first to assign the correct atomic number to elements in periodic table. Carbon fibre was invented in 1963 at the RAE in Farnborough by a team led by William Watt; the Apollo LCG space-suit cooling system originated from work done at RAE Farnborough in the early 1960s. Donald Watts Davies, who went to grammar school in Portsmouth, took over from Alan Turing in developing Britain's early computers, invented packet switching in the late 1960s at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington. Packet-switching was taken up by the Americans to form the ARPANET. The
A tithe barn was a type of barn used in much of northern Europe in the Middle Ages for storing rents and tithes. Farmers were required to give one-tenth of their produce to the established Church. Tithe barns were associated with the village church or rectory, independent farmers took their tithes there; the village priests did not have to pay tithes—the purpose of the tithe being their support. Some operated their own farms anyway; the former church property has sometimes been converted to village greens. Many were monastic barns used by the monastery itself or by a monastic grange; the word'grange' is derived from Latin granarium. Identical barns were found on royal domains and country estates; the medieval aisled barn was developed in the 12th and 13th centuries, following the examples of royal halls and market halls. Its predecessors included prehistoric longhouses. According to English Heritage, "exactly how barns in general were used in the Middle Ages is less well understood than might be expected, the subject abounds with myths".
There are surviving examples of medieval barns in England, some of them known as "tithe barns". English Heritage established criteria to determine; the total number of surviving medieval barns in Britain may be estimated about 200. Aberford C of E Primary School, Leeds Bank Hall Barn, Lancashire The Bishop's Barn, Somerset Bishop's Cleeve Tithe Barn, Gloucestershire Bradford on Avon Tithe Barn, Wiltshire Church of the Holy Ghost, Midsomer Norton, Somerset The Corbett Theatre, the tithe barn at Ditchling Cressing Temple East Riddlesden Hall The Great Barn, Titchfield The Great Barn, Surrey Great Coxwell Tithe Barn, Oxfordshire Harmondsworth Great Barn, Middlesex Landbeach Tithe Barn, Cambridgeshire Middle Littleton tithe barn Nether Poppleton Tithebarn, City of York Parish Hall and Rectory Chapel, Isle of Wight Swalcliffe Barn, Oxfordshire Tithe Barn, Dunster Tithe Barn, Kent Tithe Barn, Manor Farm, Somerset Tithe Barn, Somerset Upminster Tithe Barn, Essex Upper Heyford tithe barn, Oxfordshire Haddenham tithe barn, Buckinghamshire West Pennard Court Barn There are many extant barns that date from after the Medieval period and may be called "tithe barns" by their owners or councils.
These include: Loseley Park tithe barn Melling Tithebarn, Merseyside Castle of Lissingen, Rhineland-Palatinate Grange dimière, Tremblay-en-France Grange de Meslay Priory of Le Mont Saint-Michel. Silve Bénite in Le Pin. Écouen. Abbey d'Ardenne in Saint-Germain-la-Blanche-Herbe. Samoreau. Maubuisson Abbey. Tremblay-en-France. Wissous. Chenu. Dammarie-en-Puisaye. Maroilles Abbey. Wallers. 13th-century tithe barn of Ter Doest Abbey Herkenrode Abbey near Hasselt Bishop's storehouse Staddle stones: Function Tithe map Emery, Anthony. Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales, 1300-1500. Volume 1, Northern England. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521497237. Emmons, James BT. Artifacts from Medieval Europe. Greenwood. Horn, Walter. "On the Origins of the Medieval Bay System". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 17: 2–23. Horn, Walter; the Barns of the Abbey of Beaulieu at its Granges of Great Coxwell and Beaulieu-St.-Leonards. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520005723. Hughes, Graham. Barns of Rural Britain.
London: Herbert Press Ltd. ISBN 978-0906969366. Kirk, Malcolm; the Barn: Silent Spaces. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd. ISBN 978-0500341353. Morant, Roland W.. The Medieval Abbeys of England and Wales: A Resource Guide. Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing. Pp. 502–511. ISBN 978-1412026048. Sloane, Eric. An Age of Barns: An Illustrated Review of Classic Barn Styles and Construction. Voyageur Press. Photographs of tithe barns on geograph.org.uk
Moulsecoomb is a suburb of Brighton, part of the city of Brighton and Hove. The electoral ward is called Bevendean, it is located on the northeastern side of Brighton, around the A270 Lewes Road, between the areas of Coldean and Bevendean and 2 1⁄4 miles north of the seafront. The eastern edges of the built-up area adjoin Falmer Hill, on the South Downs; as the suburb is so large, developed over an extended period, it is divided into smaller sections on maps and similar: North Moulsecoomb, East Moulsecoomb and Moulsecoomb itself. The name is sometimes pronounced as if spelled Mools-coomb, though more the first part is pronounced like the animal "mole", it derives from the Old English for Muls Valley: Mul was a Saxon nobleman. It suffers however from high crime rates. Alongside neighbouring district Whitehawk, it can be considered socially-deprived, in 2001 being considered within the top 5% of deprived areas in England. Before and during the First World War, the land around the Lewes Road was open downland, sloping towards the valley bottom through which the road and railway line ran.
The land reached a height of 508 feet at Falmer Hill 0.9 miles east of the point where the railway crossed the road on a viaduct. In the valley bottom, some market gardens and small nurseries were maintained; the South Moulsecoomb area was developed first: the Borough Council acquired land at the existing edge of the built-up area, close to the former Preston Barracks on the Lewes Road, in November 1920 and constructed 478 semi-detached houses with large gardens and three bedrooms each. The "Homes fit for Heroes" campaign, started after the War in response to the poor housing conditions faced by returning soldiers, helped to drive this, but the houses were too expensive for the families at whom they were aimed; the Borough Council responded by acquiring more land, including some from the south end of the neighbouring Falmer parish, in 1922. This was the original North Moulsecoomb area, which at this early stage consisted of four roads named after East Sussex villages situated between the Lewes Road – an insubstantial, narrow route between the market gardens – and the railway line.
By 1929, 390 houses – smaller and closer together than those of South Moulsecoomb – had been built on the 46-acre North Moulsecoomb site. The South Moulsecoomb part of the estate was extended to the east in the early 1930s using land acquired from Lower Bevendean Farm, it is around this area. After this, more land was acquired in December 1935 to extend development at the northern end to the eastern side of the railway; this area is now known as East Moulsecoomb. At first, housing spread northwards from the Higher Bevendean infill estate, with Shortgate Road being the northern limit before the Second World War; the main purpose of such large-scale residential development was to rehouse residents who lived in slums in central Brighton. Moulsecoomb's road network that built in the East and North Moulsecoomb areas follow the contours of the land rather than being in, for example, a grid pattern, is characterised by large grass verges and a large land area for each house – many have both front and back gardens.
While Moulsecoomb consisted of council housing and operated by the council on behalf of the residents, the right to buy scheme, first implemented in the 1980s, has seen many houses pass into private ownership. The Moulsecoomb Campus of the University of Brighton is one of the university's three main sites; the 10-storey Cockcroft building dominates most views in the area. As well as teaching facilities, the majority of the university's administration departments are located here, along with some student halls of residence. Moulsecoomb Place, the oldest non-religious building in Brighton, is used by the accommodation and counselling services of the university. Before the university was founded in 1992, the various buildings were part of Brighton Polytechnic and before 1970 the Cockcroft Building was the main building of Brighton College of Technology. Moulsecoomb is the location of the Home Farm Business Park, where the United Kingdom subsidiary of United States arms manufacturer EDO Corporation is based.
This factory has been the site of regular anti-war demonstrations since 2004. Moulsecoomb Wild Park is a large downland valley, preserved in its undeveloped state, it lies to the west of the railway line and the Lewes Road, merges into the Hollingbury Camp hill fort to the west and the edge of Coldean to the north. There are areas of chalk grassland and woodland and a nature trail. Two girls from the estate, 10-year-old Karen Hadaway and nine-year-old Nicola Fellows, went missing on 9 October 1986 and were found murdered in nearby Wild Park the following day; this case, which attracted national media attention, became known as the'Babes in the wood' murders. Local man Russell Bishop was arrested soon afterwards but cleared of the murders of the two girls at his trial in December 1987. Bishop was jailed for life in De
Pyecombe is a village and civil parish in the Mid Sussex District of West Sussex, England. It is located 7 miles to the north of Brighton; the civil parish covers an area of 887 hectares and has a population of 200, increasing at the 2011 Census to a population of 237. The parish church, the Church of the Transfiguration, was built in 1170; the village inn is the Plough. There is The Three Greys riding school and Brendon Stud in the locality. Opposite the church is the old forge where the Pyecombe hook was first made in the 19th century by Mr Berry, the blacksmith; the word'Pyecombe' is thought to derive from the Saxon name "peac cumb" which means'the peak valley'. The parish of Pyecombe comprises two settlements, one called'Pyecombe' and the other'Pyecombe Street'; these are about a quarter of a mile apart. The reason for the gap between the two parts of the village is unclear but it is thought to be a consequence of plague in the 17th century which necessitated the temporary abandonment of the main settlement and its 13th century Saxo-Norman church.
The village lies on the London to Brighton Way Roman road, as well as on 18th and 19th century turnpike roads over Clayton Hill. Wolstonbury Hill is a chalk prominence located within the parish and maintained by the National Trust, is listed as a Scheduled Monument and a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Parish church
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K