Pather Panchali is a 1955 Indian Bengali-language drama film written and directed by Satyajit Ray and produced by the Government of West Bengal. It is based on Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay's 1929 Bengali novel of the same name and is Ray's directorial debut, it features Kanu Banerjee, Karuna Banerjee, Uma Dasgupta and Chunibala Devi. The first film in The Apu Trilogy, Pather Panchali depicts the childhood of the protagonist Apu and his elder sister Durga and the harsh village life of their poor family. Production was interrupted because of funding problems and it took nearly three years for the film to be completed; the film was shot on location, had a limited budget, featured amateur actors, was made by an inexperienced crew. The sitar player Ravi Shankar composed the film's score using classical Indian ragas. Subrata Mitra was in charge of the cinematography. Following its premiere on 3 May 1955 during an exhibition at New York's Museum of Modern Art, Pather Panchali was released in Calcutta the same year to an enthusiastic reception.
A special screening was attended by the Chief Minister of West Bengal and the Prime Minister of India. Critics have praised its realism and soul-stirring qualities while others have called its slow pace a drawback, some have condemned it for romanticising poverty. Scholars have commented on the film's lyrical quality and realism, its portrayal of the poverty and small delights of daily life, the use of what the author Darius Cooper has termed the "epiphany of wonder", among other themes; the tale of Apu's life is continued in the two subsequent installments of Ray's trilogy: Aparajito and Apur Sansar. Pather Panchali is described as a turning point in Indian cinema, as it was among the films that pioneered the Parallel Cinema movement, which espoused authenticity and social realism; the first film from independent India to attract major international critical attention, it won India's National Film Award for Best Feature Film in 1955, the Best Human Document award at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival, several other awards, establishing Ray as one of the country's most distinguished filmmakers.
It is featured in lists of the greatest films made. In Nischindipur, rural Bengal, in the 1910s, Harihar Roy earns a meagre living as a pujari, but dreams of a better career as a poet and playwright, his wife Sarbajaya takes care of their children and Apu, Harihar's elderly cousin, Indir Thakrun. Because of their limited resources, Sarbajaya resents having to share her home with the old Indir, who steals food from their bare kitchen. At times, Sarbajaya's taunts become offensive, forcing Indir to take temporary refuge in the home of another relative. Durga is fond of Indir and gives her fruit she has stolen from a wealthy neighbour's orchard. One day, the neighbour's wife accuses Durga of stealing a bead necklace and blames Sarbajaya for encouraging her tendency to steal; as the elder sibling, Durga cares for Apu with motherly affection, but spares no opportunity to tease him. Together, they share the simple joys of life: sitting under a tree, viewing pictures in a travelling vendor's bioscope, running after the candy man who passes through the village, watching a jatra performed by a troupe of actors.
Every evening they are delighted by the sound of a distant train's whistle. One day, they run away from home to catch a glimpse of the train, only to discover Indir sitting dead on their return. Unable to earn a good living in the village, Harihar travels to the city to seek a better job, he promises Sarbajaya. During his absence, the family sinks deeper into poverty. Sarbajaya grows lonely and bitter. One day during the monsoon season, Durga plays in the downpour for too long, catches a cold and develops a high fever. Adequate medical care being unavailable, the fever becomes worse, on a night of incessant rain and gusty winds, she dies. Harihar starts to show Sarbajaya the merchandise he has brought from the city. Sarbajaya, who remains silent, breaks down at the feet of her husband, Harihar cries out in grief as he discovers that he has lost his daughter; the family decide to leave their ancestral home. As they start packing, Apu finds the necklace. Apu and his parents leave the village on an ox-cart.
Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay's novel Pather Panchali is a classic bildungsroman in the canon of Bengali literature. It first appeared as a serial in a Calcutta periodical in 1928, was published as a book the next year; the novel depicts a poor family's struggle to survive in their rural ancestral home and the growing up of Apu, the son of the family. The part of the novel, where Apu and his parents leave their village and settle in Benaras, formed the basis of Aparajito, the second film of the Apu trilogy. Satyajit Ray, working as a graphic designer for Signet Press, created the illustrations for a new abridged edition of the book in 1944. At that time, Ray read the unabridged novel; the idea appealed to Ray, around 1946–47, when he considered making a film, he turned to Pather Panchali because of certain qualities that "made it a great book: its humanism, its lyricism, its ring of truth". The author's widow permitted Ray to make a film based on
Radhakant Nayak is an Indian politician belonging to the Indian National Congress party. He is a Member of the Parliament of India representing Orissa in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament. Radhakant Nayak, a 1962 batch IAS officer. Nayak is connected with YMCA and is one of the most high-profile Christians in OrissaNayak who served the Central government as Secretary was short-listed for the post of Union Cabinet Secretary during H. D. Deve Gowda government; however some adverse IB report against him came as a hurdle. In 2004 he was elected to Rajya Sabha on Congress ticket. Radhakant Nayak was born on 7 February 1939 in Dasingbadi, a village in the Kandhmal District of Orissa, he became a permanent resident of Bhubaneswar. Nayak is fluent in English, Oriya and Pano, his son Ranjit Nayak is a senior staff member of the World Bank and serves as the chief adviser to the Government of North Macedonia on international and European Union affairs. Nayak served as the World Bank’s Lead Social Development Specialist for the Europe and Central Asia Region in Washington, D.
C. from 2011 to 2013, where he oversaw social development operations in 30 countries, advised governments and World Bank partners on development issues, led and mentored senior sector specialists within the Bank. Prior to that he served as the bank's country chief for Kosovo from 2007 to 2011, is credited with ensuring the economic and financial sustainability of Kosovo after its declaration of independence in 2008. Nayak holds a B. A. in Economics and History from Utkal University, an M. A. in Political Science and Public Administration from Ravenshaw College. He received his PhD in Development Administration, Administrative Law and Jurisprudence from Utkal University. In addition to his political appointments, Nayak has worked in a variety of academic positions in India and abroad, he served as Vice-President of the All India Political Science Association in Chennai, Chairman of Utkal University Board of Studies, Social Work, in Bhubaneswar, as Chairman of Utkal University Board of Studies, Social Communication and Journalism.
He served as a Member of the Jawaharlal Nehru University Finance Committee in New Delhi. Nayak has held academic positions in France, the United Kingdom and the United States, he served as Visiting Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex, UK. In the US, Nayak served as Visiting Professor at the University of Georgia in Athens, Department of Anthropology, as Guest Speaker at the University of Louisiana and Columbia University in New York, he was a Guest Speaker at the South Asian Institute of Heidelberg University in Germany, Member of the World Council of Political Scientists at the International Political Science Association in Paris. Between 1960 and 1962, Nayak earned a variety of professional diplomas and certificates from Orissa Administrative Service, Orissa Education Service, Indian Police Service and the Indian Administration Service. Nayak has held positions in many public offices over the years. From 1996-97 he served as Secretary of the Inter-State Council Secretariat in the Ministry of Home Affairs in New Delhi.
From 1994-95 Nayak was Secretary of the Ministry of Rural Development within the Department of Rural Employment and Poverty Alleviation, prior to which he served as managing director of the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development from 1993-94. This office came under the Federation of India Limited within the Ministry of Welfare. During the 1980s Nayak held a variety of roles with the Government of Orissa in Bhubaneswar; as Special Secretary to the Government Administration Department, he was charged with dealing with capital administration, parliamentary affairs and training, as well as administrative reforms and all India and Orissa civil services. Prior to that he served as Secretary to the Governor of Orissa, His excellency Professor Saiyid Nurul Hasan, as Chairman of Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation in Bhubaneswar, Orissa. In October 2007, the Kandhamal district Kui Samaj Coordination Committee demanded his resignation; the rationale for the demand was Nayak's support for classifying Panas as Kui tribals, a move that the KSCC opposed.
In October 2008, Nayak was accused by local Hindu groups, including the chapters of the BJP and VHP, of being behind the murder of Swami Laksmanananda Saraswati, police have been investigating persons close to him. Nayak is under investigation by the Orissa Police as of December 2008. Nayak has termed the allegations "defamation and maligning of my character". Profile on Rajya Sabha website at the Wayback Machine
La Horqueta known as Paso de la Horqueta, is a small new populated centre in the Colonia Department of southwestern Uruguay. It is located west of east of Miguelete Creek. Routes 21 and 106 intersect Route 22 in this area east of a bridge over Arroyo Miguelete called Paso del Pelado. 2 kilometres north of it, along Route 21, is a bridge over Río San Juan called Paso de la Horqueta, which gives the name to the area. There is an old abandoned church just north of the bridge. La Horqueta has two primary and secondary schools, one of, private. Animal husbandry is the main industrial activity of the village, followed by agriculture and milk production. In the Google satellite image of 15 May 2007 there are only fields with no structure of streets, where four blocks of newly built houses appear in the satellite image of 8 October 2009. La Horqueta appeared first as a populated centre in the 2011 census and had a population of 100. There is an athletic club based in Tarariras called Club La Horqueta Wánderers, which has a football team, the Horqueta Wánderers F.
C. and a racing car track called Autodromo Juan A. Schnyder. INE map of La Horqueta
The Greek community in the Netherlands numbers between 4,000 and 12,500 people. The first Greek Orthodox congregation in Amsterdam was founded by Metropolitan Gerasimos Avlonites. Dutch-Greek relations Şentürk, West Thrace Turkish's Immigration to Europe, http://www.sosyalarastirmalar.com: The Journal of International Social Research Dialektopolous, Athanasios. D. thesis, University of Groningen, ISBN 978-90-367-1798-4, OCLC 66701422 Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with the Netherlands Greek embassy in The Hague Greek Expats in the Netherlands
Paula Hitler was the younger sister of Adolf Hitler and the last child of Alois Hitler Sr. and his third wife, Klara Pölzl. Paula was six years old when her father, Alois Sr. a retired customs official and eleven when she lost her mother Klara, after which the Austrian government provided a small pension to Paula and Adolf. However, the amount was meagre and Adolf, by old enough to support himself, agreed to sign his share over to her. Paula moved to Vienna. In the early 1920s, she was hired as a housekeeper at a dormitory for Jewish university students. In 1921, while she worked at the dormitory, she was visited by her brother Adolf who she said appeared as if he had "fallen from heaven", she worked as a secretary. For the most part, she had no other contact with her brother during his difficult years as a painter in Vienna and Munich, military service during World War I and early political activities back in Munich, she was delighted to meet him again in Vienna during the early 1930s. Paula used the surname "Hiedler", the original spelling of "Hitler".
By her own account, after losing a job with a Viennese insurance company in 1930 when her employers found out who she was, Paula received financial support from her brother, lived under the assumed family name Wolff at Adolf's request, worked sporadically. Adolf appears to have had a low opinion of her intelligence, referring to both Paula and their half-sister Angela as "stupid geese", she claimed to have seen her brother about once a year during the 1930s and early 1940s. She worked as a secretary in a military hospital for much of World War II. There is some evidence Paula shared her brother's strong German nationalist beliefs, but she was not politically active and never joined the Nazi Party. During the closing days of the war, at the age of 49, she was driven to Berchtesgaden, Germany on the orders of Martin Bormann, she was arrested by US intelligence officers in May 1945 and debriefed that year. A transcript shows one of the agents remarking, she told them that the Soviets had confiscated her house in Austria, that the Americans had expropriated her Vienna apartment, that she was taking English lessons.
She characterized her childhood relationship with her brother as one of both constant bickering and strong affection. Paula said that she could not bring herself to believe that her brother had been responsible for the Holocaust, she had told them that she had met Eva Braun only once. Paula was released from American custody and returned to Vienna, where she lived on her savings for a time worked in an arts and crafts shop. In 1952, she moved to Berchtesgaden in Germany living "in seclusion" in a two-room flat as Paula Wolff. During this time, she was looked after by former members of the SS and survivors of her brother's inner circle. In February 1959, she agreed to be interviewed by Peter Morley, a documentary producer for Associated-Rediffusion, an ITV commercial station in Great Britain; the conversation was the only filmed interview she gave and was broadcast as part of a programme called Tyranny: The Years of Adolf Hitler. She talked about Hitler's childhood and refused to be drawn on political questions.
Footage from this and a contemporary interview with Peter Morley was included in the 2005 television documentary The Hitler Family, directed by Oliver Halmburger and Thomas Staehler. Paula died on 1 June 1960, at the age of the last surviving member of Hitler's immediate family, she was buried in the Bergfriedhof in Berchtesgaden/Schönau under the name Paula Hitler. In June 2005, the wooden grave marker and remains were removed and replaced with another burial, a common practice in German cemeteries after two or more decades have elapsed. In May 2006, however, it was reported the grave marker had been returned to Paula's grave and a second marker had been added, indicating another more recent burial in the same spot. Hitler family Marc Vermeeren, "De jeugd van Adolf Hitler 1889–1907 en zijn familie en voorouders". Soesterberg, 2007, 420 blz. Uitgeverij Aspekt. ISBN 978-90-5911-606-1 Paula Hitler – He was still my brother The old woman in the small town was the sister of Hitler - Lemúrinn - Paula Hitler on YouTube Paula's Grave – Third Reich in Ruins website
Pandanet, located in Tokyo, Japan, is a server that allows players of the game of Go to observe and play against others over the Internet. Started February 2, 1992, by Tim Casey, Chris Chisolm, Mark Okada, working out of the University of New Mexico, until April 5, 1993, continued at the University of California, UC San Francisco, it was the first server of its kind. After its initial inception some of its members helped to improve the server by writing software with a graphical interface. Pandanet hosts up depending on the time of day, its PC client's name is GoPanda. IGS was first opened to the public in February 1992; the first server was located at the University of New Mexico. Within the first year, two more servers were deployed, one at the University of California at Berkeley and one at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France. Leaving the UC servers in 1993, it continued at the University of Pennsylvania for a year until being bought by the Korean ISP nuri.net in 1994. In 1995, the Japanese company NKB Inc. a partner of nuri.net, acquired IGS, created the division "Pandanet" in 1996, which has managed IGS since.
The first professional player to sign-on to IGS was Jiang Zhujiu -9 dan-, on April 24, 1992, which started the trend of high level dan player membership that continues to this day. Through the months of July and August of that year the first professional tournament was hosted, with over 300 games played. In September of that year Japan's famous Meijin Sen tournament was displayed live on IGS to an audience from many nations. Played in an Amsterdam hotel room by Kobayashi Koichi and Otake Hideo, the game was typed play-by-play by users jansteen and AshaiRey while watching the game on TV, it took 16 hours to complete. A translation command was added to the server in December 1992, allowing users to better communicate with one another, to translate the long list of commands required to run the early versions of the software. Besides being a Go server, Pandanet hosts several art galleries; the main gallery contains Chinese art that has a Go-related theme. Other galleries deal with vintage Go photographs and photography from the 19th and early 20th century, related to San Francisco and Chinatown.
Pandanet broadcasts live championship matches for top professional events, including the Meijin and Judan titles, the Ricoh Cup professional Pairs tournament. Go competitions KGS Go Server Official website Official Website List of internet Go servers on Sensei's Library List of internet Go servers on Free Internet Correspondence Games Server