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Pathological science

Pathological science is an area of research where "people are tricked into false results... by subjective effects, wishful thinking or threshold interactions." The term was first used by Irving Langmuir, Nobel Prize–winning chemist, during a 1953 colloquium at the Knolls Research Laboratory. Langmuir said a pathological science is an area of research that will not "go away"—long after it was given up on as "false" by the majority of scientists in the field, he called pathological science "the science of things that aren't so."Bart Simon lists it among practices pretending to be science: "categories... such as... pseudoscience, amateur science, deviant or fraudulent science, bad science, junk science, popular science... pathological science, cargo-cult science, voodoo science." Examples of pathological science include Martian canals, N-rays and cold fusion. The theories and conclusions behind all of these examples are rejected or disregarded by the majority of scientists. Pathological science, as defined by Langmuir, is a psychological process in which a scientist conforming to the scientific method, unconsciously veers from that method, begins a pathological process of wishful data interpretation.

Some characteristics of pathological science are: The maximum effect, observed is produced by a causative agent of detectable intensity, the magnitude of the effect is independent of the intensity of the cause. The effect is of a magnitude that remains close to the limit of detectability, or many measurements are necessary because of the low statistical significance of the results. There are claims of great accuracy. Fantastic theories contrary to experience are suggested. Criticisms are met by ad hoc excuses; the ratio of supporters to critics rises and falls to oblivion. Langmuir never intended the term to be rigorously defined; as with any attempt to define the scientific endeavor and counterexamples can always be found. In science communication and academic publishing, hype in science is the exaggeration and sensationalism of scientific discoveries when publicizing results in the news media. Langmuir discussed the issue of N-rays as an example of pathological science, it is still considered a traditional case of pathological science.

In 1903, Prosper-René Blondlot was working on X-rays and noticed a new visible radiation that could penetrate aluminium. He devised experiments in which a visible object was illuminated by these N-rays, thus became "more visible". Blondlot claimed that N-rays were causing a small visual reaction, too small to be seen under normal illumination, but just visible when most normal light sources were removed and the target was just visible to begin with. N-rays became the topic of some debate within the science community. After a time, physicist Robert W. Wood decided to visit Blondlot's lab, which had moved on to the physical characterization of N-rays. An experiment passed the rays from a 2 mm slit through an aluminum prism, from which he was measuring the index of refraction to a precision that required measurements accurate to within 0.01 mm. Wood asked how it was possible that he could measure something to 0.01 mm from a 2 mm source, a physical impossibility in the propagation of any kind of wave.

Blondlot replied, "That's one of the fascinating things about the N-rays. They don't follow the ordinary laws of science that you ordinarily think of." Wood asked to see the experiments being run as usual, which took place in a room required to be dark so the target was visible. Blondlot repeated his most recent experiments and got the same results—despite the fact that Wood had reached over and covertly sabotaged the N-ray apparatus by removing the prism. Langmuir offered additional examples of what he regarded as pathological science in his original speech: The Davis–Barnes effect Mitogenetic rays The Allison effect Extrasensory perception, where Rhine consciously discarded contrary test results because he felt they couldn't be correct. A 1985 version of Langmuir's speech offered more examples, although at least one of these occurred after Langmuir's death in 1957: Water dowsing Martian canals Certain reported photomechanical and electromechanical effects Polywater Biological effects of magnetic fields except magnetoception Since Langmuir's original talk, a number of newer examples of what appear to be pathological science have appeared.

Denis Rousseau, one of the main debunkers of polywater, gave an update of Langmuir in 1992, he cited as examples the cases of polywater, Fleischmann's cold fusion and Jacques Benveniste's "infinite dilution". Polywater was a form of water which appeared to have a much higher boiling point and much lower freezing point than normal water. Many articles were published on the subject, research on polywater was done around the world with mixed results, it was determined that many of the properties of polywater could be explained by biological contamination. When more rigorous cleaning of glassware and experimental controls were introduced, polywater could no longer be produced, it took several years for the concept of polywater to die in spite of the negative results. In 1989, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced the discovery of a simple and cheap procedure to obtain room-temperature nucl

Grande Casse

The Grande Casse is the highest mountain of the Vanoise Massif in the Graian Alps in the region of Savoie, France. It is located in the heart of the Vanoise National Park, near the village of Pralognan-la-Vanoise, about 25 km southeast of the nearest town, Moûtiers, it has a steep 600 m high north face. The other sides of the mountain are more gentle consisting of broken rocks. A high ridge connects it to the nearby peak of Grande Motte; the ridge connecting the Grande Casse and the Grande Motte is the watershed between the Tarentaise Valley in the north and Maurienne valley to the south. Despite its height it has a easy normal route to the summit. Climbers start from the Les Grands Couloirs glacier and ascend the southwest side of the mountain; the north face is an extreme skiing destination. The first ascent was made by William Mathews along with guides Michel Croz and E. Favre via the southwest face on 8 August 1860; the north face was climbed on 6 August 1933 by L. Binaghi; the Refuge Félix Faure, used for the normal route, is located at the Col de la Vanoise.

This is an overview of the most common routes to the summit: Normal route, "Les Grands couloirs" climbed by skiers and climbers. Petite face nord. Couloir Messimy. North face, "Couloir des italiens". List of mountains of the Alps above 3000 m "Grande Casse". Description of normal route

RuaidrĂ­ Ua Conchobair

Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1193. He was the last High King of Ireland before the Norman invasion. Ruaidrí was one of over twenty sons of King Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair, he and his sister Mór were Tairrdelbach's only children from his third wife, Cailech Dé Ní hEidin of Aidhne. Ruaidrí was not a favourite of his father, his brother Conchobar Ua Conchobair being Tairrdelbach's tánaiste and designated heir. In 1136, he and his brother Aedh took advantage of a low in Tairrdelbach's fortunes to stage a rebellion. Aedh was blinded by Conchobar on Tairrdelbach's orders but Ruaidrí was protected by the Archbishop of Connacht, Muireadhach Ua Dubhthaigh. In 1143, he staged another rebellion, he was arrested by Tighearnán Ua Ruairc. Ruaidhri, was taken by Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair, in violation of laity and clergy and protection; these were the sureties: Muireadhach Ua Dubhthaigh, with the clergy and laity of Connacht. The clergy of Connacht, with Muireadhach Ua Dubhthaigh, fasted at Rath-Brenainn, to get their guarantee, but it was not observed for them.

After a year's imprisonment, Archbishop of Armagh Gilla Meic Liac mac Diarmata sought his release by April 1144, along with his confederates Domnall Ua Flaithbertaig and Cathal Ua Conchobair. However, Tairrdelbach only acquiesced upon the assassination of Conchobar in Mide that year. Tairrdelbach now chose another son, Donnell Mor Mideach Ua Conchobair, as tánaiste, but Ruaidrí improved his status with raids against Tighearnán Ua Ruairc in 1146 and capturing and killing Tairrdelbach's nephew and opponent, Domnall Ua Conchobar, in 1150. Donnell Mór Mideach began to lose favour in 1147 and his fate was sealed when he was arrested in 1151, making solid Ruadrí's claim as his father's heir. In that year Ruadrí raided Thomond, where Tairrdelbach won a great victory at the Battle of Móin Mór. In 1152, Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn travelled into compelling hostages of Tairrdelbach. "They divided Meath into two parts on this occasion. On this occasion Dearbhforgaill, daughter of Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, wife of Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, was brought away by the King of Leinster".

Ruaidrí remained active in suppressing the Ua Briain's of Munster, burning Croome, dividing Munster in half, expelling Toirrdelbach mac Diarmata into Ailech. This gave reason for Mac Lochlainn to travel south with an army in 1153. Tairrdelbach was beaten off by Mac Lochlainn, leaving Ruaidhri and his men exposed at Fordruim,: Ruaidhri, son of Toirdhealbhach, the battalion of West Connacht, the recruits of Sil-Muireadhaigh, came to Fordruim; the Ua Conchobair's brought "the fleets of Dun-Gaillmhe, of Conmhaicne-mara, of the men of Umhall, of Ui-Amhalghadha, Ui-Fiachrach" north and defeated Mac Lochlainn at Inis Eoghain, but the latter was strong on land, forcing them to respond to incursions in east Connacht and Breifne, along with attempted settlements in Mide in 1155. The latter led to "The castle of Cuileanntrach burned and demolished by Ruaidhri." Tairrdelbach died at his capital of County Galway. Ruaidri became king of Connacht "without any opposition" As a precaution, he arrested three of his twenty-two brothers, "Brian Breifneach, Brian Luighneach, Muircheartach Muimhneach" to prevent them from usurping him.

On learning of Tairrdelbach's death, Mac Lochlainn assumed the High-Kingship and began a war of attrition in Leinster and Osraige, using their regional allies against one another. Over the winter of 1156–57 he positioned a fleet on the River Shannon in anticipation of an attack from Aileach, yet Mac Lochlinn imposed his own client king in Mide, took hostages from Dermot MacMurrough, evicted the kings of Loígis, Uí Failghe and Osraige, all of whom fled to Connacht. He subdued all Munster and captured Luimneach. Forced to attack or lose face, Ruaidrí responded by plundering and burning areas around Strabane and Derry. While Mac Lochlinn was returning home to counter him, Ruaidrí entered Munster and overturned Mac Lochlinn's political settlement; the last of Ruaidrí's descendants to hold the kingship of Connacht, Aedh mac Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, died in 1233. The Annals of Connacht give the following reason for this: Aed mac Ruaidri had been five years King of Connacht, as the poet said:'Aed mac Ruaidri of the swift onslaught, five years his rule over the province, till he fell— a loss on every frontier— by the hand of Fedlimid.'

Here ends the rule of the children of Ruaidri O Conchobair, King of Ireland. For the Pope offered him the title to Ireland for himself and his seed for and six wives, if he would renounce the sin of adultery henceforth.

History of Monterrey

The history of the Mexican city of Monterrey is linked with the history of the state of Nuevo León. When the New Kingdom of León was founded, it included Monterrey, Monclova and Cerralvo; the founding families formed a group of about thirty people in each locality. Nuevo León was populated with families of nomadic herders of Spanish origin who fought and displaced the native indigenous groups in the region; the city was a step away from the border with the United States and it began to be a strategic location for industry and trade between the two countries. Isolated by the Sierra Madre and far from the center of New Spain and independent Mexico, in the late 19th century and throughout the twentieth century various demographic, social and economic issues began to unfold; the first settlers were the Chichimecas. Current research has shown a culture of twelve thousand years old, they were called Chichimecas to distinguish them from the larger and more powerful cultural groups of Middle America: the Mayan, Zapotec, etc.

It is said they were nomadic or semi-nomadic, not wandering aimlessly, but obeying regular movement patterns inside recognized territories. They did not create large urban complexes like other peoples in central Mexico, the splendor of whom sometimes overshadowed them; the Spanish settlers "baptized" them by erasing their original names. Specialists have differentiated several linguistic nuclei between the tribes that inhabited the region but have failed to find a uniform approach, placing them in the family of the Athabascans, the Hokan or Macro-Yuma, subgroup Coahuilteco-Karankawa; those who inhabited the region of what is now the city were called the Aguaceros and the "Malincheños". They lived in caves and river ravines where they left traces of their passage in paintings and movable items which might have been amulets used in fertility rites or initiation of puberty, as well as mortars, hollowed stones and spearheads of all kinds ranging from those dating back millennia like those found in the municipality of Ramones with more than 11,000 thousand years of antiquity, to those used by the tribes of the Comanches in the 19th century.

The density of prehistoric domestic waste found in the area confirms that there was a large population, at least seasonally. Radiocarbon tests placed the earliest occupation in Boca de Potrerillos about 8000 years ago. Between 1960 and 1967, a group of archaeologists from the University of Texas at Austin headed by Jeremiah F. Epstein, undertook an extensive research program in the entire area. There is an archaeological museum in the town of Mina and another in Linares created by Pablo Salce. Born in the Azores in 1547, Captain Alberto del Canto was commissioned by Martin Lopez de Ibarra to found the town of Santiago del Saltillo in 1577 but that same year he "discovered" the valley of Extremadura and just marked a place called Santa Lucia on which today is the center of modern day Monterrey, he had no settlers. In 1567, the Portuguese Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva, from a family of New Christians, arrived in New Spain aboard a wine ship; as mayor of Tampico, he was entrusted with the "pacification" of the Huasteca and participated in several campaigns of exploration.

One of the most important was achieved with Francisco de Puga Valles and Zacatecas, where a route from there to Mazapil and New Galicia was discovered in 1573. The kings of Spain did not finance companies of discovery, but allowed the explorations to be made on behalf of the conquerors. Carvajal traveled to Spain and negotiated a contract with Felipe II of Spain in which he was awarded the pacification and population of a vast territory of "200 leagues inland"—about 1,000 km. In 1580 Carvajal's men, aboard the ship the Santa Catarina, joined the fleet in which the viceroy Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza, Count de La Coruna, was traveling. Once in Veracruz, the Carvajal group continued on their own to the port of Tampico where they arrived on 25 August. Carvajal took charge of his commitment, he spent long periods in Tamapache, Temptela and Sichu. On 12 April 1582, he founded the city of Leon -today called Cerralvo- and half a league from there founded another settlement which he called Villa de Cueva.

That same year, in the old Saint Lucia, Carvajal founded the Villa de San Luis Rey de Francia. According to one chronicler, in these places there came to be as many as 200 men who undertook the capture of Indians thereby bringing more soldiers to the villages. To govern these vast territories, in 1585 Carvajal named three lieutenants: Felipe Nuño for the Panuco region, Gaspar Castaño de Sosa for the northeast and Diego de Montemayor for the center, from Santa Lucia to Laguna. At that time, the count of the Coruña began a legal process against Carvajal accusing him of invading territories that were not his. Carvajal asked for and was granted protection by Pedro de Vega, solicitor of the Royal Court, on 18 January 1582; the resentment of the Viceroy turned into a struggle without quarter against Carvajal who could no longer continue his government. While Carvajal was in Mexico, his nephew, Luis de Carvajal the Younger, took over the duties of governor, but violent clashes which arose between Indians and conquerors resulted in the depopulation of the town of San Luis.

The city of Leon and the town of Cave suffered a similar fate. Diego de Montemayor decided to leave his territory, he and the few neighbors who were gathered in San Francisco departed for Saltillo. Meanwhile, around 1588 Luis de Carvajal managed

2001 in American soccer

The 2001 season was the 89th year of competitive soccer in the United States. The home team or the team, designated as the home team is listed in the left column. Win Draw Loss Top eight teams with the highest points clinch play-off berth, regardless of conference.s =Supporters Shieldx = Clinched playoff berth Miami Fusion F. C. wins first tiebreaker with Chicago Fire Columbus Crew wins first tiebreaker with San Jose Earthquakes GP* = Season shorten due to 9/11 attacks. Playoff bracket Points systemWin = 3 Pts. Loss = 0 Pts. Draw = 1 Pt. ASDET*=Added Sudden Death Extra Time SDET**=Sudden Death Extra TimeTeams will advance at 5 points. Home teams listed on top of bracket American competitions at RSSSF American national team matches at RSSSF CONCACAF Champions' Cup at RSSSF

Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous (Kool G Rap & DJ Polo song)

"Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" is the first single from American hip hop duo Kool G Rap & DJ Polo's 1996 album Rated XXX. "Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" is a braggadocio rap in which Kool G Rap boasts of his extravagant lifestyles, success with women and luxurious possessions. The song's hook samples the lines "I'm representin, puttin' Queens on the map" and "Playin' big willie style with the chauffeur. Yaknawmean?" from the Lost Boyz song "Jeeps, Lex Coups, Bimaz & Benz" and Junior M. A. F. I. A.'s "Player's Anthem", respectively. A heavy piano sample from the Fonda Rae song "Over Like a Fat Rat" can be heard throughout. "Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" samples the following songs: "Over Like a Fat Rat" by Fonda Rae "Player's Anthem" by Junior M. A. F. I. A. Featuring The Notorious B. I. G. "Jeeps, Lex Coups, Bimaz & Benz" by Lost BoyzAnd was sampled on: "The Real Moneymaker" by Bassi Maestro A-side"Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" "Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" B-side"Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" "Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" A-side"Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" B-side"Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" "Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" at Discogs Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics